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o Central Africa 

1859 -9 6 








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THE HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES 
MISSION TO CENTRAL AFRICA, 

1859-1896. 




CHARLES FREDERICK MACKENZIE 

First Bishop of the Universities Mission 



Ibtetone of tbe 
"Universities 

to Central Bfrica, 

1859=1896. 



BY 

A. E. M. ANDERSON-MORSHEAD, 



WITH A PREFACE T,\ 

CHARLOTTE MARY YONGE, 




OFFICE OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION TO CENTRAL AFRICA, 

9, DARTMOUTH STREET, WESTMINSTER, S.W. 

1897, 



" Nor winter stays thy growth, 
Nor torrid summer s sickly smile ; 
The flashing billows of the South 
Break not upon so lone an isle ; 
But thou, rich Vine, art planted there, 
The fruit of death or life to bear, 
Yielding a surer witness every day ; 
To thine Almighty Author and His stedfast sway." 



"Lk 



Butler & Tanner, The Sehvood Printing Warks, Frome, and London, 




TO THE BLESSED MEMORY 
OF ALL THOSE 

WHO FROM 
CHARLES FREDERICK MACKENZIE, 

BISHOP, 

HAVE PASSED TO THEIR REST 

IN THE SERVICE OF THE MISSION, 

THIS RECORD OF FAITHFUL WORK 

IS DEDICATED. 



CONTENTS. 



FACE 

AUTHOR S PREFACE . . . xv 

PREFACE 

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE . 

CHAPTER I. 
THE CALL TO THE WORK . i 

CHAPTER II. 
THE SHIRE HIGHLANDS . 14 

CHAPTER III. 
WAR, FAMINE, AND PESTILENCE .... 30 

CHAPTER IV. 
NEW GROUND .... -44 

CHAPTER V. 
A FELLOW- WORKER ..... 6 3 

CHAPTER VI. 
THE CURCH IN THE SLAVE MARKET . . . . -So 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER VII. 

PAGE 

DAILY WORK IN THE ISLAND AND ON THE MAINLAND . 99 



CHAPTER VIII. 
ON THE EDGE OF THE WILDERNESS 124 

CHAPTER IX. 
LAKE NVASA 141 

CHAPTER X. 
LAST DAYS OF BISHOP STEERE .... . 153 

CHAPTER XI. 
THE MISSION ON THE LAKE 169 

CHAPTER XII. 
CHRISTIAN VILLAGES ON THE ROYU.MA . . 196 

CHAPTER XIII. 

MAGI LA IN THE MONDE COUNTRY 221 

CHAPTER XIV. 
THE USAMIURA GROUP OF MISSIONS . . . 256 

CHAPTER XV. 
TEN YEARS IN ZANZIBAR . 



CHAPTER XVI. 
Two CHIEF PASTORS 508 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

I AGli 

A PARTING VIEW OF THE MISSION 336 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
SLAVERY -375 

APPENDICES 

I. 
METHODS OF HOME WORK . . 433 

II. 

METHODS OF MISSION WORK 439 

III. 

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE MISSION . . 451 

IV. 
SYNODICAL ACTION . ... . 453 

V. 

ENGLISH MEM HERS OF THE MISSION . . . 457 

INDEX . . 467 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Atlay, Rev. G. W. . . 333 

Bandawe, Swinny, Rev. G. H., Grave of . . . . 177 

Barnaba Nakaam . . . . . . ... . 209 

Bashford, Miss, and the Nursery Children 120 

Boats on the River Shire . . , . . 325 

Boy Chained to Slave Log 424 

Brewerton, Nurse, with Hospital Servants . . . . .318 

Cape Town, St. George s Cathedral 9 

Charles Janson SS. . . . . . . . . 151 

Crew of . .186 

,, ,, Hauled up at Likoma for Repairs . . . 362 

Chisumulu Island . . . . . . . . .182 

Chitangali Station .206 

Christians at 218 

David Susi 167 

Farler, Archdeacon, and Native Boys 223 

Four Nyasa Workers . . . . . . . . .173 

George Sherriff Sailing-boat 327 

Glossop, Rev. A. G. B., and Nyasa Boys ..... 337 
Goodyear, Archdeacon, and Robert Feruzi ... . 248 

Gray, Bishop ...... r .... 5 

Hine, Bishop . .368 

Hornby, Bishop . . -191 

Johnson, Rev. W. P 107, 367 

Jones-Bateman, Archdeacon, with Native .Deacons . . . 346 
Key, Rev. J. K., Distributing Saturday allowance of Soap at 

Mbweni 35 

Kilimani School . 290 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

Kiungani 103 

Boys at . . 283 

Chapel . 297 

Missionaries and Boys at 279 

Theological Students 295 

West, Rev. A N., Grave of 89 

Kologwe Boys 360 

Church . . . 359 

,, First Mission House . . . . . . .271 

Kota Kota, Brick-making at 364 

Ley, Dr. Herbert 357 

Likoma 190 

Bishop Hornby and Archdeacon Maples at . . . 323 
Building at . . . . . ... . . .322 

First Church 179 

Girls School 332 

., Mission Station 171 

Pastoral Staff . .369 

Limo, Rev. Petro 253 

Livingstone, Dr 3 

Locust . . .341 

Mackenzie, Bishop ......... 6 

Grave of. 35 

Magila, Buildings at 227 

Church 235 

Mission Station . ... . . . . 230 

Quadrangle 252 

(After Fne) ... . 240 

Riddell, Rev. C. B. S., Grave of 237 

Sisters at . . . .... . . .238 

View at ... 56 

Waterfall at . . 254 

Majaliwa, Rev. C., and Family . .... 204 

Map of Mission Field ... . . 13 

Maples, Archdeacon, preaching at Likoma . . . .188 

Maples, Bishop . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . 106, 308 

Grave of, at Kota Kota ..... 329 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

Masasi . . .219 

Buying Firewood at . . . . . 354 

Granite Rock . . . . . . ... . . 129 

Mbweni . 280, 285 

Boabab Tree . 282 

Girls at 163 

St. John s 164 

School Girls 340 

Mkuzi ............ 259 

Church 268 

Church and School ........ 266 

Native Village 267 

School . -343 

Mkunazini ........... 278 

Christ Church and Hospital 347 

Newala 321 

Church at .......... 200 

Grave of Rev. J. C. Wood 207 

,, Hainsworth, Rev. J. ; Porter, Rev. W. C. ; and Watson, 

Mr 217 

Nyasa, Missionary Staff 189 

View on Lake 170 

Randolph, Rev. E. S. L., with the first wheels used in Zanzibar . 105 

Rescued Slaves, Cargo of 406 

Richardson, Bishop . . 344 

Riddell, Rev. C. S. B - . . . . . 236 

River Luvu at Kologwe 270 

River Rovuma, near Newala . . . . . . . 133 

River Shire 19 

Sim, Rev. A. F. 363 

Slave Dealers, Group of Arab 408 

Dhow, an Arab 51 

A Rescued 415 

,, Dhow, Attacking a 421 

British Man-of-War Firing on . . . . 413 
Flying French Flag . .410 

Gang ..... . 24 



xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

I AGE 

Slave Yoke, Captive in ............. 401 

Slaves, A Group of Sixty-Five Captured 416 

,, are Yoked, Showing how . . . . . ... 404 

Smythies, Bishop 165 

Steere, Bishop .......... 63 

Thackeray, Miss . . . . . . . . . . 287 

Tozer, Bishop .......... 44 

Traction Engine . . . . . . . . . .122 

Umba 264 

Mission House at 114 

Unangu 193 

,, Dr. Hine and William Cowey at . . . . . 194 

Viner, Rev. Montague Ellis 239 

Waller, Rev. Horace . . . , .42 

Woodward, Rev. H. W 251 

Zambesi, Native Boats on . . . . . . .17 

Zanzibar (from Kiungani) . . 345 

,, Christ Church . . . . . . . -93 

,, Drying Cloves in .84 

,, Hospital . . 303 

,, ,, Native Ward in. ...... 348 

Labourers, Group of 373 

., Mohammedan Mosque ....... 289 

Old Slave Market . 85 

,, Street in 372 

,, Sultan s Palace ........ 370 

,, Teaching Catechumens ....... 293 

,, Ziwani Cemetery ....,, . 249 



AUTHOR S PREFACE. 

IT is hoped that this book may subserve a fourfold 
purpose 

(1) To inform the African students for Holy Orders 
of the previous history of their own Church ; that 

" With thankful hearts o erflowing for the mercies they behold, 
They may praise their sainted fathers, the famous men of old." 

(2) To give English friends of the Mission a record of 
its work up to date, suitable for reading aloud at working 
parties or guild meetings. 

(3) To enable the student of Church History to trace 
the advance of one part of the Church s warfare in the 
Mission Field. 

(4) To give some information concerning slavery, and 
life in Central Africa, even to those who may not feel 
interested in Missions. 

For this last purpose the Chapter on SLAVERY (XVIII.), 
to be found at the end of the book, will be most useful. It 
is from the pen of Lieut. C. S. Smith, R.N., Her Majesty s 
Consul at Bilbao, former!} Vice-Consul at Zanzibar, and 
therefore an expert in the subject. 

Working parties will find that some of the chapters 
can be subdivided, so as to form two or three short read 
ings ; others as chapters VI. or VIII. are better read 
all at once. The chapter on Slavery is meant for the 
student, rather than for promiscuous reading, but a reading 
might easily be selected from it. 

The History of the Universities Mission is primarily 



A UTHOR S PREFA CE. 



Church History as much as if we wrote of the founda 
tion of the Church of Alexandria, of St. Boniface s mission 
work, or of the Conversion of England. But the beginning 
of history in many a land has been the history of its 
National Church. Hence, though desiring to write in a 
strain befitting a Church chronicler, we hope the book 
may have some general interest for any who in future 
time may care to look back to the beginnings of Chris- 
tianity, civilization, and national life in the country of the 
Swahili, the Bondei, the Yao, or the Xyasa. 

The Author desires to express her thanks to the many 
friends who have so well and kindly aided her in what 
has been a most congenial work first, to many members 
of the U.M.C.A. Committee, more especially the Secre 
taries, the Editors of the Magazines, and to several past and 
present members of the Mission staff; next, to Mr. Consul 
Smith for his able chapter on Slavery, bringing together 
details, some of which (it is believed) have never been 
published. 

She also gratefully confesses her indebtedness to the 
Memoirs of Bishop Mackenzie, Bishop Steere, and Rev, 
Arthur Eraser Sim ; to the Rev. H. Rowley s former 
History of the Mission, and to a mass of records and 
literature kept at the office ; and in the case of the Usam- 
bara group of Missions, to the actual original Record 
Books, so carefully written in the handwriting of workers, 
many of whom are fallen asleep. 

And last but not least thanks are due to Miss Yonge 
for contributing the Preface to the book. 

A. E. M. A.-M. 

Feast of SS. Simon and Jude, 
1896, 



PREFACE. 

MAN S charter of possession of the earth seems to be 
to fill it worthily, not only by peopling it with 
multitudes, but with such nations as are capable of develop 
ing its resources, and building on them, step by step, 
civilization, improvement, and progress, especially towards 
that highest mark which is set before the world in Chris 
tianity. 

It seems as if, in the history of the world, a discovery 
or revelation of the truth acted as an impulse in arms and 
arts, and civilization generally ; but if that religion was 
not susceptible of going farther and higher, the progress 
of the nation likewise stopped, or even retrograded. Thus 
it has been with the Chinese, the Hindoos, and, later, with 
the Arabs. It has been only, until the last three centuries, 
the nations around the Mediterranean Sea who have 
gradually carried on the course of thought and activity in 
a kind of community of intellect. 

Egypt and Tyre had begun and carried on the work of 
progress till their corruption of faith made their religion 
effete, and in the case of the Phoenicians, horrible and bar 
barous. Greece flourished and extended her influence as 
long as she was a genuine seeker after truth ; and to Rome, 
with the brave, honest code of her early days, was com 
mitted the battle with the Canaanite greed and cruelty in 
Carthage and the other Phoenician colonies. 

The philosophy and religion of Greece and Rome were 
well-nigh worn out when the impulse of Christianity came 



xviii PREFACE. 

in on them and their foundations on the African coast. 
Alexandria and Carthage produced the two greatest names 
in the early Church, and the whole Mediterranean border 
was a region of culture and thought ; but these were being 
corrupted when Mohammed promulgated a belief which, 
though most imperfect, had in it sufficient truth to inspire 
the Arabs with the spirit of conquest and propagation of 
their faith. 

It was retrogression to these lands of Christianity, but 
in the negro races who adopted it there was a certain 
advance in improvement. But to the Arab and Turk the 
entire continent was chiefly an emporium of black slaves 
and white ivory. 

Missionary zeal was chiefly expended on the northern 
nations before ; in the Middle Ages it died away, nor was 
there even intercourse with any except the Mohammedan 
inhabitants of the coast of the Mediterranean until after 
the discovery of America, when Las Casas, in the hope of 
sparing the natives of the Caribbean Isles, proposed to sub 
stitute negro labour for theirs, The Guinea coast became 
the hunting ground of slave traders for successive genera 
tions of Spanish, Portuguese, and Englishmen, without 
more idea of compunction than if their game had been 
ostriches or elephants. 

The Papal partition, marked by a meridian three hun 
dred leagues west of the Azores, between Spain and Por 
tugal, stimulated the latter country to send forth explorers, 
and thus in 1496 the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope 
completed the outline of the continent, though the interior 
remained for the most part comparatively unknown ; 
and even down to our own generation, maps depicted the 
Mountains of the Moon, a range more fabulous than the 
mountains in the moon, 



PREFACE. xix 

Not till 1652 did the Dutch begin to settle at the Cape, 
enslaving but not teaching the Hottentots, and hunting 
down the less docile nations who interfered with them. 
The Moravians, always a missionary congregation, sent 
out a teacher in 1737, but the Boers were obstructive, and 
sent him home, and it was not for another fifty years that 
another attempt was made. Experience in America and 
the West Indies seems to have awakened the minds of 
Christians to the sense that not only domestic slaves pos 
sessed souls to be saved, but that their kindred at home 
ought also to be reached. Philanthropy might liberate the 
negro, but he could not be sent back to his savage rela 
tions, and thus Sierra Leone had to be colonized, and 
could not choose but become a missionary centre. Already, 
1795, the first year of British possession of the Cape, the 
Moravian Brethren had returned, and in 1799 the London 
Missionary Society had begun to work upon the Kaffirs, 
a fine race, partly of Arab descent, and capable of intelli 
gence, faithfulness, and courage. That knight-errant of 
mission chivalry, Allan Gardiner, made one expedition in 
those hitherto unknown regions. 

The London Missionary Society sent out Robert Moffatt 
in the year 1816, and he commenced his wonderful labours 
in Bechuanaland, labours that lasted from his twentieth 
to his seventieth year, and which prepared his son-in-law 
Livingstone for his memorable career. 

Systematic work by the English Church must be dated 
from 1847, when by the liberality of one lady, a true 
steward of her great possessions, the diocese of Cape Town 
took its rise. 

Angela Burdett Coutts has been permitted to behold in 
her own lifetime most marvellous effects arising from her 



PREFACE. 



open-handed gifts to the Church. Under Bishop Robert 
Gray, not only were the stakes strengthened, but her cords 
were lengthened, as new dioceses were created like branches 
springing from the newly planted tree. There were 
struggles and contentions it is true, but such are proofs of 
life ; and one important consequence was the discovery 
that colonial Bishops, and those in lands beyond British 
dominions, need not be bound by oaths of spiritual allegi 
ance to the Sovereign of England or the Archbishop of 
Canterbury. The decision set the Church free to stretch 
her arms wherever there was need. Xor has there, through 
out her entire history, been such an extraordinary exten 
sion of her growth as there has taken place in the course 
of the eighty years that have passed since Middleton was 
consecrated almost by stealth to the diocese of Calcutta. 

Livingstone was in the meantime making those explora 
tions which brought him into contact with the negro race, 
and revealed the horrors of the slave trade, which, through 
Arabs and Portuguese kidnappers, supplied the Moham 
medan countries. The indignant zeal which he roused in 
England had its effect in the Universities Mission. 

The chosen leader, Charles Frederick Mackenzie, had 
gathered experience by work among the colonists and 
Zulus of Natal. He was a man of most attractive 
manners, as well as of great intellect, and self-devoted 
faith. But it was only discovered that the track in which 
Livingstone led the Mission was impracticable by the 
sacrifice of his life and those of his followers. 

His sister, Anne, already an invalid when she had set 
out to join in his enterprise, returned in shattered health 
with the one purpose of doing all that in her lay to 
carry out his work, Twice had she passed his grave on 



PREFACE. 



an island of the Shire on her dreadful voyage in an open 
boat, when the sailors had prepared a spade to dig a grave 
for her, and she came home sick with African fever, in 
addition to all former maladies. 

Yet she had energy to become the very heart of African 
missions. She felt the disappointment when the Zambesi 
was found impracticable for English residents, and the 
headquarters of the Universities Mission were transferred to 
Zanzibar, but thenceforth her chief interest was in the work 
in Zululand, which had been interrupted by her brother s 
call, and for the foundation of this bishopric she chiefly 
laboured till her death on Quinquagesima Sunday, 1877. 

To her devotion, we could not but give these few words, 
as one of the earliest pioneers of the Central African 
Mission, and so nearly connected with the first who there 
broke soil. It was a sowing in tears for those who have 
since reaped in joy. In joy, shall we say? Nay, to every 
generation, where true progress is made, the same petition 
is realized : " Show Thy servants Thy work, and their 
children Thy glory." The achievements of one form the 
foundation for the next. 

" To subdue the earth " of Africa after the long pre 
valence of dark barbarism, seems to be the task of the 
present day. The discoveries of travellers, and the map- 
making of diplomatists, have led to the partition of the 
continent into the " protectorates " of the powers of Europe. 
Yet the Church is not lagging behind them. Even before 
the feet of the labourer go those of him " that bringeth 
good tidings, and publisheth peace," peace from cruel 
violence, from savage kidnapping, from ghastly witchcraft 
and revenge, that outward and inward peace that pass- 
eth all understanding. 

C. M. YONGE. 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 



EVENTS. 

Bishop Selwyn s sermons at Cambridge stir an interest in 
Mission work, and influence Mackenzie .... 

Dr. Livingstone appeals to the Universities .... 

Bishop Gray s visit, and formation of Committees and of the 
" Oxford and Cambridge Mission to Central Africa " 



Nov. I. The great Zambesi meeting in Senate House, Cambridge, 



DATE 

1854. 

1857- 
1858. 





and appointment of Mackenzie as head .... 


4 


1860. 






Oct. 2. 


Farewell Service at Canterbury for first band of workers 


8 


1861. 






Jan. I. 


CHARLES FREDERICK MACKENZIE CONSECRATED FIRST 






BISHOP OF "THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION" IN CAPE 






TOWN CATHEDRAL ....... 


9 


Jan. 12. 


Sailing of the Lyra with Mission party . . 


12 


March. 


Ascent of the Rovuma attempted ...... 


15 


May I. 




16 


July 8. 


Disembarkation at Chibisa s, on the Shire .... 


20 


,, 16. 


First release of eighty-four slaves by Dr. Livingstone 


24 




They are given to the Bishop ..... 


24 


August. 


War with the Yao (Ajawa), and settlement at Magomero 


25 


Oct. i. 


Projected Church of St. Paul begun ..... 


29 


Nov. 29. 


Rev. II. de Wint Burrup, Dr. Dickenson, and Mr. R. M. 






Clark arrive ......... 


30 


1862. 






Jan. 31. 


Death of Bishop Mackenzie, and burial by the Shire 


35 


Feb. 22. 


Death of Rev. H. de Wint Burrup at Magomero . 


36 


Apr. 25. 


The Mission leaves Magomero and settles at Chibisa s . 


38 


1863. 






Jan. I. 


Rev. H. C. Scudamore died, and was buried by the Shire 


40 


Feb. 2. 


CONSECRATION OF THE REV. WILLIAM GEORGE TOZER, 






IN WESTMINSTER ABBEY, AS SECOND BISHOP 


44 


6. 


Dr. Steere and Mr. Alington sailed for Cape Town 


45 


Mar. 17. 


Dr. Dickenson died, and was buried beside Mr. Scudamore . 


40 


June 26. 


Bishop Tozer reaches the Mission, and decides to remove to 






Mount Morambala ........ 


4 1 




xxiii 





CHR ONOL GICA I. TA BLE. 



HATK PAGE 

1863. 

Nov. Procter, Rowley, and Waller return to England, the latter 

removing children under his care to Cape Town . . 41 
1864. 

June 23. Bishop Tozer consecrates Mackenzie s grave . 47 

Aug. 31. The Bishop and Dr. Steere land at Zan/.ibar . . . -47 
Sept. 4. First Service of the Mission in Zanzibar . .... 50 

,, 16. First five boys presented to Mission ..... 5 

,, 17. Bishop and Dr. Steere remove from Consulate to Shangani . 50 
Nov. 4. Koorjee s Shamba (since named Kiungani) bought with 

Wells-Tozer Fund 53 

1865. 

May 24. Five boys and nine girls given to Bishop Tozer from slave 

dhow 52 

June 28. Miss Tozer and Miss A. Jones reauh Zanzibar as the first 

women workers . . . . . . . 5- 

Aug. 24. First Public Baptism. Nine senior boys baptized, including 

John Swedi . . ... . . . . 52 

1866. 

Feb. I. Arrival of Dr. Livingstone at Zanzibar ..... 

Mar. 2. Foundation of Kiungani House ...... 54 

,, 19. Dr. Livingstone enters Africa for the last time 
Sept. 20. Bishop Tozer sails for England ...... 53 

Dec. 3. Miss Tozer sails for England . . . . . -53 

1867. 

Aug. 13. Rev. C. A. Alington goes on first visit to Usambara . . 57 

Sept. 29. First interview with Kimweri, chief of Usambara . . . 5^ 

1868. 

Jan. 20. Second visit to Usambara. Mr. Alington occupies Magila . 59 

July 17. Bishop Tozer returns from England ..... 

Aug. 4. First meeting of Mission Chapter .... . 

,, 9. Dr. Steere sails for England ....... 69 

,, 20, Purchase of Shangani House, hitherto rented . 

,, 24. First Communion of the senior boys ..... 
Nov. 2. Bishop Tozer visits Magila ....... 60 

1869. 

Apr. 28. The Rev. L. Eraser occupies Magila . . . .60 

June 6. Miss Jones returns to England ...... 54 

Aug. 24. Baptism of eight boys and five girls ..... 

Nov. Cholera visitation ......... 54 

Dec. 10, Death of Rev, L, Eraser of Cholera . , , . , 54 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 



DATE PAGE 

1870. 

Feb. 2. John Swedi and George Farajallah made subdeacons by 

the Bishop ......... 54 

Mar. 21. Death of George Farajallah ....... 55 

Sept. Rev. O. Handcock and Rev. R. L. Pennell visit Magila . 6 1 

1871. 

Sept. 8. Purchase of Mbweni . . . . . . . -55 

Oct. 1 8. Opening of Kiungani temporary Chapel . 

1872. 

Mar. 17. Dr. Steere and Miss Tozer land in Zanzibar .... 69 

Apr. 15. The great hurricane causes fearful destruction, wrecking the 

Mission House ........ 70 

July. The Rev. Lewin Pennell died ; and Bishop Tozer, broken in 

health, sails for the Seychelles . . . . . .71 

Oct. 8. Sam Speare, John Swedi, Francis Mabruki, and Mr. Hartley 

start for Magila, sent forth by Dr. Steere .... 72 

Dec. 20. THE FIRST DAY OF INTERCESSION FOR FOREIGN MIS 
SIONS IS OBSERVED IN ENGLAND 89 

I873- 

Jan. 12. Sir Bartle Frere s visit to Zanzibar . ... 87 

Apr. 20. Bishop Tozer, having returned to England, resigns the 

Bishopric . . . . . . . . 71 

May 4. Dr. Livingstone dies at Ilala ....... 77 

June 6. Treaty for abolition of Zanzibar Slave Market, and for re 
striction of Slave Trade, signed by the Sultan ... 88 
Sept. 5. Part of Slave Market bought for Mission .... 90 

Nov. ii. Samuel Speare dies in England ...... 76 

Dec. 25. Foundation stone of Christ Church, Zanzibar, laid by Captain 

Prideaux ........ ,.91 

1874. 

Mar. ii. Mail sailed with Livingstone s body ..... 77 
Apr. 1 8. David Livingstone s funeral in Westminster Abbey . . 77 

July 4. Dr. Steere sails for England, leaving the Rev. A. N. West 

in charge ......... 78 

Aug. 24. DR. STEERE CONSECRATED, IN WESTMINSTER ABBEY, AS 

THIRD BISHOP OF THE MISSION ..... 78 

> 39 children baptized in Zanzibar ...... 

Dec. 25. Rev. Arthur N. West died 89 

[Note. Some time early this year the Colony of Freed Slaves 
was planted at Mbweni,] 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 



HATE PAGE 

1375. 

Mar, 4. Bishop Steere returns to Zanzibar with the Rev. E. Randolph 

and Miss Josephine Bartlett ...... 99 

The Rev. J. P. Farler, Mr. II. W. Woodward, and several 

others join the Mission ....... 99 

The Bishop takes the Rev. J. P. Farler, Mr. Moss, and 

Acland Sahera to Magila ...... 99 

Aug. 24. Consecration of Cemetery at Kiungani ..... 103 

,, 31. Bishop Steere and party sail for Lincli, en route for Mataka s . 103 
Sept. 19. Service discontinued in old Consulate Chapel, and held in 
Town School ......... 

Dec. 10. Bishop reaches Mataka s ....... 126 

,, 13. Hospital work begun by Miss Allen at Mkunazini . . . 104 
Peace made in Usambara, and Headquarters of Town Mission 

removed to Mkunazini during this year . . . .102 

i3 7 6. 

May 3. Rev. Chauncy Maples, and Messrs. Yorke and Williams, join 

the Mission . . . . . . . . .107 

Sept. 29. Rev. C. Maples receives Priest s Orders, and W. P. Johnson, 

Deacon s, in Kiungani Chapel ..... 107 

Oct. 1 6. Bishop Steere, Rev. W. P. Johnson, and Mbweni people 

start for Mainland . . . . . . . .126 

Nov. 9. Bishop Steere and party arrive at Masasi . . . .127 

1877- 

Feb. 8. Bishop Steere sails for England . . . . . .112 

Apr. 2. Baptism of fourteen converts at Magila . . . . .no 

August. Rev. C. Maples and F. J. Williams reach Masasi . . . 132 
,, 23. The Rev. F. and Mrs. Hodgson arrive at Zanzibar . . 113 

Nov. 4. Bishop returns, bringing Miss Thackeray . . . 113 

,, 28. Stanley and his men return from the West Coast , . .110 
Dec. 25. First Service (Swahili Matins) said in Christ Church 
1878. 

May. Foundation of Newala under the Rev. Herbert Clarke . . 132 
June 9. First baptism of sixteen adults at Masasi .... 132 

Oct. 7. Treaty of the Rovuma between the Sultan s Agents, the 

Makua and Maviti, made by Rev. IT. Clarke . . -133 
1879. 
May I. Complete Swahili Liturgy first used . . . . 117 

,, ,, First Communion of Masasi folk in Zanzibar . . . 117 

,, 3. Rev. C. Maples goes to England, and Rev. W. P. Johnson 

takes his place at Masasi, helped by Rev. H. Clarke . 134 
June 8, John Swedi ordained Deacon goes to Masasi . . .118 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE, 



Nov. 12. Rev. J. P. Farler appointed Archdeacon of Magila . .118 

Dec. 8. Arrival of Miss Mills 118 

,, 25. Opening of completed building of Christ Church (no Altar as 

yet) 117 

,, 29. Bishop starts for six days tour in Zaramo-land . . . 145 
1880. 
Jan. 6. Rev. C. Yorke dies at Umba ..... IiS 

Nov. 3. The Rev. W. P. Johnson settles at Mataka s, the first 

station occupied in Yao-land . . . . . 145 

,, Mr. Joseph Williams, Charlie and Cornelia Ndegele, occupy 

Abdallah Pesa s, at his request : Station subsequently 
known as Mtua . . . . . . . .197 

Dec. 25. First Celebration in Christ Church, which now comes into 

daily use .......... 96 

1881. 

Oct. II. Founding of Mission at Mkuzi ...... 259 

Nov. 22. Lindi occupied by Rev. If. Clarke ..... 198 

Dec. 24. Dedication of new Church at Masasi . . . . .136 

1882. 

Feb. 21. Death of the Rev. Charles Janson at Nyasa .... 148 

Apr. 9. Magila temporary stone Church opened on Faster Day . 
Aug. 27. Edward Steere, D.D., LL.D., third Missionary Bishop, 

entered into rest . . . . . . . .15$ 

Sept. 12. The Rev. II. A. Wilson died at Pangani . . . .164 

Dr. Petrie, first Medical Missionary of the Guild of St. Luke, 

arrives . . . . . . . . . .162 

,, 14. Magwangvvara raid on Masasi, killing some Christians, and 
carrying others into slavery. Rev. W. C. Porter subse 
quently visits the tribe to redeem captives . . .136 
Dec. 25. First Celebration at St. John s, Mbweni .... 164 

1883. 

Jan. I. Central Africa (magazine) first issued ..... 165 

June. Removal from Masasi to Newala . . . . . .199 

Sept. 14. Bishop Royston, of Mauritius, visits Zanzibar, and holds 

Confirmations . . . . . . . . .165 

Nov. 30. CHARLES ALAN SMYTHIES, FOURTH BISHOP, CONSE 
CRATED ..... ..... 165 

Rev. W. P. Johnson (after seven years work) returns to 

England to appeal for a steamer . . . . 149 

Mr. A. C. Maclan prepares many Swahili educational works . 
1884. 
Jan. i. Abdallah Susi becomes a Catechumen . . . . .167 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 



DATK PAGR 

1884. 

Feb. 25. Bishop Smythies lands in Zanzibar . . . . .166 

Mar. 31. Bishop Smythies first visit to Magila . . . . .261 

New Station opened at Misozwc ...... 262 

May 5. First Synod of Zanzibar ....... 282 

July 21. 1T.M. Government make a grant of ^5 for each slave received 
by Mission ......... 

,, 28. Bishop Smythies first visit to Newala and the Rovuma dis 
trict 200 

Aug. 24. First five Catechumens made at Mkuzi ..... 

Oct. 31. The Mission s. s. Charles fanson sent out in 380 packages . 150 
Rev. W. P. Johnson blind with ophthalmia, and returned to 

England . . . . . . . . . ,150 

A Theological branch started at Kiungani, and Archdeacon 

Jones-Bateman appointed Principal ..... 283 

1885. 

Jan. 28. Mlinga, the Spirit Mountain, ascended for the first time by 

the Bishop and Mr. Woodward ..... 262 

Feb. 2. Bishop Ilannington visited Zanzibar and Magila . . . 232 
Aug. 18. Disastrous fire at Matope, burning stores to value of ^"1,000 . 150 
,, 24. Bishop Smythies and Rev. G. 11. Swinny obtain permission 

to settle at Likoma . . . . . . . .172 

Sept. 5. s.s. Charles Janson launched, and dedicated on following 

day . . ......... 150 

,, 17. Bishop Smythies discovers source of Lujenda . . . . 175 

Oct. 24. Bishop s second visit to Newala . . . . . 1/4 

The Children s Tidings (now called African Tidings] first 
issued .......... 

1886. 

Jan. 15. The Rev. II. W. Woodward takes up residence at Misozwe . 262 
Mar. 25. Church of the Holy Cross, Magila, consecrated . . . 234 
Apr. 4. Ordination of Cecil Majaliwa, third native Deacon . . 203 

June ir. Death of the Rev. C. S. Buchanan Riddell at Magila . . 236 
,, 13. Rev. Cecil Majaliwa put in charge of new station at 

Chitangali ......... 203 

July 21. Bishop Smythies discovered source of Rovuma on his journey 

to visit Lake Nyasa and the Magwangwara . . 175 

Aug. 2. Bishop Smythies second visit to Likoma . . . .174 

,, 23. David Susi baptized at Zanzibar 167 

1887. 

Feb. 13. Rev. G. II. Swinny dies at Bandawe . . . . 177 

Mar. 25, Dedication of St, John Baptist Church at Umba . . . 263 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 



DATE PAGE 
1887. 

May 8. The Ousel sailing boat launched on Nyasa .... 

July 9. Jubilee festivities in Zanzibar ...... 287 

,, 29. Bishop Smythies third visit to Lake Nyasa . . . .178 

Nov. Bishop s fifth visit to Newala ...... 208 

,, Barnaba Nakaam confirmed ....... 209 

,, 5. Great fire at Magila 241 

,, 21. Opening of the Industrial Wing at Mbweni .... 286 

Churches begun at Misozwe, and Msalaka station opened . 262 

The Sisters begin work at Magila ...... 237 

1888. 

Jan. 6. Second Fire at Magila ........ 242 

1 eb. 1 8. Tornado at Magila ........ 242 

,, 27. Masai raid into Bonde ........ 242 

Mar. 27. Seyid Barghash, Sultan of Zanzibar, died, and was succeeded 

by Khalifa 288 

April. Mr. Johnson and Mr. Buchanan seized at Makanjila s and held 

to ransom . . . . . . . .181 

Aug. 28. Archdeacon Farler returns to England ..... 244 

Sept. The S.s. Charles Janson stranded for eight months near Matope 180 
October. First number of Msiinulizi, the first African Magazine in the 

Mission 284 

Xov. 6. School Chapel opened at Kiungani ..... 

,, 12. The coast blockaded by England and Germany ; the ladies 
sent to Zanzibar. Bishop Smythies at once left for Africa, 
was urged to withdraw the; Mission from Magila, but 

refused to do so . . . . . . . . 245 

,, 20. Archdeacon Hodgson leaves Zanzibar . . . . .291 

Dec. 6. Archdeacon Hodgson completes the translation of the Svvahili 

Bible 292 

1889. 

Jan. 30. Rev. Dr. lline arrived in Zanzibar ..... 367 

May. Bishop Smythies sixth visit to Newala . . . . .211 

,, II. Rev. Herbert Geldart died at Mkuzi 247 

June 6. First Celebration on Chisumulu Island, Nyasa . . -183 

,, 24. Archdeacon Goodyear died at Magila ..... 247 

July 22. Bishop Smythies fourth visit to Likoma .... 183 
Sept. 13. Edicts issued by Sultan Khalifa freeing all children of slaves 

born after January i, 1890 ...... 294 

,, 22. Rev. C. J. Sparks died at Zanzibar . . . . 248 

Nov. 28. The Sisters return to Magila 250 



CHRONOLOGIC. \L TABLE. 



DATE 

1890. 

Jan. 25. Rev. Cecil Majaliwa, the first native Priest of the Mission, or 
dained in Christ Church 

Feb. 13. Death of Sultan Khalifa, and accession of AH 

Mar. 3. Archbishop Benson s letter to the Guild of St. Paul 

Apl. 17. First Industrial Exhibition held at Kiungani .... 

June I. James Chala Salfey ordained Priest 

,, Visit of Bishop Tucker, of Eastern Equatorial Africa 

July I. Anglo-German Agreement signed, leaving our stations in 
Usambara and Rovuma in German territory 

Aug. 30. The Sultan s visit to Kiungani ...... 

Nov. 7. Zanzibar placed under British protection .... 

1891. 

Jan. II. Several Magila Christians absolved by the Bishop . 

January. Order of the Sacred Mission founded in London 

May 12. Foundation laid of the Mission Hospital in Zan/.ibar 
,, 17. Bishop Smythies seventh visit to Rovuma district . 

June 13. Death of Miss Townshend ....... 

July 2. Mission Station planted at Kologwe ..... 
Bishop Smythies fifth and last visit to Likoma 
Death of George Sherriff, captain of Charles Jaiison 
Opening of Mkuzi Church ....... 



Aug. 2. 

,, 12 
,, 27 
1892. 

Mar. 2. 
Tune 6. 



The Bishop s eighth visit to the Rovuma district 

Death of Janet Emily Campbell ...... 

Oct. 23 and Xov. 5. Disastrous fires at Likoma, destroying 1,400 books 

,, 27. Interview of Bishop Smythies with German Chancellor at 

Berlin .......... 

Dec. 21. CONSECRATION OF REV. WILFRID BIRD HORNISY AS FIRST 
BISHOP OF NYASALAND ....... 

1893. 

Mar. 5. Death of Sultan AH and accession of Thwain .... 

,, 12. Zanzibar Hospital opened . . . . 

,, 13. Denys Seyite made Deacon at Christ Church . 

,, 19. Peter Li mo made Deacon at Magila .... 

April. Mission opened at Kichehve under Rev. Denys Seyite . 
May. Bishop Smythies ninth visit to Rovuma district 

,, 20. Baptism of first converts at Kologwe . 
June 30. Second Synod of Zanzibar ....... 

Sept. 21. Foundation of Unangu Station under Dr. Iline 
Oct. 2 to 1 6. Bishop Smythies and Petro Limo s preaching tour through 
the Bonde and Zigua districts ...... 



212 

294 
296 
298 
250 
298 



294 



251 
303 
302 

215 
301 
271 
187 

185 
248 

215 
301 
190 

316 
191 

304 
302 

35 1 
253 
35* 
216 
272 
34 
193 

273 



CHR ONOL GICAL TABLE. 



DATE PAGIC 
1893. 

Dec. 4. Bishop Smythies tenth and last visit to Rovuma . 

1894. 

Mar. ii. Rev. Peter Limo ordained Priest at Magila .... 254 

Apl. 25. Bishop Smythies last Easter-day spent at Magila . . . 254 

May. A very serious locust famine begins in Bonde district . .341 

,, 7. Charles Alan Smythies dies, and is buried in the Indian Ocean 319 

,, 29. Conference of Missions in London . ..... 336 

June. Regular Services ceased in Umba Church .... 276 

,, 24, Little Boys Home removed to Kilimani . . . .291 

August. Bishop Hornby resigns his Bishopric on account of ill-health . 195 

,, 24. Ordination of Samuel Sehoza at lona ..... 344 

,, ., Station at Kota-Kota opened by Rev. A. F. Sim . . . 362 
1895. 

June 29. CONSECRATION OF THE VENERABLE CHAUXCY MAPLES AS 
SECOND BISHOP OF (LIKOMA) NYASALANU, AND OF 
REV. WILLIAM MOORE RICHARDSON, FOR ZANZIBAR, 

IN ST. PAUL S CATHEDRAL 323 

July 25. First Baptism at Kota-Kota a penitent murderer . . . 364 

Aug. 26. Mr. Atlay murdered by the Angoni ..... 334 

,, 28. First Conference of Native Christians at Magila . . . 358 

,, 30. Bishop Richardson lands in Zanzibar ... . 345 

Sept. 2. Chauncy Maples (Bishop of Likoma) and Joseph Williams 

drowned in Lake Nyasa ....... 328 

Oct. 5. Bishop Richardson pays his first visit to Newala . . . 352 

,, 14. Death of Matola, chief of Newala, soon after his baptism . 353 

,, 29. The Rev. Arthur Frazer Sim dies at Kota-Kota . . . 365 
Dec. 3. Stronghold of Mlozi, the last slave-dealer chief in the B.C. A. 

Protectorate, stormed -361 

1896. 

Jan 20. Bishop Richardson s first visit to Magila .... 359 

Feb. Consecration of the Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Kologwe . 359 
,, 22. Death of the Rev. Horace Waller, Lay Superintendent to 

Bishop Mackenzie s party ...... 369 

June 29. CONSECRATION OF DR. JOHN EDWARD HINE AS THIRD 

BISHOT OF LIKOMA 368 

Aug. 25. Death of Sultan Ham id, followed by usurpation of Khalid, 

and bombardment of Sultan s palace by British ships . 370 

Oct. 18. Third Synod of Zanzibar 45" 



PART I. 

THE GOING FORTH OF THE SOWER. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE CALL TO THE WORK, 

" Uplift the banner! heathen lands 

Shall see from far the glorious sight ; 
And nations, gathering at the call, 
Their spirits kindle in its light." 

ALL Missions to the heathen that have ever been sent 
forth have had their true Ite, missa est, from the 
great Head of the Church, spoken on the mountain in 
Galilee, as well as from this or that national Church. His 
" Go ye into all the world " must be the spring of mission 
work to us still, as long as there is one corner of that 
world to which His message has never come. It is well 
to remember this, because people often say, " It was So- 
and-so s speech, or such-and-such a meeting which origi 
nated this or that Mission." 

Yet the call of the Master comes in many ways, and 
now that the Universities Mission has become as a broad 
and steady stream, it is interesting to turn back and trace 
from how many sources, and in what divers manners, came 
the immediate call to go forth and gather in the Church s 
harvest in Eastern tropical Africa. 

B 



2 IffSTOKY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1854 

From India and New Zealand, from South Africa and 

1853. Central Africa came the impulses which moved 
ril t s offiin es men to begin the work, and which gained for 

work - that work its first leader. 

In April, 1853, the Rev. J. S. Jackson, of Cains College, 

Cambridge, going out to head a new Mission at Delhi, 

Charles tried to influence Charles Frederick Mackenzie 

Frederick 
Mackenzie, to go With him. 

"After he left me," wrote the future Bishop, " I read a bit of 
Henry Martyn s Life before he left England, and I determined 
for the first time, and prayed to God to help me, to think what 
was best to be done, and to do it. I thought chiefly of the com 
mand, Go and baptize all nations, and how some one ought 
to go ; and I thought how in another world one would look back 
and rejoice at having seized this opportunity of taking the good 
news of the gospel to those who had never heard of it, but for 
whom, as well as for us, Christ died. I thought of the Saviour 
sitting in heaven and looking down upon this world, and seeing 
us who have heard the news selfishly keeping it to ourselves/ 

Thus the impulse was given, but in the ordering of God s 
providence it was turned aside from India. In the next 

1854. year two bishops arrived in England from the 
Colonial mission field. One of these was Dr. Colenso, 
the newly appointed Bishop of Natal, coming for recruits 
after a ten weeks survey of his diocese ; the other that 
prince of Bishops, the first Bishop of New Zealand. 

In November, Bishop Selwyn preached four sermons on 

Bishop Sunday afternoons in Great St. Mary s, Cam- 

B?m"n?at bridge, which were published as The Work of 

Cambridge. ^ r/ ^ ^ /; ^ WoM T h ese sermons Mackenzie 

heard, and was deeply stirred, as no doubt many another 

hearer was, by such words as the following : 



THE CALL TO THE WORK. 



" I go from hence, if it be the will of God, to the most distant 
of all countries. . , . There God has planted the standard 
of the Cross as a signal to His Church to fill up the intervening 
spaces, till there is neither a spot of earth which has not been 
trodden by the messengers of salvation, nor a single man to whom 
the gospel has not been preached. Fill up the void. Let it no 
longer be a reproach to the Universities that they have sent so 
few missionaries to the heathen. . . . The voice of the LORD 
is asking, Whom shall I send, and who will go with us ? May 
every one of you who intends, by God s grace, to dedicate him 
self to the ministry, answer at once : Here am I, send me. " 

The immediate re- 
Mackenzie 
suit was that Macken- goes to Natal, 

1855. 

8ic offered himself to 
Dr. Colenso, who had already 
asked him to go to Natal as his 
Archdeacon. Thus was the fu 
ture Bishop led to Africa and to 
an interest in African affairs. 

All this time a door was being 
opened into the heart of Africa 
by a way which the Church could 
hardly have guessed. David 
For it was David Livingstone. 

Livingstone, the Scotch Presbyterian, working at first for 
the London Missionary Society, who during these years was 
making those journeys through the heart of Africa which 
made the entrance of a Mission possible, an account of 
which he published under the title, Missionary Travels in 
South Africa. During his visit to England in 1857, the 
simple large-heartecl hero took England by storm, IBS?. 
and when he announced his intention of inviting the 




DR. LIVINGSTONE. 



4 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1858 

Church of England, represented by her two oldest Univer 
sities, to plant a Mission in Central Africa, it is no wonder 
that Oxford and Cambridge responded to his call. That 
the working of our national Church should have so im 
pressed this great man, who was not of her sons, was 
justly felt to be a testimony to the life and vigour of the 
Church of England. He told his own story in each 
University. On December 4 he appeared in the Senate 
Speech in the House at Cambridge. " His reception was en- 
Se camtodge 8 thusiastic ; the undergraduates cheered as only 
4) undergraduates can cheer ; and after a lecture 
of great interest, adapted with great tact to the audience, 
Professor Sedgwick, at the Vice-Chancellor s request, ex 
pressed the satisfaction which every one present felt." 

Livingstone went, and in the next t\vo years had opened 
up fresh ground along the Shire, and among the tribes 
lying round Lake Shirwa, and towards Nyasa ; but his 
parting words rang in the ears of the Universities : 

" I go back to Africa to try to make an open path fur com 
merce and Christianity. Do you carry out the work which I 
have begun. / leave it with you? " 

Nevertheless, the fire which Dr. Livingstone had kindled 

in all hearts might have died out had not Robert Gray, 

1858. first Bishop of Cape Town and Metropolitan of 

South Africa, visited England the next year. He had a 

Bishop Gray s wcll-considcred scheme for sending missionary 

Bishops and Clergy into those heathen lands 

which bordered on the already established dioceses of 

Cape Town, Graham s Town, and Natal, thus giving 

them a base of operations in the lands already Christian. 

But with his characteristic disposition to yield in non- 



1 8 59 ] 



THE CALL TO THE WORK. 



essentials to the wishes of others, and to use the materials 
offered to him, he threw himself warmly into the new 
scheme. 

A Cambridge committee was at once formed, committees 

formed. 

Oxford was asked to co-operate, and shortly 
after a great meeting 1 in the Sheldonian, the Association 
took the name of " The Oxford and Cambridge Mission to 
Central Africa," its object being to provide funds for send 
ing out at least six missionaries, under a head who should, 
if possible, be a Bishop ; 
while the field for the Mis 
sion was left entirely to 
the choice of Livingstone, 
with the sanction of the 
Metropolitan under whose 
care it was at first advis 
able to place the Mission. 
For a year, then, stirred 
up (it should ever be re 
membered) by a curate in 

Cambridge Mr. Monk msnop GRAY. 

the committees worked in 

faith, content to leave in God s hands the decision whom 
they should send, and in what land the Mission should 
be planted. 

Thus came round All Saints Day, when the 1859 




first year s Report 



was 



presented in the 



The Great 
Zambesi 
Meeting. 



Senate House at Cambridge. And now the 
question, " Who shall lead the Mission ? " was to be an 
swered. Archdeacon Mackenzie had been led to return 



1 Sec Memoir of BisJiop Mackenzie, by the Bishop of Carlisle. 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1859 



to England from Natal by a scries of what looked like 
accidents ; so that when asked, " Well, what has brought 
you to England ? " he replied with a laugh, " Upon my 
word, I am unable to tell you." Going, however, to preach 
in his own University on All Saints Day, he was present 
at the " Great Zambesi Meeting," and, noting the zeal and 




BISHOP MACKEXZIK. 

excitement of many, remarked, " I am afraid of this : 
most great works of this kind have been carried on by 
one or two men, in a quieter way, and have had a more 
humble beginning." The next day it was decided to 
offer him the headship of the Mission, which he at once 
accepted. 



i860] 77/7? CALL TO THE WORK. 



Charles Frederick Mackenzie was at this Mackenzie 
time thirty-four years of age. He was the 



youngest of a large family, related to the 
Mackenzies of Seaforth. He was educated at Grange 
School, Bishop Wearmouth, and at Caius College, Cam 
bridge, graduating in 1848 as Second Wrangler. When 
congratulated on his success, he replied simply, " that he 
had only done what was natural under the circumstances." 
This simplicity was a trait in his character ; and the man 
to whom it was natural to take so high a place in the 
mathematical tripos, found it natural, later on, to do his 
best wherever God called him. After several years more 
of college life, alternating with pastoral work in the neigh 
bourhood of Cambridge, he was ordained priest in Sep 
tember, 1852. One anecdote of this period may be given. 
When acting as Mathematical Examiner for Honours, he 
noticed a student who seemed nervous and faint, but who, 
according to rule, could not leave the presence of the 
examiners during the time allotted to the papers in hand. 
Mackenzie spoke to him, and took him out, made him 
swallow some soup, and brought him back to pass his 
examination. 

Early in 1855 he sailed for Natal, accompanied by his 
sister Anne, and was afterwards joined by another sister. 
He had playfully called them his white and black sister, 
in allusion to the interest felt by the one in the European 
and by the other in the native races. The four and a 
half years of African work that ensued before his oppor 
tune return to England in 1859 were justly felt by the 
Committee of the Universities Mission to be a great quali 
fication for the leader of this new work. 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1860 



Lay help ^ n addition to the six clergymen, it was now 
sought. determined to add medical men, and an Indus 
trial and Agricultural Department, as likely to be im 
portant aids in the extirpation of the slave trade. The 
Universities of Dublin and Durham were asked to co- 
1860. operate in the work, and in 1 860 the Association 
Title. altered its title to that of the " Oxford, Cam 
bridge, Dublin, and Durham Mission to Central Africa." 
First Members While still waiting to know their destination, 

of the 

Mission. Mackenzie gathered his recruits Miss Anne 
Mackenzie, his "white sister"; the Revs. L. J. Procter 
and H. C. Scudamore ; Mr. Horace Waller, lay superin 
tendent ; S. A. Gamble, carpenter ; and Alfred Adams, 
agricultural labourer. It was said of them with truth at 
this time : 

"To the leader and his associates in this noble enterprise it 
will personally be a matter of perfect indifference where they 
shall settle. They are prepared to go forth, in the spirit of the 
Patriarch when called from Ur of the Chaldees, to take posses 
sion, in the name of Christ, of a country in which at present they 
have not so much as set their foot." 

status A difficulty arose in the course of this year 

of Missionary 

Bishops, as to the legality of consecrating bishops for 
places beyond Her Majesty s dominions, as to their status, 
and the See to which they would owe obedience, and it 
was thought wise to refer the matter to the Convocation 
of Canterbury. A favourable Report was in due time 
presented, suggesting obedience to the nearest Metropo 
litan, and the organization of a system of synods to 
regulate immediate needs and secure unity. 

Farewell On October 2 there was a farewell service 

at Canterbury, . 

Oct. 2. in the Cathedral of Canterbury, when the 



1 86 1] THE CALL TO THE WORK. 9 

Bishop of Oxford (Wilberforce) thrilled all hearts by his 
parting address to the Mission : 

" And as for thec, true yokefellow, and brother well-beloved, 
who leadest forth this following; to thee, in this our parting 
hour while yet the grasped hand tarries in the embrace of love 
to thee, what shall we say ? Surely what, before he gave over 
to younger hands his rod and staff, God s great prophet said of 
old to his successor : Be strong and of a good courage, for thou 
must go with this people into the land which the LORD hath 
sworn unto their fathers to give them, and thou shalt cause them 
to inherit it? . . . When thy heart is weakest, He shall 
make it strong ; when all others leave thee, He shall be closest 
to thee ; and the revelation of His love shall turn danger into 
peace, labour into rest, suffering into ease, anguish into joy, and 
martyrdom, if He so order it, into the prophet s fiery chariot, 
bearing thee by the straightest course to thy most desired 
Home." 

The final meeting in that crypt of St. Augustine s at 
Canterbury, where now several relics of the Bishop are 
treasured, cannot but suggest a comparison with the 
Apostle of the English. To St. Augustine, leading his 
forty monks to win England sent forth by St. Gregory 
how small, how inadequate would have appeared that little 
band, going forth like an advanced piquet into an enemy s 
country, under cover of whose apparent defeat the great 
army might advance to victor} ! 

It was in St. George s Cathedral, Cape Town, Jan. i. 
on the Eeast of the Circumcision, 1861, that Mackenzie s 

/MI T-> f Consecration 

Charles rredenck Mackenzie, the first mis-atcapeTown. 
sionary Bishop whom our Church had sent forth for a 
thousand years, was consecrated by Bishop Gray, Metro 
politan, assisted by the Bishops of Natal and St. Helena. 



10 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [iSoi 



The oath then taken shows that his field of labour was 
settled : 

" In the Name of God, Amen. I, Charles Frederick Mac 
kenzie, chosen Bishop of the Mission to the tribes dwelling in 
the neighbourhood of the Lake Nyasa and River Shire, do 
profess and promise all due reverence and obedience to the 




\ 



ST. GEORGE S CATHEDRAL, CAPE TOWN. 



Metropolitan Bishop and Metropolitical Church of Cape Town, 
and to their successors. So help me God, through Jesus 
Christ." 

Description of ^ picture of the party at this time, while they 
the Party. wa i tcc l several months at Bishopscourt, is given 
by an eye-witness : 



1 86 1] THE CALL TO THE WORK. II 



"December 9, 1860. The other guests in the house were 
Archdeacon and Miss Mackenzie, Mr. Procter and Mr. Scuda- 
more (two young clergymen of the Mission), and Mr. Waller, 
who has the entire management of all the secular affairs belong 
ing to the Mission. The Zambesians generally go to town every 
day on business. When they have started, kind Miss Mackenzie 
gives me a Kafir lesson. In the afternoon I generally find a 
Portuguese lesson going on on the Stoep. Dinner and evening 
are something perfect, but quite indescribable quiet, grave 
discussion over the Mission, interspersed with all manner of little 
skirmishes and attacks on the Archdeacon and Mr. Scudamore, 
who are very boys for fun and brightness. Oh, but they are 
such a noble set of men, and it is such a pleasure and privilege 
to know them all. . . . December 13, 1860. I am just 
fairly in love with the Archdeacon : he is so bright and funny, 
and earnest and kind. His elder sister, Miss Mackenzie, is one 
of those kind, winning sort of people who love everybody, and 
whom everybody loves. Mr. Waller is here, going to town every 
day to make purchases. I can t describe him more truly or 
honourably than the Bishop [Gray] does : He is a Christian 
gentleman. You can t talk to him for a quarter of an hour 
without finding out what a noble fellow he is. L - stayed 
here a few days. She knows all the party, too. . . . Fancy 
the news coming of the death of Mr. Helmore and his party at 
least, some dead from fever, and some missing so soon after 
their arrival ! L =- was here when the news came. She said 
for half a day, perhaps, they were not so boyishly bright as usual, 
and then it seemed as if the new danger gave them new courage 
and brightness." 

The deaths alluded to were those of a party of London 
Society missionaries who were to work further up the 
Zambesi. 

There was in Cape Town a Mission conerre- Archdeacon 

r . Lightfoot s 

Cation ot coloured people, now known as St. congregation. 



12 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES AIISSION. [1861 



Paul s, under the care of the veteran missionary, Arch 
deacon Lightfoot. Among these were many liberated 
slaves, whom Mr. Lightfoot thought might help the Mission 
in its intercourse with the natives. One Sunday evening 
Mackenzie went and preached in the little rough, tem 
porary church, and asked if any would volunteer for the 
work. Twelve coloured men stood up, three of whom 
sailed with the Bishop. 

sailing of tho Finally, on January 12, the party sailed in 
Jan. 12. H.M.S. Lyra from Simon s Bay, looking for 
ward to whatever might await them ; in the words of the 
Bishop : 

" Thus it may be that in the course of years we may become, 
what I have sometimes thought we were like, the original and 
early sprouts that rise from the seed in the ground, and serve 
but to give life and vigour and energy to the shoots which rise 
above the ground afterwards. . . . . That is the prospect we 
have before us a prospect which does not depend upon our life 
or death, which does not depend upon our successes during our 
lifetime, but depends entirely upon the grace of GOD; a prospect 
which will undoubtedly be realized in GOD S good time, for we 
know that the knowledge of the LORD shall cover the earth as 
the waters cover the sea. " 



AF R I C A C ?\^^Pp|JS^F /^ 




20 



32 East of 34 Greenwich 36 



CHAPTER II. 

THE SHIRK HIGHLANDS. 

" Yet not witliont man s answering toil 

yields He His blessings free ; 
Xo harvest from tli unfurrowed soil, 
No fruit from nn pruned tree." 

PATIENCE was certainly the first virtue the Mission 
party was called on to exercise, and in the end 
patience had " her perfect work." 

In 1 1. M.S. Lyra sailed the Bishop, the Rev. L. J. Procter, 
and some black men, among whom was Charles Thomas. 
The rest of the party had started before in 1 1. M.S. Sidon. 

The Farewell There w r as a happy rest off Natal, where the 
in Natal. Bj s i lop too ^ ] caye o f his o j c j wor k anc l o f t j le 

sister who remained there. The final parting from Eng 
lish territory and friends was only to be compared to 
St. Paul s departure from his beloved Ephesian converts 
at Miletus. " Strong men fairly cried as they spoke of 
the kind heart, and loving deeds, and earnest Christian 
life of him who w r as going from amongst them." Me did 
not shun to declare unto them the whole counsel of GOD. 
In a sermon " he spoke most openly on the treatment of 
the natives here as a shame to the white people. . . . 
No sympathy with their home joys or sorrows, hardly 
credit given them for having within them deeper thoughts 
and feelings than they care to reveal to those who have sa 
little human sympathy with them. While this was the 



iSGi] THE SHIRE HIGHLANDS. 



state of things, to raise an interest in the tribes further off 
would be unreal." 

"On the shore we slipped away, and, leaning together on a 
heap of bricks, had a few sweet quiet collects together, till we 
were warned we must go to the boat. . . . Speaking of 
happiness, he said : Now till death my post must be one of care 
and unrest. To be the sharer of every one s sorrows, the com 
forter of every one s griefs, the strengthener of every one s weak 
ness to do this as much as in me lies is now my aim and object. 
He said this with a smile, and oh, the peace in his face ! it 
seemed as if nothing could shake it." 

Here another missionary joined the party, coming of 
the Rev. H. Rowley, the early chronicler of the H. Rowley. 
Mission. The two parties of the Sidon and Lyra were 
united again at the mouth of the Zambesi, and off the 
here they found Livingstone and his party, who Zamt 
were to escort them to their field of labour. But Living 
stone now objected to the plan of approaching Nyasa from 
the side of the Zambesi and Shire, partly owing to the 
difficulty of navigation, and partly to the absence of the 
friendly chief, Chibisa. The mouths of the Zambesi 
certainly form one of the most forbidding of ports. They 
make a low-lying delta, and the water of the Kongoni 
mouth, thought to be the best, is shallow, with a most 
dangerous bar. On the other hand, the Rovuma, which 
Livingstone was anxious to explore, flows 500 miles 
further north, and discharges a splendid volume of water 
by an unbarred mouth into a large and fairly sheltered 
bay. 

Naturally, but reluctantly, the Bishop yielded his judg 
ment to that of the great explorer ; and, leaving the mission 
party at Johanna, one of the Comoro Islands, he, with 



1 6 HISTORY OF r fHE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1861 



up the M r - Rowley, accompanied Livingstone up the 

Rovuma. R ovuma m t i lc Pi onecr ^ the little exploring 
steamer which our Government had just sent out to 
him. 

It was wasted time as far as the Mission was concerned. 
The Rovuma became so full of shoals, and the time of 
year (March) so late in the season, that, for fear of the 
water falling and stranding the party, they returned after 
only getting twenty-five miles up stream. The river was 
then thought to connect the ocean with Lake Nyasa, which 
was soon afterwards discovered to be a mistake. 

During this river voyage the Bishop worked as hard as 

any one in the navigation of the little steamer, and once 

narrowly escaped bein^; eaten by a crocodile. 

The Lip-ring. 

Here they first noticed the hideous lip-ring with 
which the native women disfigure their faces. The thick 
upper lip is pierced, and a block or ring of wood inserted, 
round which the lip grows out into a fair likeness of a 
snout. Without this adornment no woman, it was be 
lieved, could be attractive enough to win a husband. The 
humility, which causes them to be so dissatisfied with their 
personal appearance as to improve it so carefully, leads 
to a difficulty in speaking or eating, and to the impossi 
bility of kissing forming any part of courtship ! 

After picking up the party at Johanna, 

The Zambesi 

Voyage begun the Mission at length entered the Kongoni 
mouth of the Zambesi on May I, exactly four 
months after the Bishop s consecration. But it was not 
until July 8 that this river voyage ended, so that pa 
tience was still needed. The Bishop s sunny disposition 
helped much, as did the never-failing courage of Living 
stone. " He and the Bishop " writes Bishop Gray, " get 



iS6i] 



THE SHIRE HIGHLANDS. 



on famously together. The Bishop says they chaff each 
other all day like two school-boys." Dr. Kirk gave lessons 
in botany, that indispensable science for all pioneers, with 
the result that the Bishop made some progress ; whilst in 
graver moments we find him " steeping his mind " in such 




NATIVE BOATS 

ON THK 2AMI3EST. 



words as " perplexed, but not in. despair " ; " Lo, I am with 
you alway, even unto the end of the world." 

Sometimes the steamer took twenty-four clays to ad 
vance twelve miles. It burnt wood, and the wood had to 
be cut ; it stuck on a sandbank, and had to be pushed off. 
Those who worked it had fever, and so had most of the 

C 



1 8 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1861 



Mission party ; but, unfortunately, so lightly that it led 
them to despise the enemy, and to neglect the ordinary 
precautions which experience and prudence have since 
shown to be necessary if fever is to be warded off. 

It has often been remarked that in those far-distant 
lands, amid scenes where the Faith has never been preached, 
the differences of Christians sink into the shade, and their 
points of union arc hailed with joy. Thus Mackenzie 
writes : 

Services on " Livingstone and his party come to our ordinary 
services. We have on board Morning Prayer, and 
sermon on Sunday morning, and every morning and evening the 
reading of ten or twelve verses and a few of the collects. On 
Whit-Sunday I proposed having the Litany, and asked Living 
stone whether he thought it would weary the sailors. He said, 
No ; he always used it himself. We have always had it since. 
They all attend Holy Communion." 

And the Bishop showed himself willing to learn from 
one not of his communion : 

" I have been reading Moffat s missionary labours, and it has 
made me think more of the difficulties, not only of a practical 
outward kind, but still more of a spiritual kind. It has helped 
me also to remember that Cod is our help, and that we attempt 
nothing in our own name." 
Description of They followed the Zambesi for about eighty 

Zambesi. m ji cs f rom j ts m outh, finding it a magnificent 
stream a mile broad, muddy, but well stocked with fish, 
flowing through low banks clothed in loner crass, abounding 

o o o t> 

in birds of man)" sorts, while the hippopotamus and croco 
dile were seen everywhere. The former is sometimes used 
for food, and is eatable when quite young ; but the mature 
specimens they sometimes killed needed a good appetite 
and a strong digestion, 



i86i] 



THE SHIRE HIGHLANDS, 



The Pioneer now entered the Shire, a tribu- Ascending 
tary of the Zambesi on its north bank, about 
300 feet wide, and very clear. The country here grew 
more mountainous and much more beautiful ; the heights 
of Mounts Morambala (4,000 ft.), Clarendon (6,000 ft.), 




THE RIVER SHIRK. 



and Milanjc (8,000 ft.), came successively into view on 
the eastern side. The gentle tribes who peopled the 
country arc called, in these early accounts, Manganja a 
corruption of Ma-NVania or Lake-people, Nyasa Tho 

Manganja 

being but another form of the word. They were or Nyasas. 
mostly agricultural, living in small scattered villages, with 



20 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1861 
very little union among them. Mankokwe was 

Mankokwe. J 

at this time Rundo, or overlord of the land, 

but had little power. He received the Mission party 

graciously, but bade them depart in peace, and settle 
anywhere except in his village. 



the The Pioneer therefore went on to Chibisa s, a 
theNyasas. village about 140 miles up the Shire, beautifully 
situated upon the south-western bank of the river, which 
is here studded with lovely islands, while a magnificent 
mountain view lies to the north and east. Chibisa himself 
was a mysterious hero, said by his people to be a chief and 
son of a chief but by the Portuguese declared to be a 
slave. Possibly he was both ; anyhow, though not the 
Rundo, he was quite the strongest man, and the seer of the 
land. Though now dwelling on the Zambesi, near Tete, 
his aid was sought by the people for a hundred miles 
round. 

The Mission Here, then, at Chibisa s, the Mission first 

Chitons pl intcd its foot. And here, with Chibisa s as his 

Julys. parish, the Bishop left Mr. Rowley, with Adams, 

the carpenter, and Job, one of the Cape Town men, to build 

huts and receive stores. Dr. Livingstone went on with the 

Mission party to settle them in their new home on the 

Highlands; for, though the river was the only thoroughfare 

in the land, it was also the most unhealthy place for a 

permanent settlement. 

The With Livingstone went some of his Makololo 

Makoioio. f ii owcrS) a Bcchuana tribe in whom he had 
great and deserved confidence. Before going to England 
he had planted them at Tctc, ordering them to wait there 
for him, and on his return in two years there they were 
still waiting. 



i86i] THE SHIRE HIGHLANDS. 21 



And so, to conquer the land and subdue it for Monday 
Christ, this little procession set forth, the great June 15 
Doctor tramping along at the head, with the even, steady 
pace with which he had walked through Africa. The 
Makololo, Sena-men, and Chibisians followed, bearing the 
burdens, including forty days provisions ; lastly came the 
missionaries, headed by their Bishop, and, like the Jews of 
old under Xehemiah, " Every one with one of his hands 
wrought in the work, and with the other held a weapon." 
For, mindful that there was already war in the land, they 
were all armed. When the natives looked at the Bishop, 
and saw him carrying his gun in one hand, and Bishop Mac- 
his pastoral staff (the gift of the Cape clergy) March, 
in the other, they were more alarmed at the latter than 
at the former, whose properties they knew. 

Said one, " Mfuti ? " (a gun). 

" Aye Mfuti ikuru " (a great gun), said another. 

The Bishop writes : 

"I myself had in my left hand a loaded gun, in my right the 
crozier they gave me in Cape Town, in front a can of oil, and 
behind a bag of seeds, which I carried the greater part of the day. 
I thought of the contrast between my weapon and my staff, the 
one like Jacob, the other like Abraham, who armed his trained 
servants to rescue Lot. I thought of the seed which we must 
sow in the hearts of the people, and of the oil of the Spirit 
that must strengthen us in all we do." 

And so at length in Central Africa " the Sower went 
forth to sow His seed." 

At this point it is necessary to understand the state of 
the land at the time. Livingstone found it much changed 
since his former visit, and it is not wonderful that he did 



22 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1861 



not realize the causes of the change ; still less wonderful is 
it that the missionaries did not understand them. 

state Shortly put it was thus : The Matabele, of 

Nations e ^"liosc prowess we now know so much, had 

at this time, defeated a tribe in the far interior the Banyai 

and stolen or slain their women and children. The Banyai 

offered ivory to Portuguese slave dealers to supply them 

with wives. The Portuguese looking round to see where 

there was war, and consequently where there was a weaker 

party to be enslaved, discovered a part of the great Yao 

race, who lived, and still live, on the eastern side 

or Ijawa of Lake Nyasa, south of the Rovuma, and who 
were flying south before the incursions of the 
Mavia and other Makua tribes. This Yao race is in the 
Mission Journal always called Ajawa ; Livingstone had 
met some of them near Mount Zomba years before, and 
formed a bad opinion of them. Pressed south, they came 
to the country round Lake Shirwa, and, as there was plenty 
of land, they would have settled peaceably, but for the 
Manganja or Nyasa race, who fought with their weary 
(and perhaps thieving) guests, and sold them in crowds to 
the Portuguese. They were but too much used to being 
seized for slaves, for annually numbers of them were 
sold at Zanzibar. By degrees the Yao found themselves 
the stronger, and turned the tables on the Manganja, 
selling them to the Portuguese, instead of being sold 
themselves. Like most African tribes, the Yao were by 
turns enslavers and enslaved. 

It was at this juncture that the missionaries arrived, and 
only knew of the Yao as wicked marauders, helping on 
the thrice accursed slave trade. Had they realized that 
they were a stronger race pushed south, and compelled 



1 86 1] THE SHIRE HIGHLANDS. 23 

to make homes for themselves by the universal law of 
replenishing the earth and subduing it, they would have 
known that it was hopeless to engage in any struggle 
with them, unless they meant to interfere regu 
larly in native wars. This they had already Missionaries 

using Arms. 

resolved not to do. Bishop Gray, writing later 
on, says : 

" It is curious that the question of using arms was freely dis 
cussed in my house, and that the party the Bishop and 
Scudamore most especially maintained that it was unlawful 
under any circumstances, even in defence of their lives. Their 
line was patient suffering." 

This is the line universally adopted now in the Mission, 
but no one had calculated the effect of the actual sight 
of a slave gang (in a place where there were no British 
forces to call in) on men with loving hearts and strong 
hands. Dr. Livingstone felt more than justified in what 
he did. Most Englishmen, worthy of the name, and im 
perfectly understanding the state of things, would have 
done the same. But interference once begun, must be 
followed up. If patient suffering is to be effective, it must 
be consistent. " It must begin with non-intervention and 
end with non-intervention." Dr. Livingstone hoped one 
blow would be enough. It was not enough. After all, 
if the native policy of the Mission was a mistake, it was 
a mistake not unworthy of heroes. If we do not adopt 
their line, we can admire and follow their spirit. 

The party, now en route from Chibisa s, on the Shire 
to Chigunda s station (Magomero) on the Highlands, had 
reached Mbame s. The natives were sitting round their 
fires, while the Bishop and others had gone to bathe, when 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1861 



a string of slaves was seen descending into the 

First Rescue ... 

of slaves village, driven by slave dealers. Livingstone, 

at Mbamo s. , 

his brother, and Dr. Kirk went out to meet 
them. There they were, eighty-four helpless captives, 
their necks in slave-forks, bound with hard thongs of 
bark, men, women and children, on their way to Tete, 
to be sold into life-long captivity. Dr. Livingstone dis 
armed the six slavers and let them go ; while, with joy 

untold, the peo 
ple around cut 
the bonds and 
set the bewil 
dered slaves free. 
They stretched 
out their hands 
uncertainly, and 
gradually light 
dawned on them. 
They were free. 
Only the night 
before, one poor 
fellow had tried 
to loose his bonds, and, being discovered, was hung up to 
a tree for hours, by his wrists and ankles, till, all power 
of walking having failed him, he was taken aside, and an 
axe ended his torments. 

Bishop Mackenzie returned from his bath to find the 
slaves " clothed and cooking." No wonder his heart 
warmed, and he resolved to stand by Livingstone through 
good and evil report ; for it is true that, as Paley says : 

" Few ever will be found to attempt alterations, but men of 
more spirit than prudence, of more sincerity than caution, of 




A SLAVE GANG. 



iS6i] THE SHIRE HIGHLANDS. 



warm, eager and impetuous temper. If we are to wait for im 
provement till the cool, the calm, the discreet part of mankind 
begins it, I will venture to pronounce that (without His interpo 
sition with Whom nothing is impossible) we may remain as we 
are till the renovation of all things." 



Here was at once a nucleus of work for the party, and 
Dr. Livingstone gave all the captives to the Bishop, who, 
after offering them their choice of returning to their homes 
or staying with him, found that they had no homes left 
to which to return. The Bishop therefore had become 
at once father and head of a flock. 

They now marched on to Mairomcro, a village 

J & Magomero. 

belonging to the chief Chigunda. Hearing 
fearful accounts of the Yao cruelties, Livingstone marched 
out to try and induce them to retire to their own country, 
not knowing that they would have clone so only too gladly, 
but could not. Burning villages lighted the 
way to the Yao camp. It is difficult to say with the Yao, 
whether a Makololo or Yao fired the first shot ; 
but in a short time Livingstone drove off the Yao and 
burnt their huts. The Bishop took no active part in the 
battle, but his party lent their aid in this serious affray. 
It was now determined to settle at Ma- 

Hilf 

gomero, and here Livingstone left them. Chi- Magomero 

. , . bought forl. 

gunda said he was " dead already at the 
thought of these powerful English going away, and for the 
consideration of i he gave them half his village. It was 
as bad a situation as the Highlands afforded, being regu 
larly down in a hollow, and sixty miles from Chibisa s, 
whence all provisions must come. On the other hand, it 
was a strong situation, well watered, but not free from 



26 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1861 



fever. As an outpost, it might perhaps stay the advance 
of the Ajawa. 
ThoYaoWar ^ ne unfortunate fame of their former prowess 

(August). S p rea d f ar anc l wide, and a deputation of 
Nyasa chiefs prayed the Bishop to help them again. 
He, feeling pledged by the former action, and finding that 
families had really been carried off, agreed to help them, 
on a promise that they themselves would never buy or sell 
slaves again, and that any prisoners taken should go free. 

The Bishop, Mr. Waller, and Charles Thomas went 
boldly forward to the Yao army on an embassage of 
peace, and barely escaped being shot down. The combat 
then began ; the Nyasa people fought well under the guid 
ance of the English, and victory remained with them, a 
victory bloodless on their own side and nearly so on the 
enemy s side ; and the Yao fled, leaving their captives 
behind. 

To no one could the fight have been so dreadful as to 
the Bishop and his companions, Mr. Scudamore, Mr. Row 
ley, Mr. Waller, and Adams. But they had the happiness 
of re-uniting some of the captives to their families ; and 
out of this battle came some of the few visible fruits of 

Rescued tnc Magomero Mission. A little sick child, left 

cmidren. to s t arv e, was picked up on the way back, 
baptized by the name of Charles Henry, slept by the 
Bishop s side that night, and passed to rest in the morning 
the first-fruits of the Nyasa race. And as they walked 
back to Magomero, the Bishop himself carried a little girl 
named Daoma on his shoulder, " because she was such a 
little one." We shall hear of her again. 

And now came a very pleasant time at Magomero. The 
country quite close was at peace, slave traders came no 



1 86 1] THE SHIRE HIGHLANDS. 2* 



more, the missionaries built themselves huts and 

, , . Settlement 

encouraged their people to do the same and to at 

i i -T-i TI- 1 i r Magomero. 

plant gardens. The Bishop was very proud of 
having built himself the best hut, circular, nine feet in 
diameter and ten feet high in the middle, his Cambridge 
mathematical precision standing him in good stead ; but 
his satisfaction was alloyed when it was pointed out to 
him that he had forgotten to make a door ! 

The missionaries were busy learning the language, which 
is something like Kafir. Bearing in mind the false im 
pressions of God given by mission priests in China, who 
taught before they knew the language, they attempted no 
direct instruction, but such as arose out of daily 

_ . Teaching 

necessities. I H or instance, news was brought Natives 
that the Yao had burnt a certain village where 
the Bishop had once slept ; would the English come and 
help them ? Just as they were ready to start, the Bishop 
asked : 

" Where arc we to meet ? " 

" At the chief s village." 

" What village ? " 

" The village where you slept," said the Nyasa, falling 
into the trap. 

" Is it not burned, then ? " 

" No." 

" Did you lie when you said it was burned ? " 

The chief Nampeko, grinning, replied, " I did lie." 

"If a clog could do as you have done, I should kick it. 
I cannot speak to you any more to-day." Thus the 
Bishop taught them that a lie was displeasing to God. 

So once they found all their people busily shelling peas, 
which turned out to be stolen. When detected, some 



28 



HISTORY OF 7 HE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1861 



Teaching laughed, but some looked ashamed. Chigunda, 
3Sty the chief, begged them off from punishment, 
generously refusing to have the peas. The Bishop there 
fore paid the price in cloth, and gave the peas to the goats, 
warning them he would send away any one who so 
offended again. Another time three of their people robbed 
a Nyasa man of a handsome brass bangle. The Bishop 
offered them the sors tcrtia of the old Winchester rule a 
whipping which was gratefully accepted by two, while 
the third was sent away. However, in two clays he 
returned and begged fur his flogging, which he duly 
received. 

Daily Life at The clay s life followed a certain rule at 
9ro * Magomero. Rising at 6, there was a roll-call 
of natives at 6.30, which frightened them at first. The 
native breakfast was served in the open air, the boys 
arranged in circles, school-feast fashion, each having a 
literal " handful " of porridge. At / came matins, and at 
8 Mission breakfast of goat s flesh, yams or sweet pota 
toes, and Indian corn porridge, and a loaf, when it could 
be had, and tea or coffee with goat s milk. All then went 
to work, the natives having tasks assigned them when not 
engaged in their gardens. 

Mr. Scudamore drilled the boys, seventy-seven in number. 
They had a drum made of the skin of an elephant s ear, 
and they were taught to march in step and go through 
sundry exercises, ending with a plunge into a river at the 
word of command, by which they certainly learnt " Heaven s 
first Law " of order and obedience. Mr. Rowley undertook 
the purveying no small task, with two hundred to pro 
vide for. .He also taught singing with some success. Mr. 
Waller, assisted at first by Dr. Meller of the Expedition, 



1 86 1] THE SHIRE HIGHLANDS. 



acted as surgeon, and had in truth much practice on the 
terrible wounds of the slaves. He writes of the natives : 

" They bear pain so well little fellows submit to the cautery 
without wincing. One poor fellow had such a heel as I never 
saw. He was struck in it by accident with a fish spear ; the 
whole of the tendon is gone, and the bone decaying beneath. 
In this state he was driven some thirty miles by the slavers, and 
came back forty with us. He never complains." 

The Bishop and his companions took classes for reading 
and teaching as far as they were able. Dinner followed at 
I, with a rest. Then work from 3 to 5 ; tea at 6, and 
prayers about 7.30. On Sundays and Festivals Holy 
Communion was celebrated, and gradually they managed 
to set apart a room as a chapel. 

But a church was their great desire, and on 

A Church 

October I, the anniversary of the farewell ser- planned and 

begun Oct. 1. 

vice at Canterbury, Bishop Mackenzie solemnly 
set up the pillar of the hoped-for church, a good-sized tree, 
felled by Mr. Scudamore, calling it the <l first and corner 
post of the Church of St. Paul." That church was never 
to be built, in spite of the bright and hoi) hopes which 
clustered around its beginning. All but two or three of 
those who should have ministered and worshipped there 
were removed how soon ! to a " House not made with 
hands, eternal in the heavens." Yet some day, at no great 
distance of time, may be erected in that land of the Nyasas 
a church in honour of the great Missionary Apostle, and 
not without remembrance of the great Missionary Bishop. 



CHAPTER III. 

WAR, FAMINE, AND PESTILENCE. 

"Are all thine efforts fruitless, Tain, ill-spca, 
Futile and weak, as broken ends of thread ? 

I ~ea , even so ! 

Of broken, shells He makcth, so He wills, 
The everlasting marble of His hills." 

THE arrival of the first recruits in November caused 
great joy to the Mission. These were the Rev. II. 
The first Re- ^ c Wint Burrup, Dr. Dickenson, as medical 
omits (Nov.;. officer? and Ri c h ar d Clark, a tanner and shoe 
maker. Mrs. Burrup had been left at Bishop s Court, Cape 
Town, to follow later with Miss Mackenzie and Jessie 
Lennox, a servant devoted to the Mackenzies. Mr. Burrup 
arrived at Chibisa s, where Livingstone was anchored, in a 
marvellously short time, having pushed on alone with four 
natives, all the latter part of the way, in a small canoe. 
The Bishop, who had come down to see Livingstone, took 
him back to Magomero, and some fears were felt for the 
others who were behind with no quinine. 

"But," says Mr. Waller, "while chatting away at breakfast 
(November 29), we heard two guns fired, and a very few moments 
assured us of the coming of Dr. Dickenson and Clark. I was 
quickly across the river, when a hearty All right, sir, from 
Charles, and the sight of two new faces among a multitude of 
black men bearing burdens told me all our hopes and fears for 
their safety might now be cast to the winds, and my hurrah joined 
with the others that came across to welcome them." 

" For these and all His other mercies, but especially for this 
mercy, GOD S holy Name be praised, cried the Bishop." 

3 






I S6-] WAR, FAMINE, AND PESTILENCE. 3T 

For thus began that stream of successors, which, though 
sometimes a slender stream indeed, has, in God s good 
Providence, never ceased to flow from our land for the 
watering of our Master s heritage among the heathen. 

Warfare, meantime, had not ceased. The warfare 

xr 1 TVT 1 c. 1 4- maintained. 

Yao and Nyasa races were unceasingly fight 
ing for space to live in, and for slaves, and once the 
slavers attacked Mr. Procter and Mr. Scudamore, and 
nearly killed them, as they were peacefully trying to 
open a path from Magomero to where the Ruo joins the 
Shire. 

War brought famine in its train. With the ^"J^ 6 
enemy in their land, many people had neglected Hl s hlands - 
to plant and sow. They were now running short of pro 
visions, and in a short expedition made by the Bishop and 
Mr. Scudamore to punish the village which had attacked 
their friends, they found starving people. Starvation was 
beginning to bring on fever, to which all the Mission party 
fell victims in their turn ; on January 3, 1862, 
the Bishop and Mr. Burrup started on their last The Bishop s 

, last Journey. 

journey. They went to meet, as they hoped, the 
Pioneer, with the ladies of the party, and the stores which 
were badly needed, the rendezvous being the Isle of Malo, 
at the confluence of the Shire, and its eastern tributary, 
the Ruo, now the boundary of the Nyasaland Protectorate. 
What followed must be given chiefly in the Bishop s own 
words : 

"January 3, 1862. This is the first time I have written in the 
name of this year. May it be to us and to you a year of greater 
grace and blessing than the last, and so may we abound more 
and more unto the coming of our Lord and Saviour. How 
curious saying this to you, and probably the year will be far gone 



32 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES] MISSION. [1862 

before you read it ! But you are saying the same things, and 
God hears the prayers of both, and will shower down on each 
the showers of His blessing in answer to the distant prayer, just 
as the rain rises from the distant ocean, and falls on the thirsty 
ground where He has appointed it. ..." 
Atchibisa s, "January 8. On Thursday, January 2, I got to 
Jan. a. Magomero. . . . We started next day. We have 
established the custom of having a few prayers at our church 
before starting, and after return of any of our party on a journey. 
So we had prayers for those that remained and for those who 
were going, and we set off. It rained heavily, and we had hard 
work to get the Makololo into motion ; from that till this morn 
ing we have had almost incessant rain. . . . We have seen the 
sun to-day, and this is a very beautiful place : a village perched 
on the top of a cliff overlooking the stream, which is now swollen 
much, and commanding a view of the valley of the Shire, or at 
least its lowest level, extending four or five miles to the eastern 
hills. The valley itself, in a freer sense, stretches many a mile 
behind us to the west, fine fertile land, studded with shrubs and 
trees, and apparently fit for any cultivation. I suppose, however, 
it is not so healthy as the higher lands. 

"The men of this village are old friends, most of them, and 
all looks bright. I have been having many a laugh with them 
already. Thus it is that God gives us bright spots in our lives 
at the darkest, and how often bright tracts stretching over much 
of it ! 

" January 9. I read Burrup this morning the Kebk for xxvth 
Sunday after Trinity. I do so admire the last verses. 1 



1 " The promise of the morrow 

Is glorious on that eve, 
Dear as the holy sorrow 

When good men cease to live ; 
When, brightening ere it die away, 

Mounts up their altar flame, 
Still tending with intenser ray 

Toward heaven whence first it camo. 



1 862] WAR, FAMINE, AND PESTILENCE. 33 

"Monday, January 13. Our suspense is at an end. AttheMouth 
We got here, the Ruo mouth, on Saturday, to learn oftheRuo, 
that Livingstone had passed down not many days be 
fore. This, though .... involving our staying here a good while, 
seemed good news to me, inasmuch as we have not detained him 
by arriving ten days after the time. We had, on the whole, a 
prosperous journey down. The chief at Chibisa s undertook to 
send us down to a chief, Turuma, where we should be likely to 
get a larger boat. . . . Accordingly on Thursday we set off 
at three, and got to Turuma s in half an hour. It was delicious, 
the floating down that broad, green-banked river. The uncer 
tainty as to the length of the voyage gave it a dreaminess, like 
some parts of Southey s Thalaba. But, like Thalaba, our difficul 
ties were not at an end. Turuma refused to see us, and declined 
to hire his boat to us. ... Just then two of the Makololo, 
Zomba and Siseho, joined us, having walked down the bank. 
These (with Charlie) undertook to go down with us. So off we 
started, wondering at the way God was leading us. ... Next 
morning we set off early. Burrup was far from well. . . . 
At night we drew to the shore. By this time the mosquitoes 
were very troublesome. One of the men said, We are going 
on. It was better, they thought, to work by moonlight than to 
be eaten up by insects. After half an hour we found ourselves 
stranded on the flooded bank. . . . 

" In a few minutes Zomba, the bowman, gave the Fatal Upset 
signal for a start, and off we were again in silence, canoeand LOSS 
This time we were sooner in coming to grief. A of Quinine, 
sudden turn, which our bowman did not see in time, landed us 



" Say not it dies, that glory, 

Tis caught unquenched on high ; 
Those saint-like brows so hoary 

Shall wear it in the sky. 
No smile is like the smile of death, 

When, all good musings past, 
Rises wafted with the parting breath, 

The sweetest thought the last." 



34 7/AV7VMT OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1862 



again on a point where the stream parted in two ; the two men 
in the stern jumped out, up to their middle ; I followed imme 
diately, JJurrup after me. But in vain ; the canoe continued to 
fill, and we began to pull out our things . . . till we could get 
the canoe raised and baled out. Then the things were put in 
again, all soaking, and we wet up to our middles. . . . We 
were thankful our losses had been no worse, though it was not till 
next day we remembered that all our medicine was gone, and 
our spare powder. Fortunately the night was far from cold, or 
we might have taken harm ; as it is, Burrup is none the better 
for it. I think I have escaped any ill consequences. . . 

At "In the meantime we have been led to a very nice 

Chikanza s. v j]] a g Ci yv benign, oldish chief, Chilean/a, with a large 
population, occupying, I should think, about a hundred huts, will 
ing that we should remain here. ... I have my hopes that our 
being here in this way may be intended to prepare the village for 
being one of the stations to be worked by our Mission steamer 
(the University boat), for which I hope to write by this mail. 

"So matters stand at present. Burrup is very low, and we 
have no medicine. Quinine, which we ought to be taking every 
day, there is none. I Jut Me who brought us here can take care 
of us without human means. If we should be down at once, 
Charlie will take care of us. The texts in Greek which we have 
learned day by day lately have been Romans ii. 29; iii. 21-23; 
vi. 23; vii. 24, 25; viii. 38, 39; x. 13-15. . . . Good-bye 
for the present." 

Such was his farewell to earth, and bad he known that it 
was such, be could not have chosen more touching texts 
than the last two, one of quiet confidence for himself, the 
other of hope for the Mission. 1 One more letter, dated on 
the 1 6th, speaks of his plans for i Mission steamer, such as 
now plies on Lake Nyasa among a kindred race, and such 



1 " For I am persuaded that neither death, nor life, nor principali 
ties," etc. ; and, " How beautiful are the feet," etc, 






1862] 



WAR, FAMINE, AND PESTILENCE. 



35 



a one as may yet visit the stations on the Shire he loved so 
well. 

We know little of the last fortnight. The 

Illness of the 

Bishop soon fell ill, for want of the lost quinine. Bis g u p r ^ d Mr - 

Mr. Burrup was too ill then to help him much, 

and far too weak after 

wards to give much 

account of the Bishop s 

last days. He was 

mostly unconscious, or 

else speaking wandering 

words of being safe at 

Magomero with his sis 

ters, for whom his loving 

heart had so longed. 

The . last words he is 

known to have spoken 

were to tell the faithful 

Makololo that, " Jesus 

was coming to fetch 

him away." For the 

last week he was quite 

unconscious, and in this 

state, on the morning of 

January 31, Mr. Burrup 

had the grief of carrying 

the dying Bishop out to die in another hut, which was of 

less importance to the chief Chikanza. The 

natives believe the spirit haunts the place where 

it leaves the body, and shut up a hut for three **" 31- 

years after a death. The Bishop s spirit passed away at 

5 p.m., and the same night, weak as he was, Mr. Burrup 




IUS1IOP MACKENZIE S flKAYK. 
( />>;// a pliotograpli taken in 1891.) 



Death of the 
fi a r r y " 



36 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1862 



(aided by the Makololo) was compelled to bury 
him. 

The Grave by A grave was dug on the left bank of the 
the shire. ^j^ un( i er a ] ar g e acacia tree, and in the dark 
ness of night Mr. Burrup said as much as he could recollect 
of the Burial Service. And thus was laid to rest the first 
English missionary Bishop of modern times, and the first 
Bishop of the Universities Mission, after just one year s 
work in the country which he believed GOD had given him 
for an heritage. The possession of a burying place was 
all he was to have ; yet that burying place has surely been 
the lode-star of mission effort. That apparently lost 
battle, fought by the brave little advanced piquet, has 
stirred up more "to follow in their train" than any other 
story of mission life. 

Mr. Burrup at once returned with the sorrow- 
Death of 

M F b U ?? up> ^ nexvs t Magomero, and in three weeks time 
he too had succumbed, and is buried at Mago 
mero. He might have been saved had his friends been 
able to give him the stimulant and nourishing food he 
needed, but which he unmurmuringly went without. 
MISS Mackenzie Meantime, Captain Wilson, of 1 1. M.S. Gorgon, 
Burfu d pet s urn Brought Miss Mackenzie and Mrs. Burrup as 

to the cape. far as C hibisa s, before they heard the sad 
news, which the natives at Malo had concealed in fear of 
being held responsible. Since their dear ones now needed 
them no more, it was decided that they should at once 
return with Captain Wilson to the Cape, Miss Macken 
zie being too ill with fever to realize all that had befallen 
them. But though she was not to clo the work so sorely 
needed for the native women, Anne Mackenzie went 
home from the grave of her brother to work for Missions 



1 862] WAR, FAMINE, AND PESTILENCE. 37 

as faithfully in England as others were doing in Africa. 
Not only as the founder of the Mackenzie Memorial 
Mission in Zululand, but as the " Providence " of many 
another Mission, for whose needs she collected, and with 
whose workers she kept up a cheering correspondence 
the name of Anne Mackenzie was a household word for 
fifteen more years. 

Captain Wilson set up a simple cross, to mark 

. , The Cross. 

the Bishops grave, of materials at hand the 
upright being a thick reed or pole, five feet high, with a 
bit of board nailed across, and the staves of a barrel 
heaped up round the base. 

The Bishop had left a memorandum at Ma- TheRev L j 
gomero providing that the senior priest, or ^ead ofTS 68 
failing a priest, the senior deacon, or, failing him, Mission. 
the senior layman, should take temporary charge of the 
Mission ; and thus Mr. Procter became head of a singularly 
united band of fellow-workers. The Bishop also ordered 
several books to be sent home to his family ; among these 
his Consecration Bible, in which each of his consecrators 
had, at his request, written a text. This Bible, with the 
watch which stopped at the fatal immersion in The Relics at 
the river, are now in the museum in the crypt Canterbur y- 
of St. Augustine s College at Canterbury, that sacred spot 
whence the Mission had set forth. 

Three sore evils had now fallen on the Shire Highlands: 
War, for the Yao were steadily moving on with the cer 
tain advance of a strong nation ; Famine, the result of 
drought and of war, for not only did the wretched natives 
try to live on the unripe corn and fruits, but by various 
misunderstandings the Mission stores failed to reach them ; 
and, as a sure consequence, Pestilence was slaying its 



38 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1862 

thousands. The Mission therefore decided to 

The Mission , r ,. _. T , 

leaves Mage- leave Magomero and the grave ot Mr. JhJurrup, 
chiinsa s. and, taking with them (of the released slaves) 
all the children, and such of the grown people 
as wished to come, they marched, in April, to Chibisa s. 
Here, finding that Dr. Livingstone s Makololo followers 
who for some fault had been dismissed by him with 
only guns in their hands had established themselves and 
grown rich by marauding, the Mission separated them 
selves, and built a village on the opposite bank, only 
fifty feet above the stream. 

Here a small rough church of reeds was 
complete erected, with a gable end and a little porch. 

Church. 

Two boxes, one on the other, covered with red 
velvet, formed the altar. The floor was covered with reecl 
mats, and the seats were their store boxes. Clark, the 
shoemaker, writes : 

" It beiim my province to superintend our men in 

Clivk s T ptfHt* 

their work, the honour fell on me of building this, 
the first pkice devoted to the worship of God, in this part of 
Great Africa. My prayer is, that this may not be the last by 
many built in this land for the same great object, but I hope 
they may be more worthy of being styled churches than the 
present. The structure was begun and finished in five days. I 
must tell you that we have no church bell, and that the substi 
tute fur one is a native drum." 

These words should be remembered now that many 
churches, all better than Clark s poor effort, are already 
dedicated in Central Africa ; and still more should they 
be remembered, when in the future far more splendid 
buildings may take the place of these ; for surely none 



i863 : WAR, FAMINE, AND PESTILENCE. 39 



will be more worthy than the church where these devoted 
men worshipped God in their clay of sore trial : 

" Nor here the faithful eye can fail 

The brightening view to catch, 
That opened from that structure frail 

Of wicker work and thatch. 
For dear is e en the first rude art 

That Holy Faith inspires : 
The whole is augured from the part, 

Achievements from desires." 

Good work was done here among their reduced num 
ber about fifty of their people having died before from 
famine and disease. But the neighbourhood of the 
marauding Makololo, who were identified with the English, 
caused difficulties. These people were afterwards sternly 
rebuked by Livingstone, and have since grown into a great 
tribe, very friendly to the English. 

Before the end of the year, the people of the Famine 
land were living on roots. From this time the increases - 
Mission records are a heart-rending account of endeavours 
to supply even their own people with sufficient food. 
" Wild-looking men, worn almost to skeletons, and with 
cords tied round their waists to lessen the pangs of 
hunger, roamed about, grubbing up roots, until, unable to 
go on any longer, they sank down and died." Before 
January half the inhabitants of the Shire Valley ISGS. 
had died of starvation. The missionaries undertook long 
journeys to get food, and their own sufferings were great. 

Mr. Scuclamore fell ill. 

"He was admirably fitted for his work," writes 
Bishop Harvey Goodwin, of Carlisle, " cheerful, un- H. c. scucia- 

, c , 11 i i more, Jan. 1. 

selnsn, well-judging, and appears to have been 

specially dear to Bishop Mackenzie, and in many respects not 

unlike him. No doubt the fever took hold on a constitution 



40 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1863 



injured by unsuitable food. He became delirious, and on New 
Year s Day he passed away, murmuring, There remaineth a 
rest. " 

Mr. Rowley writes : 

"The Southern Cross was shining brightly over the hut in 
which he lay, and though my heart was sorrowful, I thought of 
the Cross of Calvary and was comforted." 

Another grave was dug by the Shire, and the natives 
mourned for their friend. He had mastered the language 
sooner than any of the party. 
The cape Men Earl Y in 1863, soon after a cheering visit 

go back. f rom Mr Thornton, the geologist, the Cape 
men, Charles, William, and Job, returned to Cape Town. 
They were not now needed as interpreters, and it was 
thought advisable that they should go back to South 
Africa. 

Alas ! another of the Mission band was to be 

Death of Dr. 

^March? 11 taken. Brave and hard-working Dr. Dicken- 
son, to whom almost every member of the 
Mission owed his life, succumbed in March. Mr. Procter 
prayed with him, and he followed every word, saying, 
almost with his latest breath, " LORD Jesus, have mercy 
on me, a sinner." He was laid beside Mr. Scudamore. 

" They were lovely and pleasant in their lives, and in their 
death they were not divided." 

ciark returns Immediately after this, Dr. Livingstone and 

to England. Dr K j rk pajd them a yisitj and sayed the life of 

Clark, the church builder, who, however, had to go back 
to England, but only to return to the Cape Colony, where 
he was ordained in 1875. 

The Mission party now wrote word to the Metropolitan 



1863] WAR, FAMINE, AND PESTILENCE. 4! 



that if help and fresh stores, especially of animal food, did 
not reach them by June 15, they should feel compelled 
to abandon the country. By that time, however, things 
looked brighter ; the native corn had grown, peace was 
restored, and, better than all, the new Bishop, 

. . , , . Arrival of the 

Dr. 1 ozer, with three clergy and three artisans, second Bishop, 
was on his way. Before the end of June he 
arrived, and after much consultation, decided on removing 
the Mission to Mount Morambala, sending Mr. Procter, 
\vho had quite broken down, at once to Eng- Removal of 
land. Mr. Rowley was also obliged, by fever, 



return with him. Dr. Livingstone still clung Au s- 7 - 
to his belief in the Shire highlands, and no doubt he was 
so far right, as that Morambala could never become a base 
of operations. 

But when the time came for Mr. Waller to 
leave the Shire, he could not bring himself to Mr. waller and 
abandon the people who had trusted to the 
Mission. To take them all to Morambala was impos 
sible. So he did a brave and wise thing. Me sent to 
the dreaded Yao chief, Kapene, who now possessed all 
the highlands, and said, " Come clown and speak to us." 
Kapene came, with his fifty mighty men well armed. Mr. 
Waller told him why they had interfered with his people, 
and explained how terribly the slave trade hurt all the 
African races. Then he asked Kapene to protect the 
people left behind by the Mission, and who wished to 
become his villagers. Kapene said they should be as his 
own children, and that as long as he could protect himself 
he would protect them. And he kept his word. 

Finally Mr. Waller, on his sole responsibility orphans 
(for Bishop Tozer could not undertake it), cape Town. 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



[1863 



brought clown the few helpless people and orphans who 
had none to care for them to the foot of Morambala, and 
at length brought about twenty boys and one girl to Cape 

Town, placing the boys in 
the families of Mr. Light- 
foot s coloured congrega 
tion, who adopted them 
with that great and unsel 
fish generosity which is one 
feature of the African cha 
racter. 




Anne Daoma. 



The girl was 



Daoma, the 
one whom Bishop 



KI-1V. HUKACK WALL 
(I< ) 0iii a Photograph by Messrs. Mauli cr l i ojc. ) 



little 

Mackenzie had carried on 
his shoulder. She was re 
ceived by Miss Arthur, at 
St. George s Orphanage, 
and was baptized in the 

cathedral by the name Anne Rebecca. Never was a good 
deed better rewarded. Anne Daoma gre\v up a dear, 
good, gentle girl. Some years later, when Miss Arthur 
opened a Mission Day School for the very poor children 
around her, Anne was at once made infant schoolmistress. 
When Miss Arthur fell into ill-health, and had a difficulty 
in getting English helpers, she wrote warmly of Anne as 
one of her best assistants. Anne is now mistress of the 
Mission School, and lives at the Orphanage, the only home- 
she can remember. 

" If only one soul were won for Christ, our 

Fruits of the 

Miss ion on the labour would be amply repaid. How often we 

Zambesi. . 

near such words eit meetings and in sermons ! 



1863] WAR, FAMINE, AND PESTILENCE. 43 

If they mean anything, this, as far as we can judge, is one 
tangible result of the Mission, besides the twenty other 
children, and the roll in Paradise of infants and others 
baptized at the point of death. And we have for ever the 
blessed memory of all that patient suffering, and of the 
holy lives and deaths of the missionaries, whose graves 
are the goal whither the Nyasa Mission is now tending. 

One more practical result cannot be over- 
Lessons of 

stated. By an experience bitter beyond all 
possible expectation, the Mission had learnt the 
lesson that carelessness of life, and of the precautions for 
preserving health, is not wise for this world or the next ; 
that none, however strong, can afford to play with a tropical 
climate ; that certain rules of health can and must be 
kept ; and that to remain needlessly in a hotbed of fever, 
slighting the proper remedies, is not trusting, but tempting, 
Providence. These first missionaries had the bitter lesson 
to learn. To some extent they could not foresee these 
dangers, and did not know the precautions. But now that 
the lesson has been scored deeply on that page of Church 
history, those who neglect its warnings will die, not as 
martyrs, as Mackenzie, Burrup, Scudamore, and Dickenson 
did (the Church ever reckoning as such those who die for 
love, if they do not die for faith), but, in the words of Dr. 
Neale, as a very different character, described at some 
length in the Book of Proverbs. 



PART II. 

THE SEED GROWING SECRETLY. 



CHAPTER IV. 

NEW GROUND, 1863-70. 




THE second 
Bishop ot the 

Universities Mission was the 
Rev. William George Tozer, 

of St. John s Col- 
Bishop Tozcr. r , 

lege, Oxford, and 
Vicar of Burgh-cum-Win- 
thorpe, Lincolnshire, " a man," 
wrote his friend and colleague, 
Dr. Steere, " who shrinks from 
nothing and succeeds in every 
thing." 

Bishop Gray had hurried to England partly to consult 
the Home Committee about a successor to Mackenzie. The 
choice, entrusted entirely to the Metropolitan and the 
Bishop of Oxford (Wilberforce), fell on Mr. Tozer. Imme 
diately his friends, the Rev. Edward Steere, LL.D., Vicar 




1863] NEW GROUND, 1863-70. 45 



of Little Steeping, and the Rev. Charles Argen- Andhis 
tine Alington, volunteered to go out with him. Friends - 
Some mechanics, one of whom came from Burgh, and Mr. 
Drayton, from St. Augustine s, Canterbury, made up the 
party. 

The Consecration took place in Westmin- 

Tlift 

ster Abbey, on the Feast of the Purification, consecration, 
1863, when Bishop Tozer and the first Bishop 
for the Orange Free State were consecrated by the Arch 
bishop (Longley), the Metropolitan of South Africa, and 
the Bishops of Oxford, Lincoln, and Montreal. There was 
some difficulty about the oath of canonical obedience, 
which, it was feared, must, by the Jerusalem Act, be made 
to the Archbishop, and not to their own Metropolitan. 
Bishop Gray writes : 

" The Archbishop most anxious to do as I wished, but timid 
about the law. ... I did not know till I came back from 
preaching for the Zambesi in the city, at ten o clock at night, that 
all would be right. If I had not been very firm, we should have 
had two jurisdictions, and, as far as we could make it, two 
Churches." 

Consequently Bishop Tozer took the oath as a suffragan 
of the See of Cape Town. But a foreshadowing of the 
removal of the Mission was already to be noticed. The 
Bishop of Lincoln (Jackson), preaching at King s College, 
Cambridge, said : 

"It will be for him who now leads the Mission to watch 
patiently and wisely the indications of the Divine Will, and either 
to live and die in persevering and hopeful, even though they may 
long seem thankless, labours ; or, with a courage greater perhaps 
than would be demanded by martyrdom, to withdraw from a post 



46 If/STORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION, [1863 

no longer tenable for God, and to turn elsewhere the peaceful 
invasion of the gospel." 

And full authority was given to the Bishop to judge for 
himself. 

Thus it was that when the Bishop reached the Zambesi 
and saw the state of things mentioned in the last chapter, 
he did not hesitate to accept that harder lot than martyr 
dom a decision, against all popular applause, to remove 
the Mission altogether to some place which, if not healthier, 
should at least be more central, where food should be 
readily attainable, where the good seed might be sown 
and reared, and whence by another route the Great Lake 
might be reached and his title vindicated " Bishop of the 
tribes dwell ing in the neighbourhood of Lake Nyasa and 
River Shire. 11 

The Morambala Settlement, mentioned in the last 

chapter, was but a temporary expedient, and it was now 

zuiuiandor ^ c ^ ln lt tne best basis for work in Central 

propo n s z ed a ls Africa would be either Zululand or the island 

of Zanzibar. To the former there were almost 

insuperable objections. It was quite too much cut off to 

Zanzibar form the key to the position, and Zanzibar was 

chosen decided on. 

Looking back, we sec the great sagacity of this move, and 

wonder, as the Spaniards did of America, that no one had 

found it out before. But then every friend of 

Difficulties 

attending this the early Mission was dead against it. Leavin^ 

Course. 

their people and the well-loved graves was a 
wrench, and Dr. Livingstone spoke strongly for the Shire 
Highlands ; while many at home took the same view, and 
the Mission had to run the gauntlet of disapproval almost 



1864] NEW GROUND, 1863-70. 47 



all round. The London Committee approved, however, as 
also did the Metropolitan of Capetown, and the move was to 
be made. It was part of the old Keltic and Saxon puzzle 
over again. The Kelts worked in the desert and drew 
men after them. The Roman missionaries and the Saxons, 
when taught by them, chose the cities of men, and utilized 
civilization for the spread of the gospel. 

One task the Bishop undertook before his 

. Bishop Tozsr 

departure, one link of the past with the present, consecrates 

Mackenzie s 

and that was a visit to the lonely grave of his Grave, 
predecessor. With some difficult) they found 
the grave, the undergrowth having hidden it from view. 
The rough cross was still standing, and Mr. Alington made 
a sketch of the place, while the Bishop cleared the under 
growth and enclosed the grave. And then came a touch 
ing service of consecration. The ground, already hallowed 
by the body of God s faithful servant, received the Church s 
blessing. Then, standing round that grave in the wilder 
ness, they sang " Nearer, my (rod, to Thee." A more per 
manent cross has since been erected by Dr. Livingstone. 
Bishop Tozcr and Dr. Stccrc landed in Zan- 

i ~ Aug. 31. 

zibar on August 31, and stayed at first with Landing at 

f ^ r . Zanzibar. 

Lolonel 1 laytair at the Knglish Consulate. 

This island, 1 which is twice as lare as the Isle of 






Wight, lies about twenty miles from the coast Description of 
of Africa, which is visible from Zanzibar. The Zanzibar - 
interior is almost entirely given up to clove plantations, 
requiring immense care and watching, and worked by slave 
labour. On a sandy peninsula on the western coast stands 



1 This description of Zanzibar is true of the town as it was at the 
date of Bishop JTozer s arrival. 



48 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1864 

the city. Towards the sea there is a front of large white 
detached houses, the consulates and the Sultan s palace. 
Further in the houses are muddled together anyhow, with 
no streets ; only, as ever)- one must stand his scaffolding 
on his own land when he builds a house, they don t quite 
touch. Six feet is quite a respectable width for a lane 
in Zanzibar, and none are practicable for anything on 
wheels. 

There were then two great open spaces the Great 
Market, a square with a few stump}- towers, where a fruit 
market is held for three hours every morning, all the fruit 
coming in baskets on women s heads. The other space 
was the great open Slave Market. The little humped cows 
of Zanzibar, and even the bulls, run loose about the town in 
search of green food, and are very tame. This is the land 
of eternal summer, the sun rising always between twenty 
minutes to six and twenty minutes past six, and the aver 
age heat is 80 in the house. North winds prevail from 
December to March, south winds from June to October. 
Between these times the wind is uncertain, and rain falls. 

It is extraordinary that a place of such political impor 
tance was practically unknown at this time to Europeans. 
Its trade was kept as a secret in the hands of a few 
American and German merchants, and it is to Bishop 
Tozer and his party that the credit is due of opening up 
what they were the first to see was the heart of Africa. 
The sultan s ^ ne Arab Sultan of Zanzibar then ruled not 
only over the island, but held a protectorate 
over the whole coast from Guardafui to Delgado. There 
is literally no other town worth the name in all that 2,000 
miles of coast. The Sultan s power reached as far into 
the interior as Lake Tanganyika, and his governor was 



1864] NEW GROUND, 1863-70. 49 



placed at Ujiji, the great market of the lake region of 
Central Africa. 

One very important consequence of this is swahm 
that with the Zanzibar tongue one can travel Lan s ua s e - 
anywhere in Eastern Equatorial Africa. This language 
is called Swahili, and is one branch of the great African 
or Bantu language, spoken in some form all down the 
Eastern half of Central and Southern Africa. Kafir and 
Zulu are well-known examples of Bantu ; but with the 
African tongue Swahili has incorporated a large number 
of Arabic terms. It is the French of the Dark Continent. 
As an example of how far Swahili will carry the coast 
Arabs, we are told of a trader who started with merchan 
dise from Zanzibar, taking his wife with him. After they 
had left the capital their son was born ; when they reached 
the far-off land in the interior for which they were bound, 
the child could run alone, and by the time the parents 
returned he was twelve years old. 

It will now be seen what were Bishop Tozer s motives in 
settling in the capital of East Africa, amid Arabs who are 
to the modern missionary what the Romans were to our 
forefathers the great markers out of roads and openers 
up of commerce, and, moreover, the rulers who can always 
make their power more or less felt, and whose language is 
common to all tribes. 

The father of the Sultan, whom Bishop Tozer 

Different 
found there, had come from Muscat, and partly Nationalities 

7 on the Island. 

inherited, partly conquered, the coast. The 
grandees are all Arab, but the merchants, great and small,. 
are Indian, and, like the Arabs, Mohammedan ; or else 
they are heathen Banyans. But among the lower orders 
are representatives of every African, and many Asiatic 

E 



50 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1865 

races. The population is estimated at from 150,000 to 
200,000 souls. 

centre of slave Another point of great importance was that 
it was the centre of the slave trade. As many 
captives as were not sold in the interior (for the slave- 
producing tribes arc also slave-holders) were brought here 
year by year, some publicly sold in the market, but more, 
having paid duty like any other freight, were shipped off 
to Arabia. 

From the moment of landing in Zanzibar, the Bishop 
determined on that work among native boys, with a view 
to a native ministry, of which his predecessor had dreamt, 
and which has proved such an important part of the 
work ever since. The Sultan Majid arranged for them 
to have a lanje house close to the sea, called 

The old Mission . 

House at Shangani, which had been used for British 

Shangani. 

naval stores, and from which they could watch 
the ships coming in and out He also presented them 
"with five boys taken out of an illicit slave dhow, i.e., one 
which had paid no duty. With these five boys the build 
ing up of the Church in Zanzibar began. 

For the first service of the Mission, in this 

Sept. 4. . 

new foundation, a temporary altar was erected 
in the corridor of the Consulate, and the Bishop preached 
tjn the text, " How shall we sing the Lord s song in a 
strange land ? " The day after the removal to 
Shaiigani, a permanent chapel was opened in 
the Mission House. 

lees. The stor y f tne next set f ky s gi vcn ky 

Canute 1 of a ln<J Bishop must be told more at length, Far 

siave Dhow. away j n ] anc j a wre tched troop of slaves had 

been caught and brought to the coast, and there packed 



i cj. > 

Sept. 18. 



1S6 5 ] 



NE 



1863-70. 



in an Arab dhow between decks. In a space two feet 
high, in heat unimaginable, were literally packed like 
herrings 300 human beings, fifty of whom were children. 
The dhow, after sheltering at Zanzibar, started off for 




AN ARAB SLAVE DIIOW. 

Arabia, when the wretched slaves heard shots fired, one 01 
which came among them and wounded a little girl. For 
about ten minutes a desperate battle was fought, and then 
the Arabs left the ship and swam to land ; the fresh air 
was let in, and the wretched slaves, who had only un- 



52 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1865 



cooked rice to eat, and who were wasted to skeletons, 
were put on board a British man-9f-war, and liberated. 

The Mission At this moment Miss Tozer and Miss Annie 
children. j ones> t j ie fi rst j a( ji es w ho ever readied the 
Mission, arrived, and five of the boys and nine of the girls 
were presented to them and the Bishop an Ascension 
Day gift. There were now twenty-three children under 
the care of the Mission. 

Aug 24 On St. Bartholomew s Day the first public 

First Baptisms, baptism took place. " The Bishop," writes Miss 
Tozer, " is at his pleasant work of making a font for to 
morrow s delightful service. The font is a large new metal 
basin, set in a box draped in white and covered with 
flowers. This stands on a pedestal covered with a scarlet 
cloth, gold-bordered." Nine boys, i.e. all but the new 
arrivals, were baptized, behaving with great reverence. 
And this day, the festival of St. Bartholomew, has been 
kept ever since as the Mission anniversary. Among these 
nine boys were the first five : John Swedi, a Gindo ; Robert 
Feruzi, a Nyasa ; George Farajallah, Arthur Songolo, and 
Francis Mabruki, all Yaos. It is interesting to think of 
those five children at one end of the work, and of the 
hundreds of children and the hundred and sixteen native 
teachers after thirty years. 

subsequent * n tnree years time the four elders were con- 
Hi fi; r e y Bo f ysf Se firmed; and their subsequent history is a sort 

Tarajaiiah, f type of all mission work. John Swedi and 

son^oio, George Farajallah gave themselves to the min- 

ruk1 istry on February 2, 1870, and were ordained 

sub-deacons. John, who is now a deacon, has worked on 

steadily for a quarter of a century, while George was called 

to his rest in a few weeks, reminding us of the lot of the 



1869] NEW GROUND, 1863-70. 53 



brother apostles, St. James and St. John. Robert Feruzi, 
named after Bishop Gray, became a noted caravan leader, 
and was one of Stanley s most trusted followers in the great 
journey from Zanzibar to the mouth of the Congo. When 
at home, he and his wife live in Zanzibar. Arthur Songolo 
was a sweet singer in the choir, and died young. While, 
alas ! Francis Mabruki, who became a sub-deacon and 
worked well for some years, fell away, and left the Mis 
sion ; for where is the field of the Church in which the 
enemy does not sow tares among the wheat ? 

Bishop Tozer had once been a student at 
Wells Theological College, and in memorv of Purchasing of 

Wells-Tozer 

this an effort resulting in the W T ells-Tozer Fund Estate and 

Mission Pro- 
Was made by old and new Wells men, with pertyin 

Zanzibar. 

which the Bishop bought an estate two miles 
out of town, where now stands the Kiungani College, 
originally Kiinua Mguu, dedicated to St. Andrew. Thus 
the first gift for training a native ministry came from those 
who had themselves had that blessing. The plots next 
the Mission House in town also were bought, but the 
Mission House itself was not bought till 1868. The boys 
were placed here, and the girls at the Shamba, under 
charge of Miss Jones and Miss Pakenham, in 1868 ; but for 
some time there were changes, puzzling to English friends. 

The first lady to break down was Miss Tozer, 1866 
who had been the life of the Mission House, 
and she returned to England in 1866, the Bishop 
having preceded her on account of ill-health. 

In April, 1869, Miss Jones became very ill, and Miss 
Pakenham felt the solitude so much that the Bishop 
changed houses with her, the forty-one boys, to their 
great satisfaction, going into the country with the Bishop, 



54 ///STOAT OF THE UNITE KSITIR^ MISSION. [1870 

Mr. Pcnncll, and Mr. Davis, and the girls to the Mission 

I louse. "It is amazingly pretty out here," writes the 

Bishop ; " I never saw anything equal to the look of the 

place by moonlight. I think I never was in better heart 

about the work." In June the girls and boys changed 

Dr Kirk places again. At this time the old friend of 

june n 6 S1 \869 tnc Mission, Dr. Kirk, was at Zanzibar as 

fjt s ur j n s n t e o s Consul, and his care saved Miss Jones s life ; 

England. but ^ too< was o bljg c d to return to England, 

and her place was taken by Mrs. Packe. 

It was not till January, 1871, that the final change was 
made, and St. Andrew s College, Kiungani, became, what 
it has remained, the " School of the Prophets." The girls 
then moved i-n to half of the Mission House in town. 

Hiciaon During these years there is little to relate. 

Work. yjic Mission was taking deep root, and doing 

hidden, if not interesting, work. Though comparatively 

fe\v in numbers, there were still some in England who 

knew and cared about it. 

NOV i860 Visitations of fever and cholera break the 

The cholera. narrat j vc f rom time to time. The first cholera 

came in 1869. The Sultan ordered Mohammedan litanies 

to be sung daily in procession, and prayers 

were said in the chapel. In the Mission the 

Rev. L. Eraser was attacked, and passed to his rest at the 

end of six days illness. 

Feb 2 This brings us to the appointment of George 

The the V suS f Earajallah and John Swedi as sub-deacons, 
diaconate. -j- ne sll j>diaconate was revived here and by 
Bishop Macrorie in Natal about the same time. Here it 
was to keep the boys minds in harmony with the holy 
calling to which they were looking forward. It was fitting 



1 8; i] NEW GROUND, 1863-70. 55 



that the seventh anniversary of Bishop Tozer s consecration 
should thus be marked. The care of the vessels of the 
sanctuary, and the waiting on those who ministered there, 
were mostly delivered to the sub-deacons, as well as read 
ing Holy Scripture in Church, interpreting the teaching of 
the clergy, and the instruction of the young. Thus the 
first milestone on the way to a native ministry was 
reached. 

But a grievous trial was at hand ; cholera March 2 i. 
broke out again, and George Farajallah sunk ^org? 
under it. His body, wrapped in a native mat, Farajalu 
was taken by sea in state to Kiungani for burial. " In a 
short time he fulfilled a long time." 

Never before had the Mission been worked with so 
small a staff, the Rev. R. L. Pennell being the only priest, 
and Dr. Christie, the hon. physician of the Mission, being 
the only lay helper, except the ladies. 

Before leaving the Island work we must just mention 
another of those deep foundations laid by Bishop Tozer 
with such foresight that all subsequent work has been a 
building up of what was then begun. This was the pur 
chase of a parcel of land bevond Kiungani, 

Sept. 8. 

called the Point Shamba, but since known as Purchase of 

Mbweni. 
Mbweni. It-was a lovely spot of about thirty 

acres, with a house on it, and has since become a colony 
for married couples and other adults, with the girls school 
in the house ; but at first it was used as a home for the 
smaller boys. 

On St. Luke s Day, 1871, the chapel at 

Oct. 18, 1871. 

Kiungani was opened ; and Samuel Speare, a 

young Englishman who singularly endeared himself to 

the Bishop, was placed at Mbweni with the little boys. 



56 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1867 



1867 Amid all this island work, the mainland was 

Be on n the gs not forgotten. Day by day, as the missionaries 

Mainland. i oo ]^ e( j acrO ss the sea with longing eyes, they 

saw in faith the day when the Promised Land should be 

theirs. If the Patriarchs patiently tarried, and counted not 




A VIEW AT MAGILA. 

the promise vain, though they never attained it, so the 
Mission felt they could wait God s time. And it came at 
last. Not at first from the direction of Nyasa, to which 
their longing eyes were turned, but from the mountain 
district of the North, the call came. 

Usambara is a hilly country, lying about 

Usambara. T . . r , 

forty miles from the coast. It is very beautiful, 



1 867] NEW GROUND, 1863-70. 57 

and has been compared in turns to Scotland and to 
Switzerland. But we must not deceive ourselves into 
thinking these hills health} . For when these elevations 
are swept by winds from the swamps, the inhabitants are 
liable to malarial fever. Usambara comes nearer a really 
mountainous country than most others. 1 

Kimweri was at this time king of the land an inde 
pendent sovereign, though a tributary of the Sultan of 
Zanzibar. 

Of the four or five attempts during Bishop Tozer s 
episcopate to break up the fallow ground in Usambara, or, 
as it is called from its people, the Bonde country (pro 
nounced Boonde), some account must be given. The 
English missionaries went there as a voice in the wilder 
ness, to proclaim their message, to make straight the way 
of the Lord, but not as yet to settle down. 

The Rev. C. A. Alington was the first to go, first visit 
taking Vincent Mkono, one of the senior pupils. ^^aA. 
They landed at Morongo, a port in Tangata 



Bay, and picking up Khatibu, Dr. Steere s Mkona 
Swahili tutor, as interpreter, they struck inland, making 
for Vuga, Kimweri s abode. They found a beautiful land 
indeed. High volcanic mountains, some of them 6,000 
feet high, here with bare granite heads towering up in 
fantastic forms, there clothed with turf or jungle to the 
summit. Ferns and magnificent trees abounded near the 
coast. 



1 Nineteen years before Dr. Krapf had passed through this land, 
and cut out a large cross on the bark of a tree to take possession of 
the country for Christ. Well indeed is it that the dedication of the 
church at Magila should be in honour of the Holy Cross. 



5<S HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1867 



Four Ranges of There arc four of these ranges of mountains 

Mountains. runn j n <r nor th and south ; four rivers water the 

land the Zigi, the Mkulumuzi, the Ukumbini, and the 

Luari, or Luvti. Four manner of people occupy 

Four Rivers. L * 

the country. Nearest the coast, on the eastern 

slopes, are found the Bondc race. The valley folk, and 

those who live towards the Luvu or Pangani, 

Four Races. 

are Ziguas from further south. 1 he Wasam- 
bara, or Shambala, live on the three inland ranges, and 
share the innermost with the \Vakalindi. These are among 
those African races who have much that reminds us of the 
Semitic Orientals. 

As Mr. Alington proceeded in his tramp over the red 
earth, he found, besides the euphorbias, mimosas, and 
palms so characteristic of an African land, the broad leaves 
of the India-rubber, the prickly smilax, the acacia, ebony and 
teak ; and in later journeys the little pools and lakes were 
adorned with the lovely blue water lily. Less pleasant 
were the leopards and hyajnas, who found an easy prey in 
the numerous antelopes ; and, worse again, the lion is still 
king of the wilderness, and the slothful African may say 
with much truth, "There is a lion in the path." 

When, after various difficulties, the party 



Interview with i ,. r i r ^1 ^_- i ir 

Mr. Alington, came in sight of Vuga, the natives begged for 
powder, and fired an irregular salute as Kim- 
wcri came forth to meet them. He was the fifth of his 
family who had ruled Usambara, ever since his ancestor 
gained his kingship by prowess in hunting buffalo. He 
sent Mr. Alington a cow as a present for a feast, and then 
on the hill-top, on Michaelmas clay, the ambassador 01 
God met the African king, or, rather, the heir apparent, 
who presented himself as Kimweri. 



1 868] NEIV GROUND, 1863-70. 59 

He said he was quite willing to let the Kngh sh settle 
there, but must first consult the Sultan. Another day he 
brought two boys, and wished to hear a model lesson. 
Mr. Alington seized the opportunity to say he must build 
a school before he could teach ; and the prince graciously 
accepted a folding chair, and had it carried everywhere 
with him. He asked for medicine [charms] against evil 
spirits, and was told of the true antidote prayer to the 
God of spirits. lie seemed afraid of their building a stone 
house, lest they should fortify it. Finally Kimwcri told 
Mr. Alington to return when he had the Zanzibar Sultan s 
leave, and in November he left for Zanzibar to procure it. 
In January he returned, and on the road 

J Jan. 20. 

to Vuga met a war parts of Ziinias Ljoinir to second visit. 

. l ^ Mr, Alington, 

chastise the hill folk for darino" to have rain Mkono. and 

Feruzi. 
when the lowlands had none. Kimwcri now 

sent to say he could not have white men in his capital, 
but they might build nearer the coast. 

The actual place selected was Magi la ( called settlement 
in early records Magira), a place geographically atMa s ila - 
in the Shambala country, but speaking the Hondo tongue. 
The chief was a child, and a son of Kimwcri. 

Here Mr. Alington began to build, setting up the first 
post in the name of the Holy and Ever-Blessed Trinity, on 
the eve of Trinity Sunday, "with prayer to God that His 
blessing might be with us, and the light of His truth go 
forth from the house now building." Who that to-day 
looks on Magila, a centre station, with others around 
with its Church of the Holy Cross, its Mission houses and 
school, and large band of native Christians can doubt that 
that prayer has been answered. 

It would almost seem as if the spirit of evil had done 



60 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1869 



his utmost to kee P the Faith out of Africa. 
Death. Wherever our missionaries set their foot, there 
did they find tribal wars desolating the land. As on 
the Shire, so here, Kimweri, the old chief, being dead, 
his sons and grandsons rent Usambara with war, which 
ended in one son, Semboja, establishing his power, subject 
nominally to the Sultan of Zanzibar. 

With the exception of one short trip to Zan- 

The Bishop s zibar, Mr. Alinqton remained here till October. 
Visit to Magila 

In November he was accompanied back by 

the Bishop, the Rev. L. Eraser, \Villiam Jones, a layman, 
and two of the boys, Connop and Francis. The little 
king of Magila, Kifungwe, met them on the mainland, 
and accompanied them. They marched gaily along, one 
donkey being shared between the part}- ! When they 
halted for the night, a short service was said, and " As now 
the sun s declining rays " sung. If, as Savonarola said, 
u a hymn is a singing angel," such messengers were with 
the party. The people received them, says the Bishop, 
as if they had been a circus, and especially enjoyed watch 
ing the toilet operations, which were loudly applauded. 
On the second day they reached Magila, situated on a 
low round hill, with a clear stream running through the 
place, and higher well-wooded hills around. The party, 
after surveying the villages around, returned to Zanzibar, 
leaving Mr. Alington in charge. But in January he was 
summoned to England, and left the Mission. 
Third visit The ^^ ^ c l er gy was now rnuch reduced, 
Re^! ri Fraser y et tne Bishop sent one the saintly Lewis 
goes to Magiia. Fraser _ to occupy Magila from April to De 

cember. At first he was alone, but afterwards the Rev. 
S. Davis and the young English lad, Sam Speare, who 



1 870] NEW GROUND, 1863-70. 6 1 

had previously been admitted to the sub-diaconate, joined 
him for a short time, and with their aid a more permanent 
mission house was built in four days. It had The 
a granite floor, covered with felt, and was partly Mission House, 
of corrugated iron. A portion was divided off for a chapel. 
With much satisfaction they took possession, going forth 
from the old ant-eaten hut to the new one, singing the 
Gradual Psalms. The chief came to the service, some 
sentences of which were in Swahili. 

Mr. Fraser now began regular instruction, Death of 

& Rev. L. Fraser, 

the head man of Magila being " almost a cate- Dec - 10 > 1869 - 
chumen." And in the evenings he perambulated the vil 
lages to have short talks with the men. Good seed was 
sown then which bore fruit in after years, and gradually 
Kifungwe, and another youth, Sago-sago, came to be 
taught. A school was begun, when want of men com 
pelled the Bishop to withdraw Mr. Fraser and abandon 
the station. Mr. Fraser returned to Zanzibar, only how 
ever to hear his call to rest. 

The Bishop paid a short visit to Magila next FourthVisit 
year, and afterwards sent the Rev. O. Hand- 

cock and Rev. R. L. Pennell there. They 
Mr. Fraser s work unforgotten, and several gladly atMa s ila - 
came to say the Lord s Prayer and the Creed, declaring 
they used it daily. In less than a month they returned 
to Zanzibar, Mr. Handcock being very ill, apparently from 
sun-stroke, and he entered into rest on Michaelmas Day. 

The extreme quietness with which Bishop Tozer was 
thus laying sure and lasting foundations told on the work 
in England. Almost all he founded has flourished, but, 
as in the parable, while the seed was growing The Supply 
men slept, and thus it came to pass that the * 



02 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1876 

Mission was in danger of literally dying for want of 
workers. 

Jhit there were other sleepers ; and if the staff on earth 
was small, those who had " fallen on sleep " and were in 
Paradise were many. Their prayers were doubtless ascend 
ing, and doubtlessly being answered. " Even the net of 
the sleeping fisherman takes," said heathen wisdom, and 
then, as ever, the words were being fulfilled, " He giveth 
unto His beloved in their sleep." 



CHAPTER V. 



A FELLOW-WORKER. 

1 And as of old by two and tiw 

11 is herald saints the Saviour .>./, /, 
To soften, liearts like morning deio, 

\ \ here He to shine in mercy meant , 
.S <; evermore tie deems His name 

Best honoured, and His way prepared, 
\\ lien watching bv His altar-flame 
He sees His servants duly paired." 

OX either side of the cross on the seal of the Sec of 
Rome are the holy Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul. 
It is by a union of the qualities of these " leaders in the 
Church s war " that the world has been won to Christ. 
And such a union was that of Bishop Tozer and his friend, 
Edward Steere, whose first mutual sphere of work was the 
Parish of Burgh, in Lincolnshire, in a church dedicated to 
St. Peter and St. Paul. 
Edward Steere, 

Edward Steere 
the Only son of a (born, May 4, 



^1 1> 

Chancery Barris 

ter, was born in London, 
educated at University Col 
lege School and at Univer 
sity College, graduating B. A. 
in the University of London 
in 1847, and LL.D. in 1850, 
when he was gold medallist. 
He was called to the Bar, 
but never cared as much for 




BISHOP STliKKM. 



63 



64 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1856 



his profession as for the study of theology and philo 
sophy. His Essay " On the Being and Attributes of God " 
for the Burnett prize (which was not awarded to him) is 
a very remarkable work. His amusements were 

Early Life. ... 1-11 

botany, conchology, and printing, which last was 
to be so useful to the Mission. 

The thought and sight of the sin and suffer- 

1S53. 

Brotherhood m <r o f London led to the formation of the 

of St. Mary. 

Brotherhood of St. Mary, a band of young men 

who, under the influence of Dr. Steere, met together for 

prayer and study, with almsgiving. This was soon merged 

Guild of m th e Guild of St. Alban, into all aspects of 

st. Aiban. w h ose wo rk Edward Steere threw himself 
heartily, giving up the Bar altogether. Whether printing 
the notices, or putting up curtains in a mission house, or 
reading a " Catechetical Lecture of St. Cyril " with the 
Brotherhood, there was u a definite earnestness and living 
reality in all that he set his hand to." Students alone can 
fully appreciate the earnestness which led him at twenty- 
six to sell his books that he might have wherewithal to 
feed the poor. 

Ever desiring closer forms of devotion to his 

Brotherhood Eord, he founded the Brotherhood of St. Tames 

of St. James. J 

at Tamworth, one of the earliest attempts at 
community life for men since the Reformation. A year 
or two was enough to show that (like other early attempts) 
it would not succeed, and he now decided on taking Holy 
Orders in the diocese of Exeter, to whose venerable Bishop 
the Catholic party in the Church looked as a leader. 

ig56 Dr. Steere was ordained to the Diaconate, 

Ordination and the curacy of Kingskerswell. near Newton 

to Diaconate. 

Abbot, in Devonshire; and in 1858 he joined 



1 862] A FELLOW-WORKER. 65 

his friend, Mr. Tozcr, at Burgh, receiving Priest s 1858 
Orders at Whitsuntide. To Priestliood - 

Much literary work had been accomplished during his 
Diaconate, including an edition of Butler s Analogy, with 
an Introduction by himself. Some amusement was caused 
by a fellow-candidate for Orders earnestly recommending 
him this edition, " by a man called Steere." Dr. Steere 
replied, " that he had some acquaintance with the book." 

To the straggling village of Skegness, then Ourate 
part of Burgh, he brought his newly married ofske s ness < 
wife (Miss Mary Beatrice Brown), and here he worked 
for a year, gaining the reputation of being " a downright 
shirt-sleeve man, and a real Bible parson." 

The Rectory of Little Steeping was then 
given him, and here in the low-lying lands of steeping. 
Lincolnshire, he spent three years that period 
of retirement which all the great men of God have been 
granted as a preparation for work in this world or the 
next. 

And then came the call. One day Mr. Tozer 1862 
walked into Little Steeping Rectory with a The to CaU 
letter from Bishop Gray, offering him the Cen- MiS3ion Work > 
tral African Bishopric. He came to seek advice from his 
friend, and he found a fellow-worker. The party at Little 
Steeping had already been discussing the offer, and Mrs. 
Steere had advised her husband to go and settle his friend 
in the African work, which advice, as will be seen, he 
took. 

The Bishop of Lincoln spoke thus of Dr. Steere in the 
sermon already quoted on page 45 : 

"Another, who with collected stores of no ordinary informa 
tion, and cultivated habits of study and thought, and well able to 

F 



66 ins TORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1864 

express with his pen the results of reading and meditation, might 
perhaps have felt himself discharged from the obligation of a 
missionary s work abroad, by his ability to defend the truth at 
home, and to extend thus the gospel s sway from the quiet study 
of his own retired parsonage." 

But whenever and wherever the Master s call is heard, 
only by doing despite to the Spirit of Grace can it be 
resisted. At first, indeed, with his family ties, he thought 
it right to go only for a time, leaving his living in charge 
of a curate, and apportioning the surplus income of his 
benefice to the carrying out of certain improvements. 
Mrs. Steere, meantime, remained with her own family. 

Linguistic Until the settlement at Zanzibar, Dr. Steere s 
Work - history differs little from that of his friend. But 
when settled in the capital of East Africa, he began 
the great work of his life, the study of the Swahili lan 
guage, which twenty years before had been only a spoken 
tongue, with no literature whatsoever. Then a great and 

Dr. Krapf. ^ood man, Dr. Krapf, had been sent out in 
I 844, to Mombasa, on the coast, by the Church 
Missionary Society. His linguistic work is thus described 
by Bishop Steere : 

" Within a very short time indeed the doctor had collected 
vocabularies in a great number of the Eastern 1 languages, had 
compiled a dictionary of the Swahili or coast language, and had 
translated into it nearly the whole of the New Testament, and a 
great part of the English Prayer-Book. Having settled at Mom 
basa in the Nyika country, he translated St. Luke s Gospel into 
that language, and compiled a dictionary and grammar; of all 
these works only a small part was printed. 



>., East African. 



:864] A FELLOW-WORKER. 67 



Besides this difficulty, a serious one for students, Dr. 
Krapf had accepted a dialect of Swahili for the main 
stem of the language, and his translations were not much 
understood at Zanzibar. Therefore, though the st Matthew . s 
materials were useful, Dr. Steere determined to 
go to work afresh, and in five years time com- 
pleted the Gospel according to St. Matthew, and com P iled - 
also compiled a Handbook of Swahili. 

His plan was to get some learned Swahilis to come and 
talk to him every Saturday morning, he asking questions, 
learning, and correcting, and he considered that to them 
he owed all that was best in his knowledge of African 
tongues. He seems to have possessed that innate faculty 
of rendering good language into good language (which 
translators so often miss) with that felicitous union of pure 
and elegant construction, with a popular and simple 
method of expression, which marks a certain genius in the 
translator, and stamps the early literature of a nation on 
the hearts and tongues of a people. 

"The best grammarian is the best theologian," said 
Luther, and no doubt Dr. Steere s work during those five 
silent years has done more for the theology of Eastern 

J oy 

Africa than the work of any other five years since. 

When Dr. Livingstone met Bishop Mackenzie s party at 
the Zambesi, he said to them, "If you men have suffi 
ciently reduced the language in twelve years so as to be 
able to preach to the natives, you will have done good 
work." Thus Dr. Steere s work was marvellously rapid ; 
though probably Dr. Livingstone was right as to the 
length of time before one becomes intelligible in a new 
unwritten language. 

As a specimen of Dr. Steere s difficulties in moulding 



68 ff/STOA Y OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1866 

the language, the following is interesting on 

Swahili 

word the right word for "soul, written fifteen years 

for " Soul." 

after beginning his Swahili studies : 

" I hoard from Mbweni that the people understood Roho 
to mean the heart. I did not know it before. However, I 
suppose that the heart is a very fair analogue for the soul It is 
certainly a very great deal better than Kizuli the shadows. 
Of course people believe in apparitions after death, but we 
must not make these do duty for immortal souls. I take it the 
whole idea of the soul is new, and has to be taught, and then 
the word it is tacked on to gets a new meaning, as Roho 
and TrreL /iu. both mean simply breath. It must have been a 
puzzle at one time how the breath could be immortal. But the 
kizuli, like the shades of old classical times, seem to be 
thoroughly and hopelessly heathenish." 

We are reminded of Caxton s difficulties, when trying to 
crystallize English out of many dialects. " Lo ! what 
should a man in these days now write ? Certainly it is 
hard to please every man by cause of diversity and change 
of language. . . . After that I had made or written a 
five or six quires, I fell in despair of this work." One 
recollects also how the missionaries in China, preaching 
before they knew the language, used the title of an inferior 
cleity for God. So that these years of study, if not 
romantic to read of, were well spent. 

When God has a great work for a man to do, first He 
trains him for it. Dr. Steere s knowledge of printing was 
now invaluable, and he taught some of the native lads to 
print, this being one of the few industries which the boys 
learnt in those days. 
Returns to I n J 866 Dr. Stecre, having been three years 

England. ^^ ^ s f r j cnc ^ Was p re p ar i n g to return home, 



1872] A FELLOW-WORKER. 69 



when (as has been said) Bishop Tozer broke down and. 
sailed for England, Dr. Steere remaining in 1868> 
charge till his return on July 17, 1868. A Aug 9> 
month later he sailed for England. 

Up to that time, the only Swahili attempted H ymnsin 
in the Church services consisted of the Lord s Swahl1 
Prayer and the hymns. Of the latter, Dr. Steere trans 
lated a good man)\ He was much averse to " prettincss," 
and also to images -which are incorrect. Thus he criti 
cised 

" Birds and beasts and flowers 
Soon will be asleep." 

as not universally true, especially in Africa. " Thou 
makest darkness that it may be night : wherein all the 
beasts of the forest do move." 

When Dr. Steere left Zanzibar, the Chief Vizier grace 
fully said, alluding to his linguistic work, that he was 
" building a bridge over which the thoughts of Zanzibar 
might pass to England, and English learning and wisdom 
find their way to Zanzibar." 

But Africa is a magnet to those who have worked there ; 
and few of her adopted children can ever say, " If I forget 
thee, O Jerusalem," without a thought of that sunlit land. 
And when, in 1872, came the news that Bishop 
Tozer was breaking down under the strain of 
that terrible cholera visitation, and the loss of all his 
clergy but one, Dr. Steere at once determined to resign 
his living, and, leaving his wife to follow (which through 
ill-health she was never able to do), he literally Dr . steereand 
forsook " wife and friends, and all that he had," %5?f 
and sailed in the Abydos. Miss Tozer started Zanzibar - 
to join her brother at the same time. 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1872 



As the ship came in, they passed the Mission 
House at the Old Consulate ; and the Bishop, 
recognising his sister to his great joy, hastened to meet 
her, not having expected her. But his thankfulness was 
more than doubled when he met the faithful friend who 
accompanied her. 

April is J us t fur weeks later a great misfortune befel 

The Hurricane. Zan/ibar j hc Qn ^ T j nin -j canc wn j cri within the 

memory of man had ever fallen on the island desolated 
the town, and sunk ever)- ship in the harbour except the 
Abydos. Generally the hurricane line keeps out of quarters 
so close to the equator. Within the Mission House no 
lives were lost, but the corrugated iron roofs were stripped 
off with such an awful noise that the thunder could not be 
heard, the wind blowing hard from S. to S.W., the rain 
streaming down the staircase. The children sat huddled 
together in one sheltered corner, when, with two mournful 
tolls, the bell and bell turret collapsed. Then came the 
sudden lull, marking that the) were in that "heart of 
peace " which is the centre of a cyclone. 

Hie Bishop and Dr. Stcerc went out to see how others 
fared, and had just returned when the anti-cyclone began 
to blow from the north with greater energy than before. 
Many were separated, for no one could move ; and Mr. 
Pennell, who was ill, was quite alone. A wild sea-bird 
was blown into the midst of the frightened boys, who 
found some consolation in stroking the suddenly tamed 
creature. By the evening the cyclone was over ; but the 
sea was washing against the foundations of the house, and 
all were driven out for the time. Their chapel was wrecked, 
the organ ruined with salt water, and the loss of life in the 
town and shipping was fearful. 



1872 A FELLOW-WORKER, J I 

After the hurricane even Dr. Steere had an July 
attack of fever, and several children died. In Re ? eath of 



July, to the great loss of the Mission, the Rev. 

R. Lewin Pennell sank to rest. He had worked well and 

;most unselfishly, and had just translated the 
r^ i . ~ . . His Transla- 

Lrospel according to St. Luke into bwahili, tionorst. 

Luke. 

when, from the translation of the Divine 
Canticles on earth he passed to join in the eternal song 
that ceaseth not. 

Through failing health Bishop Tozer had Bishop Tozer 
struggled on, but this grief fairly broke him ^arfo^tey-" 
down, and he sailed first for Seychelles and then chelles - 
for England, where, in April, 1873, he resigned the head 
ship of the Mission, whose foundations he had April 
been contented to lay in quietness and in con- Resi s o n f ation 
fidence, and on which he had generously spent Bishop Tozer 
himself and his means. 

Dr. Steere was thus left head of the Mission July 1872 
for two years before he became Bishop. During Smes^ad 
this time only two events need be recorded oftheMission 
the visit of Sir Bartle Frere, with its far-reaching conse 
quences, related in the next chapter ; and the re-establish 
ment of the Usambara work. 

It has ever been considered a mark of the Church s 
vitality that, in times of difficulty her work can be carried 
on without much of what is usually necessary for her being. 
Thus, while Zanzibar itself was without episcopal care, and 
the mainland without clergy, the important station of 
Magila was about to be occupied by four mere youths in 
Minor Orders. 

Dr. Steere had received a message to beer 18 ? 2 - 

Re-occupation 

that he would send the Mission back to Magila. of 






THE UNITE RSI TIES MISSION. [1872 



Not in a vision, but face to face, a man of Swahili 
race stood and said, " Come over and help us." 

Oot 8 The Doctor had no clergy to send, but there 

Deacon sent were the } r oung sub-deacons. The two natives, 
toMagiia. j ()hn Swcdi and Fnmcis Mabruki, had married 

two of the Mission girls, and earnestly desired definite 
Mission work. With them was to go Samuel Speare, the 
Knglish lad, in whose good sense (though only nineteen) 
the greatest confidence was felt, and Benjamin Plartley, a 
young schoolmaster. They met in the chapel to receive 
their Itc inissa cst from Dr. Stecrc. 

So noble and helpful a speech ought to be written in 
letters of gold : 

Dr. steere s " Hrcthen, you are going on the noblest errand on 
a S ismissiJfg h the w ^i cn ^ is possible for men to go. You are sent as 
sub-Deacons. (; oc | s messengers to publish His acts and explain 
His counsels. The more completely you can forget yourselves 
and remember only Him, so much the better will your work be 
done, (loci has looked with compassion upon the sinful and 
the miserable, and sends you to tell them that He loves them. 
God has sacrificed Himself, left His glory, taken a human nature, 
and in that nature suffered and died, that He might be able to 
deliver men from sin and hell. 

" He sends you now to tell them what He has done for them. 
If none will receive your message, still God s part has been done, 
and you will have done yours if you have faithfully declared it. 
You will not be asked at the last day, How many professing 
converts have you made ? but, Have you faithfully declared the 
whole counsel of God? Let this be your purpose, and let 
nothing hinder you from it. Let there be no attempt to soften 
or conceal your message. . . . Do not expect immediate 
success. It is better to work slowly than hastily, and I shall not 
be disappointed and you must not be so if you seem for some 



A FELLOW-WORKER. 73 



years to preach and teach in vain. Darkness, as old it may be 
as the flood, is not likely to be dispelled quickly. 

"You will, as often as you can, openly read and explain the 
written Gospels. You will teach the prayers, and hymns, and 
psalms to those who may be willing to learn them. In regard to 
your own outward demeanour, you will take care to avoid all 
reasonable ground of offence. You must not be proud and self- 
reliant, but must be ready to suffer wrong rather than exact your 
extreme rights. 

" Follow, as far as you can, the customs of the place and 
people. Quarrel with no one, however much you may be pro 
voked. Treat no one with contempt. Never use violence or 
hard language. Be moderate in eating, drinking, and sleeping. 
Remember in all things the character you bear, and seek to do 
as Christ would have done in your place. Try to understand 
the thoughts and difficulties of the people you live amongst. 
Try to put your message in such words, and deliver it in such a 
manner, as may make it most intelligible and most acceptable to 
your hearers. 

" Do not be afraid to say out all you have to say ; but do not, 
if you can help it, say it in such a way as to provoke blasphemy. 
Do not grow weary in well-doing. God is with you ; and though 
you may see no result, your labour is not in vain. If you find 
yourselves in danger from war or tumult, do not be in a hurry to 
escape; if your people stay, it will be best for you to stay with 
them. Ever in the extremest danger God can save you. Set 
your faces steadily against all superstitious fears ; however strong 
evil spirits may be, God is stronger. If you should ever be in 
danger because of your religion, look upon that as a special 
honour, and do not shrink from meeting it. In any case, 
whether from disease or violence, do not fear death ; for what 
men call death is really the gate of peace and joy to all true 
Christians. But our prayer for you is that you may live long and 
happily, and have such success that you may be counted amongst 
those who, having turned many to righteousness, shall shine as 
the stars for ever and ever. 



74 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1872 



"Meditate upon. these things, and look continually up from 
earth to God in heaven ; and so may God s presence and God s 
blessing be with you abidingly." 

s p a ?e e>1 s Some account of Samuel Speare, the village lad 
History. W | 1Q k ecarne a missionary, must now be given, 
lie was born at Rickinghall, in Suffolk, on January 15, 
1853, and came of as poor but as good a home as can be 
imagined. Before he was thirteen, he became the bread 
winner of the large family, his father being laid aside by 
illness. 

186G The parish took a deep interest in Missions, 

Fr bni C ki at a " anc ^ through all privations Sam always earned 
Rickmghaii. ^ ]\/[j ss j on p ence to bring to the meetings. In 
1866, Bishop Tozer brought Francis Mabruki to England, 
and gave him for a year into the care of the parish priest 
of Rickinghall. Sam and Francis became friends. The 
latter was much surprised to find how many English 
people do not go to church, and asked if the) were Chris 
tians. His mind was also exercised as to why people 
lounge instead of kneeling. 

This friendship with Francis Mabruki only strengthened 
the desire Sam had always felt to be a missionary. It 
must have seemed impossible at first that such a mere lad, 
poor and half-educated, could be chosen for the work. But 
his character for stedfastness, reserve, and gentle, help 
ful ways was early formed. u If you want a kind hand- 
turn done," said his neighbours, " Sam Speare is the boy 
to ask to do it." And so Bishop Tozer decided to take 
him to Africa, and sent him to the Choir School at St. 
Andrew s, Well Street, for a time. At fifteen the boy was 
confirmed, and sailed for Zanzibar. 



1 872] A FELLOW-WORKER. 75 

During his five years there he had wonder- speareat 
fully good health, living at first among the other Zanzibar - 
boys, studying conscientiously. u I have just begun to do 
Caesar s works in Latin," he wrote at the end of a year. 
Greek and theology followed. He was sent to Kiungani, 
and here he worked at anything that came to hand cut 
ting paths, clearing the little cemetery, planting trees, 
while his influence among the boys was excellent ; until 
the bishop could write home that Sam s bearing and 
manner were so developed, no one would know him for 
the ruddy country boy of two years before. 

In all his letters one can see his heart is in his work. 
Happy in the quiet fulfilment of unexciting duties, he 
wonders in his gentle way at the want of interest in Mis 
sion work. He was working in Zanzibar through all those 
years of trouble cholera, cyclone, and death of workers. 

" Are people s hearts made of stone that they don t care to 
come out to preach the gospel to the poor heathen of Africa ? " 

And again : 

" Ah ! missionaries, where are they ? Are all of them out in 
foreign lands ? Are all the shepherds at work among the flock ? 
No; but we must wait. . . . God s time has not yet come. 

Then came his own advancement to the sub- 
diaconate, and the work at Magila, of which 
Miss Tozer writes : 

" It really was touching to hear of four boys, two white and 
two black, all under twenty-two years of age, holding up the 
Cross alone against heathendom, in that desolate place." 

The idea was that when Mr. Speare (as he was now 
called) was ordained, he should return, and make Magila 



76 IffSTOKY Or THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1873 



liis headquarters. The lads set to work to build houses : 
Mabruki and Swedi, with their wives, had one each, and a 
third was for the white men. And in his thorough way 
Mr. Speare determined the} should be good houses. 

" They wanted to put us off with a small round hut, large 
enough just to put a few fowls in." 

To the best of their ability they held services, which some 
of the natives attended, John and Francis being able to 
speak to them in their own tongue. 

Five years having nearly passed since Mr. 

July 5. 

Returns to Speare left home, his heart turned more and 
more to those he loved in England, and to his 
parish priest now working in Zululand. He longed to re 
turn to England to prepare for deacon s orders. " But of 
course it cannot be thought of yet," he wrote. However, 
as soon as the Rev. J. Midgclcy arrived, Dr. Stcere sent 
Mr. Speare home, and his friends were much struck with 
the "dignity and calm " of his young manhood. 

The old home was visited, and then he settled down at 

Burgh, in Lincolnshire, to help in a middle school and 

prepare for Holy Orders. But his lungs could not stand 

the damp climate, and in November he fell ill. His old 

mother came to him and nursed him, but on 

Death of St. Martin s Day he was taken from them, and 

Mr. Speare. 

from the work he loved, striving to the last to 
pray between each gasp for breath. 
Miss Tozcr wrote : 

" His pure and peaceful life was, I suppose, as spotless as any 
young man s could be." 

Like his namesake of old, his life s motto was, " Speak 



1874] A FELLOW-WORKER. 77 



Lord, for Thy servant heareth." Few realize what good 
stuff there is in our Sunday schools, and that to them we 
must look for the answer to Samuel Speare s pathetic 
question, u Are missionaries scarce nowadays ? " 

A few weeks later, his friend, Ben Hartley, 1874 
was killed near the coast by Arab slave ^t^of 
dealers. Mr - Hartley - 

In May, 1873, the e^eat traveller and mis- 

May 4. 
sionary, who was one of the founders of the Death of 

Livingstone. 

Universities Mission, died at Ilala. Since 1866 
he had discovered Lake Bangweolo", and had been travel 
ling round that district and Tanganyika, searching partly 
for the fountains of Herodotus, which he believed to be the 
source of the Nile. 

When his faithful followers, Susi and Chuma, Livingstone s 
prepared the body for embalming, they per 
formed a most significant and pathetic rite, for they took 
the heart which had loved Africa so well and truly, and 
there they buried it, in the sort of grave he had said he 
should prefer, " in the still, still forest." Faithfully those 
leal followers fulfilled their trust, and u still entombed in 
the heart of Africa is the heart of David Livingstone." 

Chuma had been one of the Mission boys on 1874. 
the Shire, and he and Susi brought the body Arill8 



to Zanzibar, and sailed for Fngland. A public 
funeral was celebrated in Westminster Abbey, Abbey. 
where over his grave may be read his last message : 

"ALL I CAN ADD IN MY SOLITUDE IS, MAY HEAVEN S 
RICH BLESSING COME DOWN ON EVERY ONE, AMERI = 
CAN, ENGLISH, TURK, WHO WILL HELP TO HEAL THIS 
OPEN SORE OF THE WORLD." 



78 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1874 



The Abbey saw another ceremony import- 
Dr. steere ant to Central Africa that vear, for on St. 

Consecrated. 

Bartholomew s Day was consecrated Dr. Steere. 
His Nolo Episcopari had been very sincere, and had lasted 
two years. He was the man who had advised the Bishop 
to resign, he said. The men of the older Universities 
could hardly be expected to work under him ; he was not 
a traveller, and a traveller was needed. But by degrees 
all objections were overcome. Another happy memory 
was thus added to the Festival of the Mission. 

With the new Bishop began a new state of things. 
Hitherto the Mission had been largely supported, first 
by Bishop Mackenzie s private friends, and then by Bishop 
Tozer s. Now had come u a man who had no friends," 
as he said. Finance was at a low ebb and workers were 
few. Bishop Steere took a bold resolution. 

The Mission 1-1-1 

Re-constituted 1 le laced the JhLnglish public and the Knglisn 

Financially. . . . . , , 

Universities with the almost untried demand 
that they who came to the work should either support 
themselves, or else that having food and raiment they 
should be therewith content. 20 a year to such as need 
it is, in addition to their maintenance, the utmost the 
Universities Mission offers to those who must also take 
their lives in their hands, and forsake (often never to meet 
again) their dear ones at home. 1 

Well did he judge that the fine spirit of self-sacrifice 
to which he thus appealed was not dead in our land. 
The answer to that call has never failed. One priest 
and a scanty handful of lay workers remained at that 
date in the Mission. The Receipts in that year were ,2,1 50 



1 See also Appendix N. 



1874] A FELLOW- WORKER. 79 



and the Home expenses 4.9. But since then, from the 
foremost ranks in our Universities, from the skilled teach 
ing of our hospitals, from quiet parishes, and from the pick 
of our public schools, middle schools, and village schools, 
from homes of refinement and culture, have come forth 
to the Master s work among His lost sheep in Africa 
saintly men and women for practical work, skilled work, 
and intellectual work ; till the place of the half-dozen 
Europeans is taken to-day by eighty-seven ; and the 
number of those who have been called from the service 
of the Mission on earth to bear its needs on their hearts 
in the more immediate presence of the Lamb, which had 
reached but a dozen then, has in twenty years swelled 
to more than sixty. 

Verily the promise has been fulfilled, Ask, and it shall 
be given you ; seek, and ye shall find." 



PART III. 

THE GRAIN OF MUSTARD SEED. 



o 



CHAPTER VI. 

TIIK CHURCH IN TIIK SLAVE MARKET. 

" Tli old order c/uu/^ci/i, yielding plate to /icu<." 

E all the lessons which, in His gradual education of 
the human race, God has with infinite patience 
taught His children, none has been learnt more 

Bible Teaching 

on slowly than that of Mercy. In Old Testament 

Slavery. 

times there is little at first ; and very gradually, 
line upon line, other lessons being scarcely learnt as yet, 
the chosen people were taught that He, who is a God 
of power, knowledge, and justice, is also a God of mercy 
and lovingkindness. The practical lesson drawn from 
that bitter period, when they were themselves a nation 
of slaves, is enforced again and again by Moses in the 
plains of Moab to the generation that had arisen in the 
wilderness : " Remember that thou wast a bondman in 
the land of Egypt." But all they \vere taught as yet 
was not to make slaves of their own race, and not to 
oppress cruelly those bondmen of other races whom they 
were permitted to have. 

Little more was understood, even of the Prophecies of 
Isaiah, till He came in Whom there was neither bond 

so 



THE CHURCH IN THE SLAVE MARKET. Si 

nor free, and Whose mission was to proclaim deliverance 
to captives. But when once the idea was grasped that 
the slave and his master were as brothers beloved, " both 
in the flesh and in the Lord," the Divine doom of slavery 
was spoken. 

And how slow to learn the lesson European civilization 
showed itself, is well known to the youngest reader of 
history, who sees that even Roman civilization and Roman 
Christianity six centuries old had not abandoned the open 
sale of slaves in the Roman slave-market. Abo i it ionof 
That the English race owes its Christianity ^IZiUy tn 
to the fact that North Anglian youths were English Duty " 
exposed for sale at Rome, and there noticed by " Gregory 
our Father, who sent us Baptism," seems to impose a 
duty on us, of all nations, to bring the teaching of 
Christianity to bear on the enslaver, and the light of 
Christ s love to the enslaved races of earth. 

Gibbon says it was not till the thirteenth The Lesson 
century that the influence of Christianity quite slowly Learnt - 
put an end to the practice of enslaving prisoners of war. 
And shall we lose patience with the African races who 
have not learnt the lesson in thirty years ? 

Setting aside South Africa, 1 and especially the Kafir 
and Zulu races, who are neither slaves nor slave-holders 
(it is said you cannot turn a Zulu into a slave, 

* . . African Races 

he is inconvertible !) we must keep before our largely siave- 
\ e holders. 

minds the fact that African races see no harm 

in slavery, but own and sell slaves freely. The slaves 

Bishop Mackenzie and Dr. Livingstone set free were on 

1 A chapter on Slavery will be found at the end. What is here 
given seems enough for the general reader. 

G 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



their way to be sold in the interior. We blame the 
Portuguese, who have probably carried on the slave trade 
more cruelly than any race, but it is the Coast Arabs 
and the natives who mainly keep up the dreadful trade. 
There are no caravans expressly fitted out on the eastern 
coast for catching slaves, but almost all Arab traders 
deal in them as the) can. 

An A vivid account of an Arab raid on a vil- 

lac in the heart of Africa was iven to the 






writer by an African, born while his parents were in 
slavers- to a native tribe. First, an Arab caravan comes 
to a village and pitches outside for weeks or even months, 
making quite a second village. They barter, make friends, 
and perhaps buy slaves. If the headman of the village 
has an\ r criminals waiting for punishment, he sells them ; 
but perhaps he has none, and perhaps the Arabs have 
a commission for a larger number than can be supplied. 
They strike their tents for that time ; but they reappear, 
perhaps, next year, pitch in their old quarters, and open 
a market. Hut one night there is a cry heard throughout 
the native village. Beside every hut stand two armed 
Arabs : one sets fire to the hut, the other knocks the owner 
on the head as he comes out. The women and children 
are secured, and sometimes the man if not killed. The 
darkness and suddenness prevent any resistance ; the 
superfluous children are left in the burning huts, and 
when morning comes a few fugitives creep back to the 
desolate village, while the slave-troop is already on its 
way to the coast, unless the women are wanted as wives 
or slaves by some other tribe. 

The waste of life on the way is horrible. A slave must 
never escape, nor be left behind ill, which might mean 



THE CHURCH IN THE SLAVE MARKET. 83 



escape. Dr. Steere wrote in 1873 : " Mr. West 

, _ ^ , The March of 

is just returned from a trip in the Sheanvater. the 
They found Kilwa a poor place, and all about it 
full of bones and skulls. The slaves were being marched 
thence up along the coast," and three years later he wrote 
of the horror of walking in the track of a slave caravan in 
the Rovuma district, each clay s march marked by one or 
more murdered bodies. " Surely if there could be a holy 
war, it would be against traffic which bears such fruits as 
these." In that journey of between two and three months 
they passed nine caravans, numbering little short of two 
thousand slaves in all. This is a very faint picture of the 
slave-trade horrors for horrors are not good to read, and 
must either harden or break the heart ; so that witnesses 
draw a veil over much of the barbarity. 

In Zanzibar, domestic slaver)- even then was slavery in 
not cruel. Arab slave-owners generally treat Zanzibar - 
their slaves well. Among the lower classes it is difficult 
to tell a slave from a freed man ; for slaves sometimes pa} 
their masters a fixed sum, and all they earn beyond that 
being their own, they marry and live much as free men. 

A great many work in the clove plantations ; Clove 
and when we use this pleasant spice, or deaden Plant ations. 
pain with oil of cloves, we little think how much slave 
labour it represents. 

The Arabs, though not cruel masters, are perfectly cal 
lous, and absolutely do not care for suffering. A dying 
slave is useless, and he is therefore cast out to die. At the 
custom-house, where rates for imported slaves were paid to 
the Sultan, a few dying creatures might be seen, left out 
side to escape the rates in case of death nay, the very 
sea had cast up not only its dead (thrown overboard just 



8 4 



///.S ZWvT OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



before the dhows reach land), but its dying, whom the 
Mission had sometimes tended in their last moments. 




DRYING CLOVES AT DUNGA, ZANZIBAR. 
{From a photograpli by J. T. LAST, ESQ.) 

But the crowning horror and degradation was 

The Slave 

Market at the open slave market at Zanzibar. There it 

Zanzibar. . 

was, with its huge whipping post for the refrac- 



86 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES^ MISSION. 

tory. " That slave market," said Sir Bartle Frere, " where 
I saw the slaves lying in dozens and in scores, some of 
them chained, and all them bearing on their faces and 
emaciated limbs the stamp of servitude." It was the last 
open slave market in the world. Hew long it had been 
there as a curse upon earth no one knows, but for genera 
tions men and women had been sold there, husband parted 
from wife, mother from child. " There," says Bishop 
Steere, were the " rows of men, women, and children, sit 
ting and standing, and salesmen and purchasers passing 
in and out among them, examining them, handling them, 
chaffering over them, and bandying their filthy jokes about 
them, and worse scenes still going on in all the huts 
around." 

Oh, if there could be a spot on earth that our Lord 
Himself could not look upon, it must have been this, 
defiled with infamy, stained by cruelty, darkened by the 
bitter tears and misery of those made in His own image. 
And did any spot ever so need a Redeemer? Were not 
these poor Africans in His heart on that Sabbath day in 
the synagogue of Galilee when He read His own mission 
to bind up the broken-hearted ? The accepted year had 
tarried long, but it had come at last. 

Two years before Sir Bartle Frere s visit, he 

Meeting at 

Winchester was present at a meeting of the General Corn- 
House. 

mittee of the Mission under the presidency of its 

chairman, Bishop Samuel Wilberforce, to consider African 
slave trade. An offer of Bishop Tozer s to undertake the 
care of all slave children liberated in Zanzibar, if food and 
clothes were supplied by Government, was conveyed to 
the Foreign Office. It was fitting that this meeting at 
Winchester House, with the son of the great setter-free 



1873] THE CHURCH IN THE SLAVE MARKET. 87 

of slaves in the chair, should strike the first of that series 
of blows which is surely destroying; the abominable traffic. 

Sir Bartle Frere, formerly Governor of Bom- (Januai . y .) 
bay, and afterwards Governor of the Cape ^eSg 10 
Colony, was sent on a mission to Seyid Bar- 
ghash, Sultan of Zanzibar, from the British Government, to 
try to stop the slave trade, the English conscience having 
been awakened by the reports of Livingstone and the 
missionaries. 

Sir Bartle arrived early in the year. The Sultan said 
and said truly that he had very little power without 
his chief men ; he would ask them. They replied that it 
was blasphemous to change what Abraham and Ishmael 
had done ; that as all their fathers had held slaves, there 
always would be slaves, and so a slave trade, as long as 
the world lasted. Nevertheless there were signs that they 
were a good deal impressed by the interest of so great a 
queen, and by the high character of the envoy. 

Sir Bartle Frere greatly admired Dr. Steere, sirBartie 
and was deeply interested in the work of the ^gjSSJS* 
Mission, and in the one hundred and ten chil 
dren under its care. On his return to England he pointed 
out the very useful secular work the Mission was accom 
plishing by its translations, and its schools, where trust 
worthy interpreters could be found. lie very strongly 
wished that more industrial work could be done in the 
schools, and that each child might learn some handicraft. 
He thought there would be not so many u failures," for 
the larger number of the boys educated in the schools 
would not become clergy or even teachers ; there must 
be some educated laity in every community, and no dis 
appointment need be felt if a boy became a good car- 



88 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES^ MISSION. [1873 

penter, mason, or printer. He was much struck with 
Mbweni, the beautiful plantation, Bishop Tozer s last 
purchase ; and feeling sure the time was near when there 
would be numbers of freed adult slaves, he was anxious 
that a colony should be planted here. 

That time indeed was at hand. Sir Bartle Frere departed, 

and in his stead appeared nine men-of-war : an English 

admiral with six ships, two French ships, and one 

.American ship. Then the Sultan sent for his chief men, 

and they consulted. The form of the present 

June 6. Treaty 

signed to Aboi- luiropcan argument against slave-trade was 

ish Slave Trade 

bySeyidBar- convincing, and they gave in. A treaty was 

gnash. 

signed, the actual draft of which will be found 
in the Appendix. 

It forbade any more slaves to be brought across the 
sea. Such slaves as actually existed in Africa or Zanzi 
bar continued as slaves, but could not be transported. 
The children of slaves, born in slavery, also remained 
slaves for the present. But the great slave market was 
to be closed at once and for ever, with all the subsidiary 
markets in the coast towns. 

The treaty was signed just a month later than the 
death of Livingstone. Who shall say that the great 
traveller s prayers were not heard, when " the open sore 
of the world " thus began to be healed ? 

Again and again was the Treaty evaded after this ; 
slaves were smuggled and disposed of privately ; but that 
hideous degradation, the slave market, has never been 
revived. 

Deo. 20, 1872. Now arose an idea which we can only call 
i F ntlrceSion inspired. We must remember that this was the 
m England. whcn Dr Stcere wag left absolutely alone 



THE CHURCH IN THE SLAVE MARKET. 



8 9 



at Zanzibar. The first Day of Intercession for Foreign 
Missions had been held December 20, 1872. The Church 
of England began immediately to pay for her prayers. 




GRAVK OF 
KliV. A. N. WEST, KIUN 7 GANI. 



Her sons arose for this work, and among them the Rev. 
A. N. West, from Buckingham, one of her wealthier 
clergy. His earthly connection with the Mission lasted 



90 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1873 

scarcely two years, but his memory will be ever blessed, 
for the noble idea of purchasing as much as could be 
bought of the Old Slave Market that a Christian church 
might be planted in what had three months before been a 
citadel of Satan. Part of it, with a large house on it, he 
bought and gave to the Mission. But the site of all the 
cruelties was the free gift of Jairam Senji, a rich Hindoo 
merchant. 

And now, as Bishop Steere said long aftcr- 

Dr. Steere .... . 

begins Swahiii wards, the evil spirit was cast out, and it 

Preaching in . 

old slave remained tor the Stronger than he to take 

Market. 

possession. But, though desiring to build a 
material church on this very spot, he began with the 
" living stones " of the spiritual temple. A thatched mud 
hut was set in order, and here Dr. Steere began to preach, 
just as the twelve years had expired, which Livingstone 
had given the first missionaries to be ready to speak to 
the African in his own tongue. 

They took their own children and began with a hymn. 
The townspeople gathered at the door. The Swahiii 
Litany followed, and in the midst the Imam of a mosque 
entered, followed by about twenty more. " He said they 
were good words he heard, and very much what he 
thought himself." A picture of the Crucifixion was hung 
up, so that the Mohammedans could be under no delu 
sion ; but possibly they thought it a sort of Kebla for 
the Christians. Then so many came that a sort of mud 
bench or stoop was put under the eaves, where Dr. Steere 
could sit on Fridays the Mohammedan holy clay and 
talk to all comers. This work grew and continued. Once, 
indeed, the Bishop thought of giving it up, and a Moham 
medan, who did not himself attend the preachings, came 



1 87 3] THE CHURCH IN THE SLAVE MARKET. 9 1 



and begged him to go on, because his audience always 
came and told their friends all that was said. 

And on Christmas Day the foundation stone 
of the church was laid by the Acting Consul- laying ay 

_ . t . . . - r Foundation 

General, Captain Pndeaux, in the presence of stone of Christ 

r Church. 

the European population and a crowd of 
natives. Dr. Steere prayed, and they sang the Cluniac s 
hymn, "Jerusalem the Golden/ As Blessed Bernard s 
words rang out on the air of that once accursed place, 
how strong must have seemed the contrast between then 
and noiv. 

The church was to be Christ Church. Long Christ Churcll 
ago, when St. Augustine brought the gospel Zanzil)ar - 
to England, looking back with thoughts of love to the 
" mother and mistress of all churches," " the Basilica 
of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ" (since called 
St. John Lateran, from the dedication of its baptistery), 
he dedicated England s Primatial Church as " Christ 
Church " ; and well is it that the dedication should be 
handed on from Canterbury to Zanzibar for its first 
church. 1 " The Cathedral " there was a tendency to call 
it, but Bishop Steere would say, " Please God we shall 
sometime build our cathedral on the shore of Lake 
Nyasa." Now that Nyasa s cathedral will stand in 
another diocese, Christ Church, Zanzibar, will take its 
place among cathedrals. 

The grain of mustard seed was planted, indeed, but 
in so few hearts that on that Christmas Day, the consul 
would not let Dr. Steere preach for fear of an outbreak of 



1 The name was specially chosen because Mr. West had died on 
Christmas Day. 



92 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1874-7 

the Mohammedans. Four years later, on the same festival, 
in the same place, he was able to preach to crowds. 
1874 to is?? During those four years the great church 
Bishop steere. w . ls being bu n t) a n but the roof, which at first 
was thatched. The cost was defrayed by freewill offerings 
for that special purpose, and not from the general fund of 
the Mission. 

The Bunding Bishop Stecrc was master-builder and clerk 
or the church. Qf the work ^ hjs friendj Mr Q R H aywarcl, 

F.S.A., sending him plans and designs which were closely 
followed. " Do nothing without the Bishop " found its ful 
filment even in the daily building of the material church. 
He came early and late, and directed every detail. "He 
himself planned the scaffolding and cording, besides seeing 
nearly every stone into its place ; he had even to teach his 
masons to distinguish a straight line from a crooked one." 
He would watch the native workmen, learn their methods, 
and when he had grasped the reason, would either approve 
or improve. 1 The mixing of the mortar, the turning of 
the arches, the tracery of the windows, all claimed his care, 
and this in the midst of his great translations, and the 
oversight of the living Church. 

So grew the Slave Market Church under the 

Christmas Day, ., \ c . ,,-,,. r ,, r , , ,., ., 

1877. East African \Vilham of Wykeham until that 

Opening of the , ,, . , _ ,,, , 

Roofless Christmas Day, 1877, when the nrst Church 
service was held in the roofless Church. About 
200 persons were " packed into the shady side," and 
matins said in Swahili ; the hymns were heartily sung, 
and the Bishop preached on the Birth at Bethlehem to 
the townspeople in their own tongue. 



1 On a visit to England in 1877, his brother-in-law took him to a brick 
field, and he took off his coat and learnt practically the entire process. 



1877] 



THE CHURCH IN THE SLAVE MARKET. 



93 



The most characteristic part of the building T ho church 
is the roof. When it came to this, the Bishop Roof - 
pondered long and earnestly. If he put a wooden roof, 
the white ants would cat it up ; if an iron one, it would 
be much too hot. Tiling requires a foundation of wood. 




CHRIST CHURCH, ZANZIBAR. 

Now Zanzibar is a coral island, and coral is, in fact, the 
" stone " of the country, and of it the church had been 
built. It occurred to Bishop Steere that this pounded 
up and mixed with Portland cement would make a roof. 
He would throw the roof in a great solid arch across the 
span of the church. Wooden centerings were placed as 
supports, and ten feet at a time was covered with the 
concrete, and left to harden. 



94 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1879 



Doubts of its Every one shook their heads over the pro 
cess. Such a roof had never been seen. 
Europeans came and looked, and wondered if the walls 
could bear the strain, and said they would not be under 
that roof when the wooden supports were taken away. 
Mohammedans said it was supported by magic till the 
opening day, and would then fall and crush the Christians. 
Still the roof was built a span of 28-! feet and a height of 
60, in a tunnel-shaped arch. Then the wooden supports 
came away, and the roof as solid as an} 7 on earth stood 
firm. The natives thought medicine (charms) had been 
put in to keep it up. " How is it my buildings fall down, 
and yours stand firm," the Sultan naively asked the 
Bishop. The roof was then sheeted over with zinc to 
keep out the weather. The traveller Thompson in 1884 
said it was evidently not meant to last many years, yet in 
1897 it is as firm as ever. 

So came Christmas, 1879, when there was a grand open 
ing of the building, completed outwardly but not within, 
for as yet there was not even an altar. 
Description of The building is Basilican in type, a mixture 

church. O f Gothic and Arabic in style, and holds about 
600 people. The east end is a fine apse, with beautiful, 
tall, narrow windows. On the chord of the apse now stands 
the altar exactly where the horrible whipping-post once 
was ; and there He Who was " wounded for our trans 
gression," and " by Whose stripes we are healed," is " shewn 
forth " for the sins of the world. Behind it, Eastern fashion, 
are the bishop s throne and seclilia. The church is paved 
with black and white marble, with concrete under the 
movable teak benches. The west window is a rose. An 
organ chamber was afterwards thrown out in a bay of the 



1 8 79] THE CHURCH IN THE SLATE MARKET. 95 

south wall, and an organ was given. At the west end is a 
gallery for such Arab ladies as could not, according to 
Eastern etiquette, mingle with men on the church floor. 
On the opening day a huge cross of green and flowers 
marked the place of the post of the past and the altar of 
the future. 

All the Europeans in Zanzibar gathered in Christmas 
the church on that Christmas Day, with the opening cere- 
men and boys of the Mission on the south 
side, the women and girls on the north, all in festival array. 
The roof proved a splendid one for sound, and there was 
no echo. Into the ante-chapel came groups of Arabs and 
Swahili to see this strange sight, where so often they had 
bargained for slaves. The hymns, u Hark the herald " and 
" While shepherds watched their flocks," were in Swahili. 
What a type of the change Christianity has made on the face 
of the earth was that church with its Christmas service ! 

Christ Church has a slender bell-tower, end- Tne Su itan s 
ing in a small spire. The Sultan presented a 
clock, and great was the satisfaction of the natives at the 
decision that it should keep Eastern time. 

"The cathedral clock here," writes a visitor, "keeps Biblical 
time. I had landed quite early in the morning, and yet after 
breakfast I found that by cathedral time it was apparently 
afternoon. I remarked to the Bishop that his clock had 
stopped, but he replied, No, it is ten o clock ; that is to say, 
the fourth hour of the day, and so the clock pointed rightly 
enough to four. This is the way in which the natives compute 
time." 

" But note the better part as well, 

The Church s children all 

Called daily by the holy bell 

To prayer and festival." 



Qf) HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1880 

Never did Bishop Stcerc, when thinking of 
Christmas Day. the outer fabric, forget the living stones of the 

The First Cele- . , - . " - - 

brationm temple. A year after the opening, the first cele- 

Christ Church. , . , /-i , 

oration was said on Christmas Day, and the 
church has been in full use ever since. The following 
account was written soon after Bishop Stccrc s death by 
Archdeacon Joncs-Batcman : 

" Let it be a week-day if you will, and the first 
Archdeacon 
Jones-Bate- sound that will greet you will be the sound of bells 

m fion of 35 P " in our church tower, ringing out for matins at half- 
Daily Service. p ast s j x ^ t ^ c ( j Qor ( ^ Qur j louse are asseni bling 

the boys who form our church choir, along with the still smaller 
ones, forty-three in number, forming our town Hoys School, 
under Miss Mills care, and a file of twelve wee little girls 
under Miss Bashford. And then from many of the houses built 
on our Mission quarter you see men, women, and children our 
Christian people who have settled round us gathering and 
moving churchwards. The service begins, and the singing is 
undoubtedly hearty, even if not always quite in tune ! all, of 
course, in Swahili, the language of Zanzibar, so that much of 
it could be understood by the merest heathen or Mohammedan, 
and it is wonderful how it attracts them. The grandeur of the 
building compared with anything they have ever seen, the sound 
of the organ, which in itself is a kind of miracle to some of them, 
the heartiness of the worship, the prayers and praises in their own 
language, make it the greatest testimony to Christ in a dark world. 
Here, at the very heart of Eastern Central Africa, from which have 
gone forth all the ideas of the outer world which Central Africa 
has, up to the Great Lakes, those who go to the north and south 
walk this town, and in the grandest building of it they stand and 
witness what they have never heard before, and they go away and 
bear witness to others that they have seen another religion pro 
fessed, and heard its worship, different entirely to the forms of 
Islam ; . . . and this result is obtained ... by having 



iSSo] THE CHURCH IN THE SLAVE MARKET. 97 



resident Swahili speaking clergy, a vigorous Choir School from 
which to draw choristers, and a Christian quarter round the 
church, lived on by a body of native Christians, to be a help to 
each other." 

This beautiful picture gives us the reason why nothing 
less than Christ Church would satisfy Bishop Steere. With 
his wonderful far-sightedness he knew that Christianity 
must be a " city set upon a hill." We realize the use of 
daily services. In a heathen land they fulfil St. Paul s 
words, "If there come in one that believeth not 
he is convinced of all, he is judged of all ; and so 

falling clown on his face he will worship God, and report 
that God is in you of a truth." 

A little account of the growth of the "Chris- The Christian 
tian quarter" will well finish our view of church Qua 
building. From the first it was intended to move the 
centre of the Town Mission from the old Consulate to 
the Slave Market Square. " A Hospital, Schools, and a 
Zenana Mission," were among the dreams of the Bishop 
when it came into his hand. When the church was 
finished, he bought land to the south and east of the 
church, giving the ruinous price of 320 for it. The adult 
converts, and youths leaving school, were in danger of laps 
ing into heathendom or Mohammedanism, unless gathered 
round a centre ; for when Mohammedans cannot put down 
Christianity they do all they can to degrade Christians by 
tempting them to sin. So groups of little houses were built 
under the wing of the Mission, and thus arose a parish of 
converts, practising various trades in the town. 

The rapid growth in Zanzibar alarmed the coast people. 

"We will not sell land to you if we can help it," said they. 

H 



08 IIISTOKY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1882 



"You will want to do what you have done in Zanzibar. First, you 
build a house, and then you will want more land, and build a 
church ; then you will bring more people about you, and you will 
make us all Christians before we know where we are.. So we had 
better stop you at the beginning." 

The growth of the grain of mustard seed was attracting 
notice. 

In his last visit to England the Bishop rc- 
juiie 23. ceivccl one more gift for his church. The anni- 

Gitt of Bells. 

versary of the Mission was held on June 23, the 
Bishop of London in the chair. Bishop Steere macl.e a 
remarkable speech, in which he said that if their church 
of stone had been a great work, much greater in his eyes 
was the little mud hut in which some of the native teachers 
were accustomed to meet among themselves, and ask God s 
blessing on their work, and on the brethren for whom they 
worked. 

At the close of the meeting a peal of twenty-five small 
bells, to be arranged as a carillon in the church turret, was 
presented to the Bishop. Those who have lived for years 
out of the hearing of Christian bells \vill appreciate the 
pleasure of hearing them in a land where the} may indeed 

" Ring out the old, 
Ring in the ne\v ; 
Ring out the false 
Ring in the true." 



CHAPTER VII. 

DAILY WORK IN THE ISLAND AND ON THE MAINLAND, 

Sow w///t a generous hand ; 

Pause not for toil or pain ; 

Weary not through the heat of summer, 

ll cary not through the cold spring rain ; 

But Toait fill the autumn comes 

For the sheaves of golden grain. 

BISHOP STEERE left En-land on February u, 18/5, 
and the effect of his appeal to the self-surrender of 
his countrymen was seen in the twenty-one new workers 
added to the Mission staff this year. Among Twenty-one 
them were the Rev. E. S. L. Randolph, the workers. 
Rev. J. P. Earler ; a young layman, H. W. Woodward, now 
in priest s Orders, and still in the service of the Mission ; 
and Miss Josephine Bartlett, who for twenty years was to 
prove one of the most helpful and dearly-loved workers 
the Mission ever had. Later in the year came Miss Allen, 
who began the hospital work. 

This was quite the golden year of the Mission, for a 
hold was now obtained on the mainland which has never 
been relaxed. The Usambara work had been stopped by 
illness or death again and again. Now a priest had laid 
good foundations, and died or been recalled. Then four 
Christian lads had held the outpost quite alone. But at 
last the land was to be possessed, and the Rev. J. P. 
Farler was chosen for the post. 

99 



100 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1875 

"I left England," he said in a letter to Canon 
Bidden three years later, "in February, 1875, in 
obedience to what I believed and still believe to be 
a decisive token of God s will that I should enter 
on missionary work. I remained a few months in Zanzibar, 
and in the following June Bishop Steere took me to Magila, 
together with a young layman, John Henry Moss, who, after 
two years of singular devotion and earnestness, fell asleep in 
Christ." 

With them also went Acland Sahera, a native reader. 
Francis Mabruki, who had been there before, awaited 
them, having got Mr. Midgeley s house in order. 

surveying the ^ nc c ^ a > after tllcir arrival at Magila, the 
Land. Bishop and Mr. Fader climbed "to the top of 
the nearest mountain and surveyed the country and talked 
over our plans. We saw villages too many to be counted ; 
and in all nooks of the mountain side, little groups of huts 
and plots of cultivated land." 

As they looked, surely the thought of the Father of the 
Faithful, surveying the Land of Promise, must have 
crossed their minds. " Arise and walk through the land 
in the length of it and in the breadth of it " was the com 
mand now given to the faithful missionary. 

What the Bishop must have thought as he gazed far, 
far over the hills, and counted the villages, we know from 
his speech at Oxford before leaving England. 

" Beyond and beyond lie nation after nation, till 
of 8 the mind is overwhelmed by the vastness of the 
th Natns an work before us. ... My plan is to cut up the 
work into manageable portions. I think we may 
take it for certain that we have not to do with broken fragments 
of tribes. . . . There seem to be nations of several millions 
each, speaking the same language, and occupying countries, 



iS 7 5] WORK IN THE ISLAND AND ON THE MAINLAND. IOI 

which are to be measured by hundreds of miles in either direc 
tion. Our East Africans are not nomads dwelling in a wilder 
ness or a desert, but settled cultivators, who would gladly 
remain for many generations in one place. Each of these nations 
ought at least to have its own church and its own bishop and 
clergy. ... As Africa is now, we shall have to fix the site 
of future cities, as the monks did in England, and the English 
missionaries in Germany. . . . We have such a centre at 
Magila for the Shambala. We are forming a party to go to 
the Yaos. Between the Yaos and the coast we have one great 
nation the Gindos. . . . We must try to plant a station 
amongst them ; and then the Zaramos and the Ziguas near the 
coast, the Nyasas and Bisas on the other side of the Lake 
Nyasa, and the various tribes up to and beyond the Nyamwezi, 
all and each are ready to receive us." 

These words speak of the immense work to be attacked 
eastward of Lake Tanganyika. 

When the Bishop had gone, leaving Mr. Farler with 
Mr. Moss and Aclancl, it is no wonder that " a sense of 
desolation " was the first feeling of that little trio of Chris 
tians, alone among these nations of heathen. But with a 
brave heart did they " arise and walk through the land," 
and everywhere people listened to them. 

A Mohammedan chief who heard the first p rea ching 
sermon was struck, as Mohammedans often are, atMa s ila - 
with the doctrine of the Atonement. Mohammed never 
professed to save from sin. He did not die for his people. 
A Mohammedan purges himself from ordinary sins ; a 
lapse from Islam is unpardonable. The forgiveness of 
sins comes as a revelation to them ; and this chief, after 
hearing Swahili evensong, said he had never imagined 
such a beautiful service, and invited Mr. Farler to preach 
in his town. 



102 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1875 



Then the king of the country sent for them 

Peace made . , , , , 

in to come and see him at Msasa. I he road led 

Usambara. 

them through lovely scenery ; mountains the 
height of Snowdon towered over valleys with golden 
harvests ripening beside cool clear rivers. Magnificent 
trees, ferns, and flowers flourished, and the air was sweet 
with orange blossom. But this lovely land had for ten 
years been laid waste by war. Kibanga, king of Usam- 
bara, and the King of Ukalindi had been fighting since 
before the death of old Kimweri. The brothers did not 
know how to end the feud, and asked the missionaries to 
make peace. 

Amid shouts of joy from the people, Mr. Farler 
arranged the terms, telling them how wrong it was for 
brother to fight with brother. When the chiefs had shaken 
hands and feasted, he stood up, like Paulinus before King 
Edwin, and preached of the life to come to those whose 
whole idea of the spiritual life here and hereafter is limited 
to darkness inhabited by Kizuli (spirits) and to witch 
craft. How they must have echoed the thought of the 
Northumbrians ! 

" Wherefore, if aught these strangers preach 

Can chase the doubt and fear 
That hangeth o er the future life, 
In God s Name, let us hear ! " 

And from this time the king prayed for a missionary to 
settle in his land. 

Meantime, St. Bartholomew s Day was kept 

Au. 24. ... c . . 

in Zanzibar with much rejoicing, lor eighteen 
of the elder native pupils had just been confirmed, and 
now more than double that number were baptized. John 
Swecli, the sub-deacon, presided at the festival dinner, at 



1875] WORK IN THE ISLAND AND ON THE MAINLAND. 103 

which Chiima and Susi, Livingstone s faithful attendants, 
were present as guests, the latter still unbaptized. 

The cemetery at Kiungani was already the consecration 
sleeping-place of many who had been so of Ce eter y 
blessed as to give up their lives in the service Klungam - 
of their Master, and on the evening" of this day the 
Bishop spoke the words of consecration there ; u and the 
white-robed procession gathered round the spot chanting, 




KIUNGANI SCHOOL 



as the sun sank to rest, the familiar strains of the resurrec 
tion hymn, " Jesus lives." 

A large cross had recently been erected on the roof at 
Kiungani, as an outward sign that Christ was the Master 
of that house. 

Immediately after this, the Bishop and a large party, 
including Chuma and Susi, started for the Rovuma country 
an account of their journey will be given later on. 

It is well to remember that though the exciting scenes 
of earlier Mission work, the novelty of pioneer expeditions, 



104 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1875-7 



and the heroism of martyr deaths are more interesting, 
yet, if we would study mission work, \ve must also realize 

"The trivial round, the common task," 

the watering as well as the planting of the vineyard, the 
slow building as well as the founding and finishing of the 
King s palace. 

The work in Zanzibar during the years 1875 to 1877 
was already beginning the organization which lasted so 
many years. 

Mkunazini The central Mission House, Mkunazini (mean- 

and its Work. in g ^ p j ace Q f the w j lc j pl um _ tre e ") was 

close to Christ Church, and was first occupied at the 
end of 1875, and remained for nearly twenty years the 
centre of the town mission work. 1 The little Boys 
Home was removed here from Mbweni, and hard by 
hospital work began, under Miss Allen and her staff of 
two nurses. Schools were held for the townspeople, 
especially for sons of the Hindoo merchants, and a little 
later Miss Allen began Zenana work in the town. 

work at At Kiungani, about I \ miles from the town, 

Kiungani. ^ j$ O y S School and training institution was in 

full work. Mr. Randolph was reorganizing this, helped by 

Miss Bartlett, who superintended the laundry department, 

Mr. Woodward, who worked in the printing room, and 

Mr. Wall is, in charge of the carpenter s shop. Here there 

were eighty-eight natives, chiefly boys. 

Early work A native village of freed slaves, planned by 

at Mbweni. Bjshop Tozer> ha( j been p l anted at Mbweni 

(formerly known as the " Point Shamba ") by Dr. Steere 



1 Mkunazini took the place of the Mission House at the old Con 
sulate, now given up. 



1875-7] WORK IN THE ISLAND AND ON THE MAINLAND. 105 

early in 1874. It had begun with seven adult men and 
fifteen women, living in homes of their own, and in two 
years time, the results of further captures of slaves having 
been added, the population was 140, under the Rev. W. F. 
Capel, with John Svvedi, Mr. Mitchell, and Mr. Williams 
to help him. 

The Girls School, numbering sixty-two, was here under 
Miss Fountaine ; while the infants were taught by Vincent 




THK KEY. li. S. 



Mkono, one of the earliest Mission pupils, who had married 
another Mission pupil, Elizabeth Kiclogo. These names 
and numbers mostly refer to 1876. 

Here, at Mbweni, under Mr. Randolph s industries at 
vigorous superintendence, oxen were being 
trained for purposes of draught, and Mr. Wallis was 
building a wagon in the carpenter s shop at Kiungani, 
with a view to travelling on the mainland ; but meantime 
they were to be used for carting stone and lime in the 



106 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1875-7 



island as a trial. At Mbwcni the adults were cultivating 
their own food by their own methods. The Mission had 
to give them their clothes, and what may be called pocket- 
money, at a cost of about 2 $s. per annum each. To 
meet this cost sugar cultivation was tried, but not on a 

large scale ; the syrup, how 
ever, was sold for some 
thing. 

There has always been 
a desire not to give the 
natives civilized tastes and 
wants, and a story is told 
of a boy who had been for 
a time in England, and 
had learnt to drink sugar 
in his cocoa, asking the 
missionary at the evening 
halt, after a clay s march 
" Where is the sugar ? " 

Another Mbweni indus 
try is the burning the 
beautiful white coral stone 
into lime. 

Very little as yet was 
clone for industrial train 
ing in the Girls School ; but the elder ones took turns at 
simple household work, as school hours permitted. At 
first Mbweni consisted of only thirty acres ; but it has 
now increased to 150. 

Several fresh workers had come out in 1876, and among 
them the Rev. W. F. Capel, long the secretary, who, after 
working for a year and a half, went with Bishop Tozer to 




REV. CHAUNCY MAPLES 
(afterwards Bishop of Likoina). 



IS75-7] WORK IN THE ISLAND AND ON THE MAINLAND. 1 07 



Mays, 



Jamaica. But the most interesting arrival this 
year was that of a young Oxonian, in deacon s 
Orders, the Rev. Chauncy Maples, who, while a Maples 
curate in Oxford, had stirred up much interest in the 
Mission, which was happy enough to retain him well-nigh 
twenty years, during the latter half of which he was Arch 
deacon of Nyasa. 
On the Feast of St. 

T. .,. , , Sept. 29, 1876. 

Michael and All An- ordination of 

. the Revs. C. 

SrelS, the Bishop or- Maples and 
] . W. P. Johnson. 

dained him priest, 
and another recruit, the Rev. 
W. P. Johnson, deacon. The 
latter, who was well-known as 
stroke of the University College 
" Eight," is one of the few on the 
present staff who dates back to 
1876. 

With Mr. Maples 
came a layman, Jo 
seph Williams, who long worked 
with him at Likoma, and in 
death was not parted from him. 

Another, destined " in a short time to fulfil a long time, 
was Mr. (afterwards the Rev.) Charles Yorke, of 
Warminster. 

Two pictures of the daily life of the Bishop and island 
workers at this time are given by Archdeacons Hodgson 
and Maples. The latter writes thus : 

" At this time [the Bishop] was living in the Boys Archdeacon 
School, at Kiungani, going in on Sundays and Thurs- A {JJunt of 
days to Mkunazini to celebrate there, and to conduct Dail y Life - 



Joseph 
Williams. 




REV. vv. P 



Charles Yorke. 



108 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1877 



the Sunday evening service in English for the European residents 
in the town. 

"Every day he used, soon after breakfast, to repair to the 
printing office, where he remained till nearly noon, revising and 
correcting proof-sheets of his various Swahili translations, setting 
up the type himself not infrequently. . . . After the midday 
meal he would bring a whole pile of newly printed matter into 
the general sitting-room, and, handing round a few needles and 
some thread, would soon begin stitching together the tracts and 
books with a rapidity we vainly tried to equal. Then, as he plied 
his needle, he would encourage us to ask questions on matters 
linguistic and missionary, for which he was always ready with a 
wise and satisfying answer. In the afternoon he would again 
take his place in the printing office. ... In the evening he 
nearly always walked in to town to inspect the church building." 

Translation of During this year he was busy translating the 
p E hmppi a ans, Epistles into Swahili, and those to the Ephe- 
an S d st a join s - sians ancl Philippians, with the Epistles of St. 
Epistles. j amcs anc i 5 t j j m were accomplished. 

Archdeacon Hodgson s picture shows the Bishop at 
Mbwcni, and illustrates the daily routine in the next 
year : 

" He walked out to us early, for a seven o clock 
Archdeacon celebration, from the headquarters of the Mission, 
Awou 8 nt n ?f the Old Slave Market in Zanzibar. ... A walk 
B at h MDweni 10 ^ ^ lve miles and then a service before breakfast is no 
slight exertion with the thermometer over 80. . . . 
It was each month his practice to spend one Sunday morning 
with us, and the first morning I ever had to wait for his appear 
ance was the very day on which he died. . . . The cele 
bration was in English, and then we returned to the Mission 
House for breakfast. The members of the Mission and the 
children of the orphanage had their meals in one room. 
On this auspicious occasion the children had, of course, all 



I 875-6] WORK IN THE ISLAND AND ON THE MAINLAND. 1 09 



turned out in Sunday best, and were waiting round the hall door 
for the Europeans and the Bishop to go in first. We were just 
going across the courtyard, when the Bishop s eye fell on a tub 
used for catching rain water. This same tub had been carelessly 
handled, and two of the iron hoops had been allowed to get 
loose and come off. There and then, regardless of hunger and 
fatigue, the Bishop must needs point out the impending disso 
lution of an article not easily replaced in Zanzibar, and insist on 
restoring with his own hands the rusty hoops to their original 
position. It was certainly a very practical sermon against care 
lessness." 

Amid much that was thankworthy, some sad 
records must be given. Faithfully do the Mission Apparent 

Failures. 

journals recount what seems like failure, as well 

as what seems like success. In 1875-76 we read such 

notices as : 

" Four Kharni slaves ran away from Mbweni." 
These had only just been received. 
Again 

"Sent in to accuse C- - of having stolen kisibau before 
consul." 

This was a great grief, for C- - was one of Bishop Tozer s 
first boys a Zigua, and he had married a Christian. 

Then the next year we have 

" Maitland Mabruki expelled for continued bad conduct." 

This youth had been baptized five years before by Bishop 
Tozer. 

In the following year we find 

" A - moved to Magila, to give him a chance of redeeming 
his character after flagrant misconduct," 



1 10 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1875-7 

Fan of But the saddest story of all is Francis Ma- 

Francis 



bruki s, a sub-deacon, who had done much good 
work, especially at Manila. Francis had to be inhibited 
July 31, 1876 n " m preaching, and, alas! he has never been 
inhibited. restorc( i. His wife, Kate, whom he had ill- 
treated, has lived a Christian life bravely and uncomplain 
ingly. At first she kept school ; but after some years 
wished to have a little home of her own, and she now 
lives under the wing of the Mission, taking in work, or 
working at the Mission House, supporting herself, and 
remaining very much respected by all. 
Progress at Turning again to the mainland, we find Mr. 
Magiia. Farler s labours blessed exceedingly. The 
Bishop wrote, after a short visit paid to him in 1876, that 
his medical cures were causing people to abandon their 
charms, and that in a little while he would have the whole 
Bonde district at his feet. 

This was very nearly literally accomplished. 

April 2, 1877. . r 

Baptisms at On Easter Monday there was a procession irom 
Magiia to the river cross-bearer, catechumens, 
choir, banner, and clergy, all singing hymns. Fourteen 
catechumens received baptism in the river, including two 
native chiefs. Each, as he entered the river, faced west 
and renounced the devil, and then faced east and con 
fessed the Triune God, many of the spectators being 
deeply impressed. 

invasion of In tms y ear Magiia was invaded by the 
ziguas. Wazigua, who conquered the Bondei. A day 
or two of much anxiety to the Mission passed, and then 
the Ziguas were driven off, and the triumphant Kibanga 
paid a visit to Mr. Farlcr, and, in exuberance of spirits, 
began a war-dance on Sunday, during the time of Celebra- 



1877] WORK IN THE ISLAND AND ON THE MAINLAND. 1 1 1 

tion. Mr. Farler went out and told them that it was God s 
day, and invited them to hear His Word, promising them 
leave to dance as much as they liked next day : 

" They cried Vyedi very good and followed me into 
church. It was a striking scene. These fierce, wild men 
thronged the church, and piled their weapons, that had been so 
recently dyed with blood, against the sides of the church, while 
they attentively listened to the gospel of peace on earth, good 
will to men." 

After this a very strange thincr happened. A 

., c T . i i r. The Kingdom 

council ot Iiondei cruets met and sent a message offered to 
to Mr. Farler begging him to be their king ; 
kindly saying he need only give counsel in war, but need 
not go to war if he thought it wrong. None of the 
Christians had been killed in the late war, though they 
fought more bravely than any. Three times was the offer 
repeated : Would he be king to counsel them in law cases? 
Would he be king, and all of tJieui would be Christians ? 
Was this last offer a moment s temptation ? If so, a 
recollection of " all these things will I give thce " must 
have been in his mind as he replied that to follow Christ 
outwardly was of no avail without belief from the heart. 
And for the Mission no doubt it was better to gather in 
" one of a city, two of a family." And at the Harvest 
Thanksgiving this year, when Mr. Farler per- Harvest 
suaded his flock to give thanks to the true Lord Thanksgiving, 
of the harvest, and not to evil spirits, seven of the 
spectators came forward to put themselves under in 
struction. The harvest truly was ready ! 

And how the bread " cast upon the waters " is found 
" after many days " was seen in the case of Dallington 



112 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1877 



Maftaa, a Nyasa boy, a released slave, who had not been 
looked on as a great credit to the Mission. 

This boy went with Stanley on his tramp through 
Africa, and was left by him in Uganda. 

He now wrote to the Bishop : 

" WANTAGALA. April 23, 1876. 
"Mv DEAR BISHOP, 

"Let thy heart be turned to thy servant, and let me have 
favour in thy sight; therefore send me Swahili prayers, and send 
me one big black Bible. I want slates, board, chalk, that I may 
teach the Waganda the way of God. I been teach them already, 
but I want you to send me Litala Suudi, that he may help me 
in the work of God. Oh ! my Lord, pray for me ; oh ! ye boys, 
pray for me. And if thou refuse to send Litala Suudi, send John 
Swedi. Your honour to the Queen, and my honour to you. 

" J. SCOPION, alias DALLINGTON MAFTAA. 

" I am translating the Bible to Mtesa, son of Suna, King of 
Uganda. I was with Henry M, Stanley, together with Robert 
Feruzi, but Robert is gone with Stanley, but I being stop (/>., 
am staying) in Uganda, translating the Bible." 

Another Uganda lad, Henry Wright Duta, who subse 
quently passed through Kiungani School, was afterwards 
ordained for the Native Church in that country. 

In 1877 Bishop Steere paid a visit to England 

Bishop Steere s 

visit to for health s sake. One of the great hindrances 

England. 

to tropical African work is that every tew years 
a missionary must come home for health s sake ; making a 
break, often disastrous in the working of a station. And 
yet there are compensations. The work does not depend 
on one man when his place has so often to be taken ; 
much knowledge of the Mission is diffused in England, 
and fresh workers are influenced. 



1877] WORK IN THE ISLAND AND ON THE MAINLAND. 113 



During this visit, the University of Oxford 

Degree of D.D. 

honoured itself by conferring the honorary de- conferred by 
gree of D.D. on the Bishop, " amid the tumul 
tuous plaudits of graduates and undergraduates." 

Among the fresh workers found were the Rev. Rev F and 
F. R. Hodgson and Mrs. Hodgson, who have Mr3 - K^- 
worked ever since in the interests of the Mission either in 
Africa or England ; and Miss Thackeray, still Miss 
at work in the island, where she will ever be Thacke y- 
remembered for the new life she put into the teaching of 
the girls, as well as into the Industrial Home. 

At this time the funds were known to be low. Pre3entof 12 o 
Shortly before the Bishop " felt ashamed to say inffitS to 



they had not proper houses to live in or food i 
to eat." Now, quite spontaneously, 120 was sent to Mr. 
Randolph, who was in charge, from all ranks and nation 
alities in Zanzibar, as a present, lest the missionaries should 
go without the comforts necessary for their health in that 
climate a pretty strong testimony to the love and respect 
with which they were regarded. 

The failing funds were clue to the large num- 

r f , The March 

ber ot treed slaves the Mission had been taking. of the 

_.. Freed Slaves. 

Fifty more had been received in the Bishops 
absence, and drafted off to Kiungani and Mbweni. First 
the procession, passing through the city, would leave the 
smaller orphan boys in the town, the little boys running 
out of their house and claiming their contingent. The 
next halt would be at Kiungani ; and here one clay a 
touching scene was enacted. The wretched, spiritless men 
were resting before going on to Mbweni, where homes 
would be allotted them, when a boy, Kalonda, came out 
of the laundry, looked about, and with a shout rushed up 

I 



114 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1875-7 



to one of the men, crying, " Oh, father ! " The greeting 
on both sides may be imagined. It was an old story the 
hunter returning from the forest to find his home desolate, 
his few goods plundered, and his son carried off by the 
Maviti. The poor man, looking for a safe place to settle 
in, was seized a few months later, and owing to this second 







MISSION HOUSE AT UMISA. 

misfortune found his son. Father and son were not again 
parted, and he remained at Kiungani. 
offshoots of ^ lle fi rst ff s h ot of Magila was Pambili, 
Magiia. about three miles off, founded 1876. The second 



was Umba. Mr. Farler and his assistants were accustomed 
to walk to neighbouring villages, preach and talk to the 
people in apostolic style ; and their journals read like 
pieces out of the Acts of the Apostles. Thus they became 



1877] WORK IN THE ISLAND AND ON THE MAINLAND. 115 



aware, to use their own expression, that they were " work 
ing against time " ; i.e., it was a race for the conversion of 
Africa between us and Mohammedanism. The African 
Arabs are propagandist, and are rapidly bringing the 
natives under obedience to Islam. 

At Umba was a larije mosque, where Mo- 

1877. 

hammedans played the part of the Tews towards Preaching 

at Umba. 

early Christians, insulting the converts as they 
passed to the coast. A three days mission was decided 
on. Umba was then the great market between the corn- 
growing district and the coast. It was full moon when 
the missionaries arrived and declared to the chief that they 
meant to preach every evening. He gave permission, 
saying there would be few hearers, as, according to cus 
tom, they were all dancing at full moon. 

Quite undaunted, they lit a fire, sang a hymn, and 
preached to the few who would listen, on Judgment and 
the Life to come. A few more came and listened, and 
asked questions up to eleven o clock. The rest went on 
dancing. 

Next night a much larger congregation came to hear 
of the Fall and Redumption. The bold statement that 
" Christ is God," caused an uproar among the Moham 
medans, but the preacher went on steadily, and afterwards 
many questions were asked about our Lord. 

" On the last evening no dancers were left ; all camu to the 
preaching. The interest was intense, many having come from 
other towns ; for we had announced the subject, A Contrast 
between the Life of Mohammed and the Life of Jesus Christ. 
While the evil and impure life of Mohammed was being con 
trasted with the holy and blessed life of Jesus, not a sound was 
heard. When we had finished, a man stepped forward and said, 



Tl6 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1878 

\\ r e became Mohammedans because we had no religion, and the 
coast people came and taught us theirs ; but we don t like them, 
for they cheat us, and if Christianity is better than Islam, we will 
follow it. " 

It was a remarkable scene. Under the intensely bright 
light of an African moon stood the missionary and his 
young catechist, Acland Sahera, surrounded by those dark, 
earnest laces, asking question after question till past mid 
night. 

And the three days mission bore such fruit that in three 
years time the deserted mosque was in ruins ; while first 
Air. Phillips, and then Mr. Yorke, had built up such a 
Christian Church that the week-day service was attended 
by nearly 7 fifty natives. 

At this time the well-known traveller Stanley 
Return of arrived at Zanzibar from the Cape. He had 
started from Zanzibar with a Swahili guard of 
300 mtMi, women, and children, had worked his way west 
ward, tracing the whole course of the Lualaba or Congo. 
Hardship and war had reduced his escort to 150. On 
reaching the Cape there were not wanting those who 
would have had him proceed at once to Europe, where 
he was eagerly expected. But he had given his word 
to his Arabs to take them back to Zanzibar, and, however 
inconvenient, that word, was kept. Robert Feruzi was 
one of his most trusted men throughout. 

1878 The next year Miss Allen began a Mothers 

among the Meeting for the first time in Zanzibar, while 

women. Miss Hinton i oo k c d after the babies. This was 
beginning at the right end, since " the nation comes from 
the nursery," and henceforth we must expect to trace a 
firmer foothold for native Christianity. 



iS;9] WORK IN THE ISLAND AND ON THE MAINLAND. II" 



Miss Allen also visited the Arab ladies in their own 
homes, and gives a striking account of a scene like the 
reading of the English Bible in Wickliffe s days. 

She had taken an Arabic Bible with her, and visit to an 
the master of the house took it and read the Arab House 
first chapter of Genesis to the ladies of the family, stopping 
at " God made man in His own image," to ask what it 
meant. "God has no body like ours." When explained 
as speaking of man s moral nature, he seemed pleased ; 
and he went on to the second chapter. He highly ap 
proved of Eve s having come from Adam s side, and 
explained that, according to Arab legend, Adam had an 
extra lump of fat to spare for Eve. Then his eyes failed 
him (for he suffered from ophthalmia), and his sister went 
on reading, till they stopped to ask "which was the greater, 
Christ or Mohammed ? " 

Mr. Johnson at this time was for a few months at 
Mbweni, having been ordained priest September 21 this 
year. "His preachings and catechizings have been endless, 
and he has established night schools and mission services 
in several adjoining villages. The natives call him the 
man that never sits down. " 

In every Mission there are years of begin- 1879 
nings, of progress, and of completion. Such a 
year of completion was 1879, when the church 
was finished externally, and the Swahili New 
Testament and Prayer- Book completed, so that on May I 
the whole Liturgy was used for the first time in Swahili. 
The occasion was the first Communion of a party of 
natives from Masasi who had come up for Confirmation. 

Another crowning of work was the ordination of John 
Swedi as a deacon on Trinity Sunday the first of the 



Il8 II/STORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1879 

Junes native races to receive Holy Orders. He was 
so gre.itly beloved in the Island that when he 



DeaSonintSe started for Masasi hardly any one came to see 

Mission. ] lim Q fy. t ] 1C y cou ] c | not j-) ear to bj c | Yiim g 00( ]_ 

bye in public. 

Other important events this year were the ordination 
of A. C. Goldfinch (for Masasi) and Charles Yorke (for 

Rev j p Usambara) as deacons ; the appointment of the 
^delifoh Rcv - J- P - Farler as Archdeacon of Magiia, 

Magiia. on ^j s re turn from ]r n gland ; the arrival of 

Miss Bashforcl in April, and the coming 1 out of Miss 

Dore Yarnton Mills, who has worked happily 

Dec 8 

Arrival of for the Mission ever since. Six weeks later, 
on St. Paul s Day, she took up the work which 
for sixteen years has been connected with her name 
the care of the little boys, first at Mkunazini, and after 
wards at Kilimani. Thus she took the place of Miss 
Ilinton, who on that day married the Rev. F. J. Williams. 

The newly-married pair went to Kaulc, one of the 
Usambara stations ; she was the first lady of the Univer 
sities Mission to work on the mainland. Their arrival 
had been made necessary by the death of the Rev. Charles 
Yorke on the evening of the Epiphany. 

His work at Umba and elsewhere had been 

The Rev. 

ovaries Yorke much blessed. 1 here is a letter civiner an 

at Umba. 

account of his wrestling by prayer and argu 
ment for the soul of an old dying woman, turning out 
the charmers in the face of a council gathered against him, 
and finally having her baptized and buried as a Christian, 
allowing no wailing till the first Christian funeral at 
Umba was over. He was much loved, and being laid 
up on Christmas Day at Magiia, had striven to reach 



i88o] WORK IN THE ISLAND AND ON THE MAINLAND. 119 



his people again two days later, bringing on Jan 6 
a return of fever, of which he died, and was HisDeath - 
laid to rest near the newly enlarged church of St. John 
Baptist, Umba, beside Maria Mapindu, his convert. 
He was the first of the Mission clergy to be 

. . . . A Contrast. 

buried on the mainland since that little group 
of graves by the Shire. At the Mission Anniversary that 
year, Bishop Harvey Goodwin (Carlisle), the biographer 
of Mackenzie, drew attention to the contrast of the deser 
tion and loneliness of the first Bishop s death, and the 
Hagar-like putting his grave out of sight, with the love 
and attention surrounding Charles Yorke, dying amid his 
converts, carried to the grave by catechumens, and mourned 
by all Umba. In those eighteen years the doctrine of 
"Jesus and the Resurrection" had indeed been a light to 
lighten African darkness. 

The glimpses given above of daily life at Dai iy Lifeat 
Kiungani and Mbweni are completed by one Mkunazini - 
of daily life at Mkunazini in icS8o. After 6.30 Mattins, 
attended by all the Mission, came 7 o clock breakfast 
at a common table, with Miss Mills little boys at two 
tables in the same refectory. Afterwards Miss Allen 
would attend a crowd of out-patients from the city, 
gathered at the door, the Bishop directing the work 
people, or interviewing and writing notes to the various 
members of the Mission, who asked his advice on every 
topic, from the planting of a station to the management 
of a refractory girl. 

Miss Bashford had the charge of the little waifs received 
from the slave dhows, and in the intervals of her care of 
them she may be found setting up Arabic type in the 
printing office, and Miss Mills, assisted by her native 



I 




MISS UASHFORH (MRS. HALM DAY) AND TIIK NURSERY CHILDREN 
( Under ike Organ chamber of Christ Churcli). 



i879-So] IVORK IN THE ISLAND AND ON THE MAINLAND. 121 



boy, is in her school. A short noonday service in chapel, 
and then dinner for the whole family. In the afternoon 
came school again, and visitors Arabs for discussion, 
English sailors or guests from the mainland. The trans 
lations go forward, parcels from home are opened and 
repacked for the various stations, until the Bishop comes 
in to tea, followed by a sunset evensong. 

There are prayers again at nine, after supper, and then 
in the common sitting-room reading, talking, or writing 
for the mail till bed-time. 

This sounds interesting for once, but results arc pro 
duced by the daily repetition of years. There is a blessed 
drudgery in mission work as in home work a constant 
learning by doing the same things, a constant progress 
by doing them better. A missionary s motto should be, 
" This one thing I do forgetting those things which are 
behind, and reaching forth unto those things that are 
before, I press towards the mark." 

A Temperance Society was first formed in 
Zanzibar in 1879. There is a great deal of Tcmperanco 

Society. 

drunkenness there and on the coast, for even the 
Mohammedans arc not so strict as in many places, and 
secret drinking goes on among them. The natives brew 
pombi, a sort of beer, and have regular markets Nat i VO 
for it, and much drunkenness is caused by it. D nkcnncss - 
It did not need the European and his rum to teach this 
vice to the African, though rum finishes a drunkard off 
more quickly than pombi. 

Another improvement was a traction engine. ThoTract ion 
Whatever doubts may exist as to the use of En s mc - 
civilization as an aid to Christianizing the world, road- 
making has certainly helped to spread the gospel message 



122 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES AH SSI ON. [1879-80 



from the days of the Romans downwards, and to this pur 
pose the engine was applied, working at one time for Seyid 
Barghash for making the Mbweni road, at ,100 a mile. 
state of the Allusion has been made several times to the 
"charms" believed in by Africans. Indeed 

Qf terroi% j s the on j y re ligi O US 






Coast African. 




THE TRACTION KNGINE IN ZANZIBAR 
(;l/r. Bcllinshatn on t/ic right). 



emotion of the African. Love and reverence he 
nothing of. Bishop Steerc once said that as his outward 
life is full of fear and uncertainty war, famine, slave raids 
so is his inward life. 

"The East Coast Africans are not idolaters; they all believe 
in God, but they think of Him as too great and too far off to care 



i879-So] WORK IN THE ISLAND AND ON THE MAINLAND. 123 

individually for them. Their whole thoughts are full of evil 
spirits and malicious witchcraft. A man gropes his way through 
his life, peopling the darkness round him with fearful shapes, and 
on the continual look-out for some omen or for some man who, 
as he supposes, knows more than he does of the invisible world 
to give him some faltering guidance. His life is dark, his death 
is darker still. His friends dare not even let it be known where 
his body is laid, lest some evil use should be made of it. No 
man in the whole world has more need of inward strengthening 
and comfort, and no man in the whole world has less of it." 

Nvuncfu, a erreat medicine man, became a Nyungu, the 

Medicine 

catechumen at this time. He had become chief Man. 
through his charms, for which great presents were brought 
to him. Twice he was about to become a catechumen, 
but lapsed at the last minute. He could not bring him 
self to give up his charms. He told Mr. Farlcr that he 
would be laughed at. A third lapse made his conversion 
seem hopeless, but at length he was admitted and made 
his answers with great energy, exclaiming when asked, 
" Will you renounce the devil, forsaking witchcraft and 
charms?" "They are no good; they are no good. I 
renounce them ; I cast them all away." His conversion 
made a great impression on the natives, whom he did not 
cease to warn of the foolishness of Uganga. lie was bap 
tized by the name of Solomon. 

And thus, through evil report and good report, amid 
disappointments and successes, by means of consecrated 
lives of daily self-denial, as well as by holy lives laid down, 
the Church of God went forth in Eastern Africa conquer 
ing and to conquer. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

ON TIII-: KIK;K OF TIII-; \VILDKRNKSS. 





r 



HERE is a land which lies between Lake Nyasa and 
the Indian Ocean. It is, roughly speaking, bounded 
bv the seventh degree of southern latitude on 

The Rovuma . 

District and the north, and by the Zambesi basin on the 
south. This land was in 18/4 quite unknown 
to Englishmen almost to Europeans. The Portuguese 
had indeed dwelt in the coast towns for 400 years without 
caring for their African neighbours, without exploring their 
country or knowing much about them ; while, if it is too 
much to sav that they actively promoted the slave trade, 
they did little to hinder it. 

Phis country is described by the Rev. Chauncy Maples 
about ten years after Bishop Stcerc s first visit, and the 
following account is taken from his words : 

The largest river in this tract of 140,000 

Later Descrip- .. . . , . T . . 

tionbytne square miles is the Rovuma, up which Living- 
Rev. C. Maples. 

stone tried to take Bishop Mackenzie. Rising 

near the Great Lake, it falls into the sea north of Cape 



1 874] ON THE EDGE OF THE WILDERNESS. 125 



Delgado. Its great southern tributary, the Lujenda, has 
a still longer course north-west from Lake Shirwa. 
Throughout most of this district, but especially 

3 ThoMakuao. 

south of the Rovuma, are found the Makua 
nation, " a peace-loving, industrious, harmless people, of 
very average intelligence, as these races go, and very 
amenable to civilizing influences when judiciously exer 
cised." One centre of this race is to be found at Meto, 
where the forest is quite cleared, and cultivation has reached 
some excellence. The Yao race, so well known 

The Yaos. 

by the flying party (Ajawa) who came to the 
Shire, has its home in the fork between the Rovuma and 
the Lujenda and give our missionaries a ready welcome. 
The Nyasas dwell here and there on the shores 

, Tho Nyasas. 

of the lake. 

Two more tribes of some importance are found ThoMakon(10 
on either side of the mouth of the Rovuma- aSdShe? 
on a high plateau, extending about 100 miles 
inland, divided by the river basin. These are the Makonde, 
on the north, industrious cultivators, trading chiefly in 
india-rubber, and the Mavia on the south. Nearer the 
Zambesi are the fierce Walomwe, while scattered along the 
Rovuma are remnants of the Mwera, Donde, Gindo, and 
other tribes. 

The race which is the terror of the land is of foreign 
extraction. " Tis sixty years since " a Zulu army, so says 
tradition, sent forth against their enemies, suffered defeat. 
This is penal among the Zulus, and had they returned 
the punishment would have be-jn decimation. A happy 
thought occurred to them not to return, and they pushed 
northwards till they came to Nyasa, settled on both sides 
of the lake, and became a great tribe, under various names, 



126 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1875 



The Ma of which Magwangwara and Maviti are the best 
gwangwara known. Their raids are a sore trouble to the 

and Maviti. 

more peaceful tribes. They preserve the Zulu 
fighting tradition, and " dip their spears in blood " almost 
annually. They have dreams of a universal empire in 
Central Africa, not unbecoming a Napoleon or an Emperor 
of Russia, and they hold the other tribes in vassalage. 

The Bishop s ^ nto tn ^ s district Bishop Steere in 1875 made 
in^heR^vunKi a pioneer expedition, landing at Lindi, march- 
District, 1875. in ^ r through forest to the Rovuma, and, crossing 
it, passed through the Yao district to Mataka s village, 
Mwembe, about seventy miles from Lake Nyasa. 

idea of a ^ was ^ ais j urne > ^"hich made him hopeful 
^age^the 1 " f lading some of the freed slaves in the island 

Mainland. back to their f ormer homes, and planting in the 

wilderness a Christian village. Therefore, from among the 
families at Mbweni a certain number were carefully selected, 
chief!) married couples, regard being shown to the willing 
ness of both husband and wife. Thus thirty-one men and 
twenty-four women were ready to start for a return to their 
native land by October, 18/6. Not many of 
start from them were baptized, but all were under in- 

Mbweni. , < . , . , , T 

struction, and John Almasi and barah .Lozi, 
native leaders, and four Kiungani lads were Christians. 
The Rev. W. P. Johnson, just admitted to deacon s Orders, 
was the spiritual head, and Mr. Bearclall lay superinten 
dent. 

Landing at The Bishop himself led the people to their 
Lindi, Oct. is. sctt ] ement? taking with him a link with the 
earliest clays of the Mission the portable altar brought 
out by Bishop Mackenzie and left at the Cape. Bishop 
Tozer carried it on to Zanzibar, and now, when at length 



1876] ON THE EDGE OF THE WILDERNESS. 127 



the Mission had set its face towards Nyasa, the little altar 
went too. Captain Crohan, of the Flying Fish, kindly 
towed the hired dhow, containing the natives, as far as 

o 

Lindi, which they reached on St. Luke s Day. 
In another week they had hired porters, and 

The March. 

the caravan of two hundred people was ready 
to start. Each settler was provided with an axe and a 
hoe ; there was food to carry, and bales of cloth to act as 
money. Chuma was the caravan leader. Following the 
course of the Ukcredi, they marched through a district 
stricken with famine, and passed through the dense Mwera 
Forest, asking for food at every halting-place, but finding 
none ; but everywhere they heard the cheering news, 
" There is plenty at Masasi." 

At length they reached this favoured spot. Arrival at 

T-,. , Masasi, 

Bishop Steere writes : NOV. 9. 

" We had been gradually rising all this time, and were now 
rather more than 1,000 feet above the sea, when we emerged 
upon broad, open, cultivated slopes, backed by mountainous 
masses of granite rock. Very soon we passed two streams ot 
purer water than we had seen for a long time, and made our way 
to a village lying between two of the rocky summits with ample 
space about it. Here we found ourselves among the Yaos." 

Immediately they were in a land of plenty. More than 
eleven dozen fowls were brought to them, and while these 
were being cooked, the natives observed that this mountain 
had " graces in abundance." Next morning a man came 
with a humble offering of a fowl. He had been set free, 
and kindly treated by the English, he said, and was de 
lighted to welcome them. Chuma knew him as one of his 
fellow-slaves, freed by Livingstone and Mackenzie. 

And now the African nature asserted itself. Side by 



1 28 HISTORl OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1876 



side with great patience, there often exists a want of stead 
fast purpose, making sustained exertion a difficulty. The 
Mbweni people looked upon the land, and saw that it \vas 
pleasant ; they heard spoken around them the Yao tongue, 
familiar to man} of them, and they thought of the long 
journey to their former homes near Nyasa, and their hearts 
failed them. 

" It was just such a spot as the pioneer monks of 
Proposal to . . 

Remain at old, seeking for a habitation for the Lord of Hosts, 

would have chosen for a centre, and founded such an 
abbey as Fulda, in the German Wald, or Edmundsbury in the 
plains of Suffolk ; and when the weary people looked upon the 
prospect . . . they longed for a rest to their journeyings, 
and said, Great master, let us cease our wanderings here. True, 
this is not our home, but it is like our home. We might seek for 
years among the forests, and never find the exact spot we were 
stolen from by the Arabs ; here is plenty of water, everything 
grows well, and war is all but unknown. We are among our own 
people. Here we will live, and here we will die. " 

On inquiry it seemed that, at present, food was unattain 
able elsewhere. There were great difficulties in leading- 
such a caravan further through a land of famine. So the 
Bishop " accepted it as the voice of God," and determined 
to plant the colony at Masasi. 

Permission to settle here was readily granted by the 
chief, Xamkumba, a great smelter and worker in iron, 
whose furnaces were old ant-hills, which are harder than 
any concrete, and to whom the Bishop made suitable pre 
sents of calico, brass wire, and ornamental cloths, 
settlement Immediately the colonists set to work as one 
at Masasi. man> The Bj s h O p marked out a site for the 
Mission House on an elevation. Then a road, forty feet 



1 876] 



ON THE EDGE OF THE WILDERNESS. 



129 



wide, was marked, leading thence to the river, and on each 
side allotments of nearly half an acre each were arranged, 
running back to the granite rocks, and the couples were 
given their choice. They stood this test of good temper 
and industry well ; they put up bamboo houses at once, 
and in a fortnight the beginnings of a Christian village 
were arising at Masasi. Fowl-houses and pigeon-houses 
were not forgot 
ten, and the for 
est rang with 
their axes clear 
ing a space for 
their crops. The 
neighbouring 
chiefs watched 
with deep inter 
est this Christian 
village in their 
midst, and hum 
bly asked if, 
when their 
houses were 

thatched, they would allow the rain to fall, which was 
much needed ! The oxen and donkey which had come 
from Mbweni were a great interest, especially the latter, 
and when he brayed an admiring crowd ran together. 
There was such loss among the hen-roosts at first, that 
thieves were suspected, till a leopard was found preying on 
them, and the unaccustomed hunters slew him with some 
difficulty. 

Then the Mission Mouse was built, and as the granite 
rocks were soft and easy to work, the chancel of the 




DCK. MASASI. 



130 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1876 

church was raised at once of stone, with ant-hill earth as 
mortar, a temporary thatched nave being added. An Arab 
chief at Lindi sent up a present of fruit trees orange, 
lemon, mango, guava, Jack-fruit, and choice cocoa-nut 
trees and with these the roacls were bordered. 

The Bishop speaks much of the exceeding beauty of the 
view, where two granite peaks, united by a saddle, showed 
a third rising behind ; in other directions was a varied 
panorama of plain and cliff, forest and distant hills, while 
great granite boulders, piled up and covered with gorgeous 
lichens gleaming in the sun, made up a scene of truly 
African grandeur. 

Five young men and boys accompanied 

Bishop Steere , 

Returns to Jksliop Stcerc on his return to Zanzibar, and 

Zanzibar. . . 

learning much in a lew weeks, returned to 
Masasi in the nick of time ; for the neighbours, having 
decided that the village was meant as a base of operations 
for enslaving them all, had decided to go up and burn it. 
On the return of their friends they changed their minds, 
and sent fresh pupils to the Mission instead. 
Difficulties of Thus the colony was started. It was a bold 
the venture. _ per h aps too bold venture. For it was not 
merely making a Mission centre, quite unsupported and 
cut off, but it was transplanting thither a bod)- of men, 
whose home it was not, and so becoming responsible for 
their good behaviour and safety in a strange land. 

"In what way, it may be asked, was this com 
munity governed by the missionaries ? They had 
two alternatives : either to form a statelet, make laws and inflict 
punishments, which would sooner or later involve them in native 
politics, or to maintain the village as a religious community, 
whose only weapon was excommunication, other penalties being 



1876] ON THE EDGE OF THE WILDERNESS. 131 



willingly endured as discipline, or not at all. They chose the 
latter." 

It was soon found that Masasi, with its breezy position 
and absence of swamps, was as healthy a place as could be 
found within the tropics. Plants flourished so well that 
the cassava crop alone would have fed them for two years 
in the failure of other food. There are also salt workings 
and surface iron works in the neighbourhood. 

Here the missionaries first began to influence The 
the great Makua tribe, who dwell throughout Makuas - 
the eastern half of the Rovuma district, about three 
hundred miles by two hundred and fifty. They are a 
singularly dull, unreceptive race, believing in very little, 
and very tenacious of that little. Their language is a very 
persistent variety of the Bantu tongues, neither time nor 
distance modifying it much. They don t care to be taught, 
and don t believe in what they are taught, while they have 
a strong prejudice (not wholly confined to Africa) against 
using their minds. Their customs are, however, more 
moral than in many places. Early marriages are common, 
the prohibited degrees are extended to all relations, and 
infanticide is forbidden. The Yaos, on the other hand, 
who live side by side with the Makua, are quick, lively, 
and intelligent. 

For nearly seven years the colony at Masasi A <( city set 
grew and prospered. The heathen around uponahi11 -" 
watched them, for Masasi was indeed " a city set upon a 
hill." First they sa\v that the Christian natives observed a 
sacred day, on which they did not work, but praised God ; 
and whatever may be thought of the " Sunday Question " 
in England, there at least this is the abiding mark of a 
Christian, Next they noticed that on that clay they tidied 



132 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1876-82 

themselves and were clean ; and gradually they allowed 
their boys to go to the school, stipulating that the attend 
ance should be quite voluntary on the boys part. " They 
could do as they liked." 

t tnc cnc ^ f the m st tcn months the Rev. 



The Rev c. 

Chauncy Maples and Mr. J. Williams were 

appointed to take the place of Mr. Johnson, 
August, is??. who was inva]idcd to Zanzibar, and on his re 

covery took charge at Mbweni. 

Mr. Maples and Mr. Williams soon started on a journey 
to see and make friends with a much dreaded chief 
Machemba who received them gladly, and gave them 
two boys to take back to school. They also went to 
Xewala, a populous district about fifty miles south of 
Masasi, and obtained leave from Matola, a Yao chief, to 
found a new mission station there. 

1878> In May, 1878, a fresh batch of natives, sent 

Foundation down from Mbweni, were settled at Newala, 
ofNewaia. undcr thc carc of the Rey Hcrbcrt Clarke, a 

newly ordained deacon ; the chief showing himself very 
friendly. 

Little did they think that in founding this station they 
were to some extent providing their own retreat in future 
troubles, practically proving the truth that as long as a 
Church does its duty in extending missions, its candlestick- 
will not wholly be removed. 

First Aduit The freed slaves, planted by the Mission itself 

a? a Mas S Si, at Masasi and Newala, were the nucleus of all 

e9 operations, and at Whitsuntide the first sixteen 

of these were baptized, and in March, 1879, came their 

confirmation and first communion at Zanzibar, already 

mentioned. 



i8;S] 



ON THE EDGE OF THE WILDERNESS. 



Treaty be- J ust as three years earlier Mr. Farler had 
sultan and made peace in Usambara, so now Mr. Clarke, 



and Makua, scnt by Mr. Maples, arranged a Treaty on the 

7l Rovuma between the Makua, the warlike 

Maviti, and the agents of the Sultan of Zanzibar. In 




THE RIVER ROYUMA, NEAR NEVVALA. 

grass huts, on a sandy islet in the Rovuma, the Arabs and 
missionaries pitched one Saturday night, the natives being 
on the banks. On Sunday Mr. Clarke preached to an 
attentive Makua congregation, who, however, nearly lost 
heart that night, and consulted him about running quietly 



134 HISTORY OF THE UNfrERSITIES* MISSION. [1881 

away. In the afternoon he went to the Maviti camp and 
found them looking well, in skin coats, with bright spears. 
Next day the Maviti, numbering sixty, and a hundred 
Makuas came to the meeting, and made peace, promising 
not to catch each other for slaves ; to let the Sultan s agent 
settle disputes ; and to put no bar in the way of a road the 
Sultan wished to make to the coast. The hostile chiefs 
shook hands, and thus once more the Church was the 
minister of peace. 

1879 In less than a year Mr. Clarke had to be 

March is. w ithdrawn from Newala, to take charge of 
Masasi during Mr. Maples visit to England. Matola 
came up from Newala to bid the latter good-bye, and to 
beg for a resident. He promised that his people should 
not work on Sundays, and said, " Until you come back we 
have no one to teach us about God and Jesus Christ." 

Before the end of 1879 the Rev. \Y. P. Johnson and 
the Revs. A. C. Goldfinch and John Swedi were sent to 
Masasi ; and a school in the neighbourhood was put under 
the young native deacon at once, "a really first-rate 
deacon," Mr. Maples calls him. 

1880. 1 nc next year Mr. Maples returned from 

England, and in 1881 he and Mr. Goldfinch 
took a grand pioneer journey, with intent to learn some 
thing of the power and distribution of the various tribes. 

June. Journeying east from Newala, the) inspected 

J R U ev n s ey c f the Makondc district, and found it too thinly 

A.^Goidfinch populated to justify planting a mission centre 

toMeto. t j lcrCi Then turning south, the)- crossed the 

Rovuma, and visited the chief of the dreaded Maviti in 

their stronghold at the foot of a rock on the Msalu. The 

chief, Chiwaru, oddly enough, was a Makua. These 



1 88 1] av THE EDGE OF THE WILDERNESS. 135 



Maviti, having wandered away from Nyasa, placed them 
selves under him, on condition of being allowed to settle 
there. The Maviti now came to Chiwaru, danced a fierce 
war-dance, and asked him to explain his guests. They 
listened quietly to the explanation ; but when Mr. Maples 
had preached on the iniquity of war, and the love of God, 
for twenty minutes, they began to dance again, as a sign 
that they thought the sermon long enough ! 

Next the missionaries turned their steps towards the 
capital of Meto. They had heard much beforehand of the 
power and fame of Mwaliya, king of the Makua land of 
Meto. The approach to the capital was like a picture 
from the Arabian Nights. The vale of Meto is watered by 
bright and sparkling streams, and is in such a high state 
of cultivation that only the cocoa-nut palm, the mango, 
and the cashew apple arc allowed to grow, all others being 
cleared away. A salute was fired in honour of At Mwaiiya s, 
Mr. Maples, and they were bidden to answer it ; Jul y 12 - 
and then they entered the royal presence, to find the 
sovereign sitting on a table, enveloped, face and all, in a 
silken cloth, like a veiled prophet. Great was their amaze 
and disgust when, throwing back the veil, a giggling youth 
of nineteen sprang down, in a state of intoxicated excite 
ment, chattered, sang, and played the concertina. This 
poor dissipated youth is in truth a powerful ruler, and he 
accompanied his guests a day s journey on the road to 
Mozambique, and sent guides with them, and letters of 
introduction for the coast people. Emerging at last from 
this Terra Incognita at Chisanga, it caused them a revul 
sion of feeling to be met by the truly European demand 
for " Passports." Such is the reel tape of Portuguese 
officialism. 



136 HISTORY OI^ THE CNfJ EKS/r/ES* MfSS/OA r . [1882 
Finally they reached Masasi aiiain, after more 

Return to 

Masasi, than ten weeks absence, having travelled nine 

Aug. 25. 

hundred miles through an unknown country. 
In ever} place they had preached the Gospel, and told 
why they came ; they had found out where not to place 
stations, as well as where they might do so ; they had 
made friends with man} Makua chiefs, and visits con 
tinued to be paid to such as were within visiting distance 
of Masasi. 

On Christmas Eve the new and larger church 

Opening of ^ 

Masasi church, at Masasi was opened. There were five priests 

Dec. 24. . . * 

present, including the Rev. W. P. Johnson, en 
route for Nyasa. All the Christians assembled, the men 
on one side, and the women on the other, each in three 
distinct groups of baptized, catechumens, and hearers. 
Beside each group Mr. Maples offered prayer, till at the 
chancel step he paused : 

" I alone remained standing. To my mind it was a very 
solemn moment ; there was such a peculiar silence throughout 
the whole kneeling body that I could scarce trust myself to break 
it by lifting up my voice, and praying to the Son for ourselves. 

. . It is given to one, once or twice in a lifetime, to feel 
those great silences, which seem to bring the Unseen so awfully 
and solemnly near." 

The church was then, with prayer and hymns of praise, 
set apart for the service of God. 

Another year or two of happy peaceful work was granted 
to Masasi, and then came trouble. 

Stories of the approach of the Magwangwara 

August. began to be circulated, but as they were 350 

The Raid 

of the miles off no one believed them. The Revs. 
Magwangwara T,T.,I- 

Chauncy Maples and William Porter were now 



iSS2] ON THE EDGE OF THE WILDERNESS. 137 



at Masasi ; and after consulting the native tribes around, 
Mr. Maples decided on going to meet the victorious army, 
while Mr. Porter remained in charge. 

As the Christians were coming out of church on Sunday 
morning, a wounded man rushed in, reporting that the 
enemy were at Majcjc, sixty miles off, and had shaken 
their spears towards Masasi. 

Unluckily Mr. Maples missed them ; for, while Se t 15 
his party were taking a short sleep in the heat 
of the day, they slipped by. Mr. Maples turned 
and raced the enemy back, hoping to give the alarm. 
Alas ! as they came in sight of their village, columns of 
smoke showed that they were too late. 

"Standing as we then all fully believed ourselves to be," 
writes Mr. Maples, "on the verge of Eternity, we kneeled down 
with one accord and prayed for a time." 

Immediately his five brave natives were felled to the earth, 
cut down as they rose, and Mr. Maples was only saved by 
being the first white man the Magwangwara had ever seen. 
Their astonishment cooled their fury, and they set the 
party free, telling them to surrender in the village. But 
well assured that it was too late to save the village they 
made their escape with difficulty to Newala, and reached 
it starving to find that their good friend Matola had nobly 
remained behind when all the other chiefs had fled to the 
hills, in order to receive and help the fugitives. 
Before Mr. Maples left the village a difficult 

Tho Attack. 

question had been solved. Should they use 
arms, fortify the Mission House, and fight in defence of 
their freed slaves ? Should they abandon the place, as the 
Makuas did? or should they submit to circumstances? 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1882 



The\- decided against taking up arms, and warned their 
people that if no resistance were offered, probably all lives 
would be spared. They were right. In the first onslaught, 
when one or two frightened people offered a feeble resist 
ance, three adults were speared, and worse still, four chil 
dren slain before their parents eyes. The rest were held 
to ransom. Mr. Porter, expending his cloth, 

The Ransom. 

bought back all but twenty-nine of the villagers, 
and these were carried back to Xyasa by their captors. 

Waiting only to obtain barter goods, Mr. 

Mr. Porter s 11 ^ r 

journey I ortcr and thirtv bearers started alter them, 

(September). 

pursuing them to their own country, to find that 
nine of the prisoners had escaped, died, or been murdered 
on the way, and ten more being already scattered among 
the villages, there remained only ten to redeem. With 
these he returned after a sojourn of nearly four weeks 
among the Magwangwara. As they were desirous of killing 
a white man, and using his heart as a charm, he and they 
must both have used great self-restraint. They sent back 
by Mr. Porter, indeed, a blunted spear in token of peace ; 
but this was not believed in. 

1883, June. The whole district was now reduced to vas- 

emp?ra?nv sa ^ a ^" c under the Magwangwani, paying a yearly 

Abandoned. tributc> In thc f o n mv j n o- j unc it was decided 

to abandon beautiful Masasi temporarily, and to take thc 
settlers to the neighbourhood of their own off-shoot 
Newala. Thus in their hour of trouble the mother was 
saved by thc daughter, "thc branch of their own planting." 
Altogether about one hundred went to Xcwala, eighty 
returned to Mbweni, and a few lingered on at Masasi. 

This episode opened up the whole question as to the 
duty of the Christian missionary in thc hour of such 



1 882] ON THE EDGE OF THE WILDERNESS. 139 



peril as this. Ought he to fly with, or without, 
his flock? Ought he to persist in remaining 
and use no weapons but moral suasion? Ought the p ^JJ rof 
he, in any way, to defend his people by resist 
ance ? May he fight in defence or in attack ? 

The wisest heads were puzzled. And the advice given 
practically amounted to "you must judge for yourself at 
the moment " ; as, indeed, Mr. Maples and Mr. Porter 
did ; and, situated as they were, they did the best possible. 
There is less difficulty in Missions to any native tribe or 
nation. There the missionary can but let them govern 
themselves and fight their own battles ; withdrawing if 
driven away, or suffering martyrdom if needs be. 

But when a missionary goes as sole head of a tribe of 
released men, who yet are not a tribe, whose native cus 
toms have been interrupted and who are wholly dependent 
on the Mission for all ideas of education, government, 
religion and defence, it is a piteous thing to say that either 
in peace they must judge and punish their flock, and in 
war lead them to defend themselves ; or that otherwise they 
must sit still with tied hands, and see the flock carried into 
captivity. Mr. Porter did indeed " go after that which was 
lost," but even so all could not be found. 

The result seems to be that till the gospel has been 
preached to the war-like tribes, and the}- have bowed their 
necks to the Cross, the continent of Africa is no safe place 
for colonies of natives apart from their own people. A City 
of Refuge has been suggested, which might easily be 
strong enough to resist the incursions of such tribes as 
the Magwangwara, but this must be under competent civil 
and military jurisdiction, and could not be started by the 
Mission. 



oui ana NOW Ami to-day beautiful Masasi lies desolate. 
For a time a few natives gathered there under 
a native teacher. Of late, however, a new Masasi has been 
founded, four miles from the old, so as to follow the migra 
tions of the people. 

Archdeacon Jones-Bateman, visiting " Old Masasi " in 
1 894, writes : 

Arohdoaoon "Old Masasi is a sad sight indeed. There lie the 
nun s^sfun lvmams the old stone church and buildings in 
181H. their beautiful setting of mangoes and other fruit- 
trees, even cocoa-nuts bearing profusely, but alas ! the vineyard 
tended so carefully by our first missionaries is now only bringing 
forth wild grapes. Alas! too, a group of Christians are living 
here in a state worse than that of heathenism, redeemed twice 
from slavery, once when rescued and received by the Mission, 
and again when carried off by the Magwangwara." 

And vet it is not all sad. Kven the lesson was worth 
learning. \Vork has grown out of Masasi that is lasting, 
and it is not so much on our failure or our success that 
our longing eyes must ga/.e in mission work, but rather on 
what Ciod will make of our failure and of our success. 
"There are no disappointments to those whose wills are 
buried in the will of God," 



LAKH NY AS A. 

" 77/1 lonely i^aters, us they gently .wing 
,-!//(/ murmur neatli the cloudless, azure .t/ i , 
J nll inaiiv a lofty message through the eve 
Tliat rests upon, the impressh c seene do bring 
To mi nds alt nned to higk imagining, 
A nd spirits vcarni ng Jor eternity ; 
Such i/ii ssdgcs , I 7ivv-//, can never i/ic, 
J- i-oiu he.tvciL they conic, despatched l>v Iieave/i s King." 

CHAUNCY MATI.KS, 

IN 1 86 1 Mackenzie had been consecrated Bishop of the 
Mission to the tribes dwelling in the neighbourhood of 
Lake Nyasa and the River Shire ; and still, in 1875, those 
tribes were untouched. But the eyes of the Mission still 
turned to their first love at Nyasa, and after fourteen years 
the long-pondered plan began to be carried out. 

Bishop Steere, urged by the desire to work Bishop stooro 

_ J starts for 

towards the old Mission field, started on his Lindi, 

Aug. 31. 

long missionary journey in August, 1875. 

This walk to Nyasaland has often been alluded to, and 
some account must now be given. The Bishop was at first 
accompanied by a priest and two laymen, whom lie had, on 
account of health, to send back from Lindi, the seaport 
town where they were waiting for porters. After a delay 
of over a month, the Bishop bravely started alone with 
native porters, commanded by the faithful James Chuma, 
who was " the soul of the expedition." 

The journey lay through the coast settlements for ten 



142 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1875 

miles. Then came the Mwera forest, succeeded by the 
granite rocks of the Rovuma bed ; and on the other side 
the Yao forest, through which the Bishop intended to 
make his way to Mataka s, a Yao chief, whose village 
Mwembe lay only seventy miles from Nyasa. 
The Mwora We have the whole account in the Bishop s 
est> own words. The nine days travelling in the 
Mwera forest, north of the Rovuma, was very difficult. 
They passed many villages of the Mweras, who are fairly 
good smiths. 

Then came a belt of forest whence the inhabitants had 
been driven by the Magwangwara. Into this silent forest 
they passed, an awe, born of a very natural superstition, 
silencing the men, and they neither sang nor shouted. 
The ant is king of the forest. An Arab tradition says that 
Solomon once made a decision between them and the 
elephants, appointing a contest in which, though the ele 
phants trod down thousands of ants, thousands more 
fastened themselves on the huge beasts and drove them 
into the water. And now the ant reigns supreme, w r hile 
the elephant turns from his path, not daring to trample on 
the lines of marching ants. And no one else, who is wise, 
meddles with them either. 

For several clays after leaving the forest they followed 
the course of the Rovuma, which was then fordable, cross 
ing it easily and gathering provision for the Yao forest 
journey. There was war in the land. The Magwangwara 
\vere on the war path, and though the Bishop did not 
come across them, he met Gindo, Donde, and other 
fugitives, flying, and making war as they fled on the 
country villages. They also passed some slave and ivory 
caravans. 



1875] LAKE NYASA. 143 



After crossing the Luatize in rain, they found 

Yaoland. 

themselves close to Matakas villages ; and the 

o 

Bishop writes : 

" This beginning of the rains is the spring of the tropical year ; 
the trees are coming into fresh leaf, flowers are everywhere show 
ing themselves. Among the brightest at this time were the 
gladiolus, scarlet, white, lilac, puce, lemon and orange. No one 
in Yaoland need fear want of flowers about Christmas. It was 
past midday when we came to the Yao encampment . 
having made twenty-seven full days travelling, the remaining 
eleven being days and half-days of rest and provision seeking." 

First they came to Nyenje s, Mataka s nephew and heir. 
Nyenje had once been made prisoner by his great enemy, 
Makanjila, who, not knowing him, luckily 7 sold him to a 
slave caravan instead of killing him, and he was taken to 
Zanzibar till ransomed by Mataka. 

From Xyenje s the Bishop went on to They reach 
Mataka s, reaching it earl}- in December. (Mwembe), 

Dec. 10. 

"We were all refreshed and in good spirits, and 
started early for Mataka s own town, with flags flying and a small 
gong making its music. . . . We crossed two narrow valleys, 
and round the shoulder of a great hill we came upon the broader 
one called Mwembe. . . . We blazed away a good deal of 
powder, and the town turned out in force to look at us. It was 
a new thing to see a genuine town crowd in Africa. Livingstone 
reckoned about 1,000 houses in Mwembe, and it has not since 
diminished. 

Mataka came out of his house and sat upon an earthen 
throne in front of it, and the Bishop sat on a lower bench. 
He was only the second white man who had been seen 
there, and he had to display his arm in vindication of the 
fact, since the long tramp had bronzed his face. 

Much as the Bishop longed to set eyes on the Nyasa, he 



144 HISTORY 0^ THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1877 

denied himself what would only have been a Pisgah-like 
view, and stayed a whole fortnight at Mataka s to con 
ciliate him. Mad he gone a little further, he might have 
seen the I/ala, the first steamboat ever launched on the 
Lake, making her trial trip. 

Mataka was divided between a real desire to have the 
missionaries, and yet not to have them at Mwembe, where 
they would see too much of his slave trading, and he hear 
too much against it ; and he suggested Losewa, on the 
Lake itself, as a station. Even then he was afraid they 
would make friends with his enemy, Makanjila. 
The Bishop s Before Christmas they started for the coast 

Return. ^ain, travelling in the route of the slave cara 
vans. They hurried down, as the wet season was getting 
advanced, and the ground in the Yao forest was like a 
sponge. 

As a practical outcome of this journey the Bishop hoped 
to plant a station at Mataka s, and one on the Rovuma ; 
for it must be borne in mind that this journey was previous 
to the planting of Masasi ; but as its chief lasting out 
come was the Xyasa Mission, it has been thought well to 
keep it for this chapter. 

A year and a half later nine men arrived in 

1877, June. 

Mataka sends Zanzibar on behalf of Mataka, asking for the 

men to Zanzi- 

bartoaskfor missionary promised by Bishop Steere. lie had 

the promised J J 

Mission, been much disappointed that the Masasi Mission 
had not come on to him. Alas ! that they had to be sent 
back empty ! and the poor old chief died a heathen be 
cause there was none to answer his cry, " Come over and 
help us ! " 

A new road to Nyasa was begun in 1879, from Dar es 
Salaam, a seaport with a very commodious harbour, a little 



iSSo] LAKE NYASA. 



south of Bagamoyo. This led Bishop Stccre at the end of 
the year to make a six days excursion into Zaramoland, 
the country traversed by the road. His hope was to place 
a Mission station near Kola among the Zaramos. 
Zaramoland is a very flat and rather unin- 

c , ,. . , .. Zaramoland. 

teresting tract of country about thirty miles 
square. The chief articles of commerce are indiarubber 
and gum copal. The latter lies near the surface, and is 
hunted for by the natives with a spud. When any one 
strikes copal, he takes seisin of as much ground as he can 
grab with his outstretched arms and digs it up. His 
friends may dig near but not in his bit. The Zaramos are 
a graceful, slender race, lighter coloured than some tribes. 

The Bishop was struck by the fact that the Dec 2 g 
villages, which were numerous, kept off the line 
of the road, as if shy of so much publicity, and 



he remembered that very few English towns or Zaramolani - 
villages lay directly on the old Roman roads. At Kola, 
thirty miles from the coast, he found a good state of 
cultivation, and plenty of fruit trees. The people listened 
willingly, saying, " We are all grown stupid here, we have 
no one to teach us better." 

One young man ultimately came to Kiungani to be 
taught, but for various reasons the Bishop could never 
plant a Mission there, nor indeed has the road ever reached 
far inland. The climate seems peculiarly deadly for Euro 
peans. 

But Nyasa was still the goal towards which 

1880 

many hearts in the Mission were set, and at NOV. 3. 

Rev. W. P. 

last Mr. Johnson was able to leave Masasi and johnsonsettles 

J at Mataka s. 

advance to Mwembe, where a new Mataka 
reigned. He had an interview with this chief of the capi- 

L 



146 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES" MISSION. [1881 



tal of Yaoland, and received permission to preach as much 
as he liked, and to assemble the people regularly on Sun 
days in the baraza. Mataka killed an ox and some goats 
in honour of the occasion. 

In the early part of 1881 Mr. Johnson had to seek help 
from the Scotch Mission Station across the Lake in Liv- 
ingstonia. His hands were ulcerated, and these good 
Samaritans nursed him and sent him away well. 

Before Holy Week he had classes of hearers for men and 

women, and that week he read daily on the 

peace made baraza the events of each day. During the 

between it _ , 

Makanjiia and week Makaniila s son arrived, sent by his father 
Mataka. 

to make peace with his old enemy Mataka. 

They sealed it by killing an ox, and dipping their thumbs 
in the blood. 

Makanjila s people are an instance of Bishop Stecre s 
saying, " that it is a race with Islam which shall have the 
tribes." The Mohammedans flattered themselves they had 
converted Makanjiia, and the prince brought a Moham 
medan priest with him ; but they all visited Mr. Johnson, 
and asked for brand} ! 

Mr. Johnson s letters at this time are quite pathetic in 
their longing not for a white face, but for a fellow com 
municant, while letters several months old were a joy to 
him. 

May 25 ^ n Ascension Eve lie admitted nine male 

FIr ^ e c n a g t | c t hu " catechumens, on their simple declaration that 

Mataka s. they wis ] lec | to f o u ow t h c s on o f Qod, to keep 

His commandments, and to hear God s Word on Sundays 
when possible. He then cut out some crosses "certainly 
not Greek " from the top of an old biscuit tin, and gave 
one to each, to wear on Sundays, 



iS8i] LAKE NYASA. 147 



Mr. Johnson now discovered that Mataka s was a regular 
rendezvous for slave caravans from the far interior on their 
way to the coast, but he could as yet only influence public 
opinion. A small church was built, and Mataka had sent 
a grandson for education to Zanzibar, when at the end of 
August news came up from the coast that Captain Foote 
of the Ruby had interfered with the slave caravans, thus 
ruining the trade of Mataka s country. It all came, they 
thought, from having an Englishman with them. How 
ever, they seemed to listen to reason, till, during a short 
absence of Mr. Johnson s on the Lujcnda, October 
Mataka was led to countenance the lootin 
of his house and goods. A friendly messag 
reached the traveller, advising him not to re- toZanzibar - 
turn, and as soon as he discovered that all connected with 
him were safe, he proceeded to Zanzibar, with no intention 
of withdrawing, but rather of making the temporary failure 
at Mataka s a reason for going further only he stipulated 
for one companion worker, and the Rev. Charles Janson, 
then at Masasi, was assigned to him. 

They started off on Bishop Stecre s old route Dec 20 
and crossed the Rovuma ; and then, striking j!jon%tart 
west, made straight for the Lake, and in six froraMasasi - 
weeks had traversed a great deal of hitherto unknown 
country. 

" If we had chosen one of our whole number," said Bishop 
Steere four months later, " of whom we should have said that he 
was fit for the kingdom of heaven, we should have chosen no one 
more clearly and undoubtedly than Charles Janson." 

He was one of those spiritually-minded men 

"Who all around see all things bright 
With their own magic smile," 



148 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1882 



And his last journals show him keenly alive to the beauty 

of glowing hill, and wooded vale, and creeper-screened 

river ; to the hippopotamus taking his morning bath, and 

to all the little incidents of the way, till on Feb- 

They reach mary 9 they reached the actual beach of the 

Nyasa, the desired goal of the Mission for so 

many years. They said it reminded them of the Sea of 

Galilee. 

And then, just as the first missionaries entering that 
district from the Zambesi left only their graves by the 
Shire, so Charles Janson s hallowed the Lake side. The 
rainy season had made their journey a very trying one, 
and Janson towards its close had been suffering from 
dysentery. 

"Our brother fell asleep," wrote Mr. Johnson, "on 
ChariesJanson Shrove Tuesday at noon. He really made no com 
plaint, and on Sunday was even equal to celebrating 
in the morning, and all day was full of heartfelt sympathy, which 
I treasured, not knowing what it really was." 

On Monday he was carried to try to reach a more healthy 
place ; but, to help his bearers, waded through a stream. 
This brought on sudden, sharp pain, heroically borne ; he 
sank to rest, and Mr. Johnson had the grief of laying in 
his grave the companion so long wished for and so much 
loved. 

Quietly the men came in and said the Lord s Prayer, 
and sewed up the body in matting, and laid him to rest, 
piling a cairn of stones over him. Full of faith and 
courage, Mr. Johnson, "thinking of that grave by the Lake 
side as just a text, from which to preach the Resurrection 
to all those poor people about," took to himself the lesson 
so many have heard and learned at a Christian funeral, " Be 



1884] LAKE NYASA. 149 



ye steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of 
the Lord " ; and at once he passed on his lonely way on his 
Master s business. Fixing his headquarters at Chitesi s, on 
the Lake a chief with many people and much cattle Mr. 
Johnson went forth, and for about two years was almost 
lost to sight as he wandered through the length and 
breadth of the land to which the Mission had at first 
been sent. 

One expedition he made to the Magwa- 

Mr. Johnson s 

ngwara, all unknowing that their army was at 
the time destroying Masasi. He traced the 
courses of the Rovuma and Lujenda ; he wandered south 
until he warmed all hearts by writing from " Near Mago- 
mero," the early home of the Mission. 

All this time, he assures us, the question of what station 
to occupy, and how the work might be carried on in the 
populated but unhealthy lowland round Nyasa never left 
his mind, and at last his plans were matured. Less men 
would be required, less time occupied, and less risk to 

health incurred, if, instead of settling with anv 

y Plan of a 

one tribe, a dhow, or else a small steamer, were Mission 

Steamer. 

procured for the Mission. This could pass up 

and down the Lake, manned by Mission men and boys, 

and calling first at one station, then at another. 

He hurried home to England, and laid his 1884 
plans before the Committee, and finally left 
England again with a steamer packed in sec- 
tions, and accompanied by Captain Callaghan, the 
William Bellingham, and others. 

The task before them was most arduous. They were to 
go out round the Cape, up the Zambesi, and up the Shire. 
Half-way on the Shire there are the rapids, which involev 



150 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES" MISSION. [1885 



a porterage of sixty miles. In that country there were then 
no roads, no wheeled vehicles, no beasts of burden. The 
steamer had to go up in so many thousand small pieces, 
packed in 380 cases not one larger than could be carried 
on a man s head, or at best on a pole between two. Of 
course the loss of one small piece might delay the whole 
enterprise ; while, if all were safely carried across, they had 
still to put the steamer together and launch it, under a 
tropical sun, in the midst of Central Africa, with no ap 
pliances but what they could carry with them. It seemed 
as if everything depended on Johnson, the one originator 
of the whole scheme, the only one of the party who had 
been in the country before, and the only one who could 
speak the Xyasa language. The start had hardly been 
made from the mouth of the Zambesi before Mr. Johnson 
was stricken clown by a violent kind of ophthalmia, and 
found totally blind. Instead of leading his expedition to 
Xyasa he had to return home, spend many months in a 
darkened room, and undergo several operations ; he lost 
the sight of one eye altogether, and only regained a dim 
sight with the other. Meantime the expedition went on 
without him, and thanks mainly to William Bellingham, 1 
a veteran lay-worker in the Mission, the steamer was suc 
cessfully put together. But the hut, in which was the 
boiler, took fire, and while all efforts were directed to 
rescuing an unhappy man and a boy who were working 
inside the boiler, much property was consumed. 

1885. The vessel, henceforth to be known as the 

Launching of Charles Janson, was however launched on the 

the c.j." ^hjj^, anc { dedicated on the following day (Sept. 

1 For a fuller history of this enterprise, see "A Diary of a Working 
Man? (S.P.C.K.) 



152 ///.Y7 (M r OF THE UNIVERSITIES" MISSION. [1886 

6, 1885) by Bishop Smythics. Verily the powers of evil 
had fought hard for the possession of this land, but in 
vain ; and on January 31, the twenty-fourth anniversary of 
Mackenzie s death, Mr. Bellingham wrote from Likoma 
1886. to say, " We have the good news to tell you 

Jan. 22, 

The "c.j." that the Charles Janson arrived safe with all on 

reaches 

Likoma. board on the 22nd." The motto of the ship 
might well have been Gratias Deo qni uobis dcdit victoriam. 
Thus was fulfilled the latest plan of Bishop Mackenzie, 
when, in his last written words, he asked for "a University 
Boat." 



CHAPTER X. 

LAST DAYS OF BISHOP STEERE. 

" These in Life s distant even 

Shall shine serenely bright, 
As in tli Autumnal liearen, 

Miid rainbow tints at night ; 
II hen the last shower is stealing down, 

And ci c tliev sink to rcsf, 
The sunbeams weave, a, parting crown 
I- or some sweet wood land nest." 

EIGHTEEX-EIGHTY-TWO was a year of sorrow. 
We have already seen Masasi wrecked by a raid 
of the Magwangwara, and the gentle and holy Charles 
Janson falling asleep ; but a sorer trial was at hand for the 
Mission. He who for nineteen years had been the soul 
of the work, and who had ruled it for ten years so wisely 
and so truly, was about to be taken from its head. 

Early in the year Bishop Stecre had fainted in church, 
and was evidently out of health when news came of Mrs. 
Steere s serious illness, and he sailed for England in 
March, bringing with him the Revised Version of the New 
Testament in Swahili. 

Arriving in April, he was little more than two 

Lnncls in 

months in England, but the work achieved was England, 

April 17. 

great. The Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, 
and Durham were visited, and addresses and sermons 
given in all directions. Especially he made a point of 
going to see the families of those who worked under him 
feeling them truly to be his children. 

153 



154 HISTORY OF r fHE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1882 



Anmversa ^he Mission anniversary was a very memor- 
june 23. ^\ c one> j^e early Celebration at St. Paul s 
Cathedral and the choral celebration at St. Andrew s, Wells 
Street, will long be remembered as the last at which Bishop 
Steere ever assisted in England. He preached at the 
latter service, comparing the Mission work to that of our 
Lord during His earthly life : 

" When those dark eyes that could not see the 

x5isnop J 

steere s Hand of God, and walked about in darkness fearing 
shapes of evil, now behold the Providence of God, 
and the angels of God around to help him, and the path of life 
clearly marked out for him, till the gate of Paradise is opened to 
receive him when those blind eyes are open to see all this, it 
is surely like some of those old miracles of Christ come again, to 
be done before us and by us. 

" But how is all this to be done ? It is not done by wisdom ; 
it is not done by words ; it is done much more by living. . . . 
For although they may say the words of the gospel are like some 
old heathen book, yet there is one thing that no heathen could 
ever have dreamed of, and that is the life and character of Jesus 
Christ. . . . This life of quiet perseverance, this going about 
unacknowledged and unreceived, is the very thing that has opened 
and does open the souls of men to receive the gospel. . 
For conversions are not wrought by argument, but by the inner 
questioning of each individual spirit." 

At the afternoon meeting Bishop Steere spoke again, 
telling the story of the Universities Mission in fresh and 
simple words, speaking actually with watch in hand, that 
he might catch the train to take him the first stage on his 
return journey. 

He had parted for the last time from his wife, who sur 
vived him only till April, 1883, passing away surely to the 



iSS2] LAST DAYS OF BISHOP STEERE. 155 



reward promised to those who have given up their best 
ungrudgingly for the Master s service. 

Auguries of the Bishop s end not being far off w r ere not 
wanting. At this anniversary meeting the Dean of West 
minster, speaking of the African workers, had quoted the 
words : " Verily, verily, I say unto thee, When thou wast 
young, thou gircledst thyself, and walkcdst whither thou 
wouldest : but when thou shalt be old, another shall gird 
thee, and carry thcc whither thou wouldest not." And the 
Bishop himself had said before what was evidently in his 
mind now : 

"A Missionary Priest may well return and take up work at 
home, often it will be his duty to do so, but if he accept the 
office of a Bishop it should be for life. He may often do more 
from his arm-chair than a new man who does not know the 
country ; and if it should be necessary to resign, a Bishop should 
be the servant of all, and can therefore be the servant of his 
successor. England may be the easiest place in which to live, 
but Africa is just as good to die in ; and his death at his post 
may do much more than his life. What England wants, and 
what Africa wants, are many such deaths. Why should it be 
thought a great thing to die in the best of services ? " 

The Bishop sailed with the Rev. W. II. 

- Return to 

Penney (the Secretary), who was going out to Zanzibar, 
visit the Mission, Mr. Whitty, Miss Bashford, 
and a sister of Miss D. Y. Mills. The voyage was long 
and hot. A delay of several days at Aden undid all 
the good of the Bishop s visit to England, and he landed at 
Zanzibar none the better. 

During his absence the Rev. F. R. Hodgson had re 
mained in charge, with the title of Archdeacon, and the 
work had gone forward with spirit. Several boys and 



156 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES^ MISSION. [1882 



girls had been baptized at Kiungani at Easter ; and the 
Church at Mbweni approached completion. 

St. Bartholomew s Day had an added bright- 
The last J 

Festival Day, ness in the presence of the well-beloved Bishop. 

Seldom is it given to man to make his life so 
complete. Two days before he had finished the translation 
of the prophet Isaiah into Swahili. 

The Bishop visited Mbweni the day before, and on the 
Festival he went to Kiungani to visit his native children, 
marrying two couples and giving the school prizes. After 
wards he walked back to Mkunazini with Miss Josephine 
Bartlett, who has given a record of those last days. Here 
he visited the workpeople and went to Evensong. 

When the mail came in, he busied himself as usual with 
letters and packages till the evening of Saturday, the 26th, 
when he wished good-night brightly to the household, 
saying in answer to one who asked if he were going to 
Mbweni in the morning, " Perhaps Either that night or 
a few hours earlier he sat down and wrote the following 
letter for the Home Committee : 



TheUn- " Gentlemen, I am sorry to have to tell you 

finished Letter. that j fed mysdf more and mQre unable to fu j_ 

fil properly the duties of my office as Head of the Univer 
sities Mission. I can reckon upon fair health so long as I 
stay in Zanzibar, but I cannot undertake journeys to and 
upon the mainland, and without them the Mission cannot be 
adequately superintended. I find also that I cannot bear up 
against the ordinary anxieties and petty cares which are con 
tinually arising, or deal with them without more of irritation 
and mental disturbance than is good, either to the Mission or 
myself. I feel bound, therefore, to put in your hands the 
offer of my resignation. I should not have hesitated about 



iSS2] LAST DAYS OF BISHOP STEERE. 157 

retiring at once had it not been that there are still some 
things in which I think I could do the Mission good service. 

" The first is by completing the translation of the Bible 
into Swahili. I think I could do this more quickly and 
probably better than any one else ; and if so, I certainly 
ought to do it. Another thing I should like to do is to carry 
further the little series of papers on the Mohammedan con 
troversy, which I have already begun. I think, too, that I 
might be able to assist my successor in a great many matters, 
which come within my own knowledge and power. 

" These things make me reluctant to leave Zanzibar for 
the present at least. I should gladly have resigned all my 
income and offices, and remained as a private individual, but 
I am under various money engagements which would pre 
vent my doing so. 

" What I propose is, that I should remain here as an 
assistant to whomsoever you should choose as the new 
Bishop, on the understanding that I am not to be called 
upon to leave Zanzibar, and am to make the completion of 
the Bible translation my first work. 

" If you think it better I should retain the title of my 
office, I am quite willing to give up half its income to assist 
in finding a younger and more active and sympathetic man 
to undertake the necessary journeys, and to form a judgment 
of the wants and proportionate claims of the various branches 
of our work. I beg you to understand that I put myself in 
your hands unreservedly, only protesting that I am unable to 
do anything like what I see ought to be done, and that the 
consciousness of this inability prevents my doing even as 



much as with a clearer mind I might 



The Bishop also corrected some proof sheets of Isaiah, 
directing them to the printer at Kiungani, and then indeed 
" The labourer s task was o er," 



158 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1882 

Bishop * n ^ s ^ ee P came the Master s call, so quietly 
steere s ^hat after the stroke he had never stirred, when 

JJOcLtn, 

Aug. 27. on S un day morning, while the congregation 
waited in church for the early Celebration, the Bishop s 
door was found locked, and the hard breathing deter 
mined his friends to break it open. Quietly he lay 
there through the day, no remedies availing, till at 3.30 he 
breathed his lar,t, Archdeacon Hodgson commending to 
God the soul of that beloved father. But around that 
peaceful death-bed sad hearts were praying and weeping 
sorely ; and after all was over the children from Kiun- 
gani and Mbweni came in groups to look their last on 
him who had shown them the way of life for this world 
and the next. Cecil Majaliwa especially, said that none 
could understand them like their father who was gone. 

When the mourners assembled for Evensong that Sun 
day, the sorlcs liturgiccc showed them the grief of Elisha 
when his " Master was taken from his head." 
The Funeral, The next day they buried him "in his own 
Aug. 28. grand church, behind the high altar, at the 
foot of the episcopal throne." All orders and ranks in 
Zanzibar came to that funeral, and Scyyid Barghash 
sent a representative. The coffin was carried by English 
sailors from the London. With the Swahili words he had 
translated he was laid to rest, the choir singing, " Oh, 
what the joy and the glory must be." But as the coffin 
was laid down in the chancel the sobs of the multitude 
broke forth, drowning even the organ, and for a while 
stilling the service. 

Well, indeed, may it be said of Edward 
Steere, Missionary Bishop, as of the architect 
of that great London cathedral where the 



1 882] LAST DAYS OF BISHOP STEEKE. 159 



Bishop received his last English Communion, " Si monn- 
mentuui requiris, circumspice? If you seek for his monu 
ment, look around at the church which he built, at the 
Slave Market transformed by him into a Christian quarter, 
so that at the foot of the accursed whipping-post he 
sleeps well. Look around at the weeping children whom 
God had given to the childless man ; at the devoted band 
of helpers priests and deacons, laymen and laywomen. 
Look around further at the mainland Churches whose 
candlesticks had been kindled by him. Look further still 
at the millions of Africans in heathen darkness for whom 
he prayed so earnestly and prays still. Listen to the soft 
Swahili tongue conveying in his words the old Liturgy 
and the Word of God ; and then, if we dare, let us turn 
away, as if all this were a sight which had nothing to do 
with us. 

Sympathy poured in, not only from the supporters of 
the Mission, but from the English Government, from the 
Church Missionary Society, whose workers he had helped 
so sympathetically, and from the Bible Society, which even 
now was printing for him the entire Swahili New Testa 
ment. 

The character of a great man is best read in steenPs 
his acts ; but his counsels are so valuable to Character - 
those engaged in Mission work that a few of them must 
be given. 

A letter of Archdeacon (afterwards Bishop) Maples will 
give a good idea of his great chief. 

" Firm will, indomitable resolution, and force of character 
were, I could see, all written as plainly as possible about his 
mouth and chin, while the merry twinkle of the eye revealed the 
fine play of wit and humour. And last, though not least, the 



l6o mSTOKY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1882 



overhanging brows and the broad forehead told unmistakably of 
the keen intellect and mental power he had turned to such good 
account in the service of the Mission." 

Compare with this picture his saying to a candidate 
for Holy Orders : " Let me give you one word of advice. 
Never say, I can t. " 

The Bishop never despised the humblest work ; and we 
find Archdeacon Maples saying : 

"Thus it was that to us who knew him, it seemed as natural 
to see him plying a chisel or hammer or a needle, as to see him 
celebrating the holy mysteries or preaching to a native crowd. 
Like St. Wilfrid, he could show the natives how to do their own 
particular work better than they knew how to do it themselves, 
and could help them to improve the natural resources of their 
country. Like St. Athanasius, he was able to turn from one 
occupation to another as easily as if each fresh labour to which 
he gave himself had been his own especial study." 

To quote his own words to a worker wishing for " pro 
motion " : 

" I should hope well for the future if I had a 
Counsels 

"On wishing priest working; amongst the carpenters, and m what- 
for Promotion." L 

ever other workshop there may be, and learning 

there to sympathise with his fellow-helpers, and how to speak 
best to them of the great motive of his own life. One who 
lives and works among the natives is doing a great work by his 
simple zeal and diligence, and no one will be likely to make so 
effective a preacher, or so wise and discreet a spiritual adviser. I 
would never have a man to teach any kind of work as a mere 
lay occupation. I should prefer a priest, or at least I hope for a 
candidate for Holy Orders. A man who would do nothing but 
preach I should get rid of as soon as possible. We are here 
something in St. Paul s position, and he earned his own living by 
what people call secular work. He was all the better preacher 



1882] LAST DAYS OF BISHOP STEERE. l6l 

for it, and it would be absurd for us to praise him and not to 
try and imitate him. 7 

And no parts of the work were too remote from his 
genius for his advice to be sought. Witness these counsels 
on the management of boys and girls. 

" We have to train all of them into habits of neat 
ness, promptitude, industry, and general good order ment of Boys. 
all most contrary to their natural dispositions, but 
all indispensable. We cannot trust to a boy s honour ; he under 
stands that to be a license to do what he pleases. We have not, 
as in England, the influence of a thousand years of Christianity 
to fall back upon. 

"There is no difficulty whatever about any boy earning his 
own living anywhere ; they can all do that with only too fatal 
facility. 

"As to sending such restless boys to our mainland stations, I 
know it is the fashion to represent up-country life as freer from 
temptation than town life ; people used just in the same way 
to imagine that country villages were better purer than towns. 
We know very well that it is not so in England, and my ex 
perience does not show it to be so here." 

"It is perfectly useless to try to discover what all 
are agreed to hide. You can do nothing but show j^t^Guis. 
that you have observed, and are angry about it. Do 
not speak of it again after the first day . . . At the same 
time beware of anything like favouritism, and be very glad to 
accept anything like a plausible excuse from anybody. It is 
curious how a sense of injustice, or the pretence of one, lies 
under all rebellion. If you allow their wrong-doing to vex you, 
you give them a power over you which they will not be slow to 
use. 

" Why should it vex you that they want correction ? If they 
were good, you would not be wanted at all ; it is because they 
are bad we are here. Do not, therefore, be surprised if they are 

M 



1 62 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1882 



naughty. We go on all our lives sinning and suffering ; it is 
no wonder if school-girls go on wanting and getting punish 
ment." 

Archdeacon Maples gives a valuable account of the 
Bishop s sacramental teaching : 

" The Bishop was of opinion that there was a 

S SSng tal danger lest many fervent in adoration at the Holy 

Eucharist should incline to the error of directing 

their worship rather to the Presence of our Blessed Lord than to 

His Person ; thus he insisted strongly that a Presence, as such, 

ought not to, and indeed cannot be worshipped. 

" He was careful, too, to draw attention to the mode of the 
Presence in the Eucharist, noting always its supra-local character. 
" He feared lest some might even be led to adoration of Res 
Stiiriune/iti, and to substitute it for that adoration of the Person 
ot our Divine Master in heaven, to which this mysterious 
Presence in the sacred elements is intended to lead us." 

Such was some of the Bishop s teaching ; but his own 
life is the best lesson of all. 

"You know," he once said gently and gravely, "it would be 
nothing to offer one s life, if it were no sacrifice." 

Fresh ^ 1K ^ W ^ T ncai "tfclt faith and courage those 

Workers. wno } iac { \vorked with him carried on the Mis 
sion, when their leader had fallen, encouraged by the 
accession of several new workers, among whom was the 
first fully qualified doctor on the Mission staff since Dr. 
Dickenson had laid down his life on the Shire. Dr. Petrie 
was the first-fruits of the newly formed Guild of St. Luke. 
Another accession was the Rev. James Chala Sal fey. He 
was a Galla, taken from a slave dhow, and adopted by 
Captain Hastings, R.N. He had been educated in Eng 
land, and ordained deacon by the Bishop of Oxford, and 



iS82- 3 ] 



LAST DAYS OF BISHOP STEERE. 



I6 3 



now offered himself for the ministry among his own 
countrymen the second native clergyman on the Mission 
staff. 

Archdeacon Hodgson was requested to re- Archdeacon 
main at the head of affairs till a new Bishop HeadofThe 
could come out, and all the late Bishop had Mission - 







GIRLS AT MB WEN I. 
Miss Thackeray, Archdeacon Hodgscn, Miss Dartlctt 

planned was faithfully carried on. The peal of small bells 
which had been presented to the Bishop at his parting 
meeting, but which he never heard, were successfully hung 
in the tower of Christ Church by Mr. Jones-Bateman, and 



164 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1882-3 



rung- out for the first time on St. Andrew s Day. Mr. 
Jones-Bateman and Mr. Bradley also trained a choir of 
native boys for Christ Church, quite worthy of an African 
cathedral. 

This sad year did not end without more 
deaths. The Rev. H. A. B. Wilson, deacon in 



Deaths of 

Rev. H. A. B. 

Wilson, 

Sept. 12, 



charge of Umba, was called to rest at Pangani, 



and his bodv 



brought 



And of 
Chuma. 



to the island, and buried at Kiu- 
ngani. We shall 
hear more of him 
in Chapter XIV. 
Lastly, James 
Chuma, 
the first 

boy belonging to 
the Mission, who 
had served Liv- 
i n g s t o n e and 
others so faith 
fully, died of con 
sumption. 

The year ended happily, however, for Christ 
mas Day saw the first Celebration of Holy 




JOHN 



First Cele 
bration in 
St. John s, 

Dec. 25, 1882. Communion in St. John s Church, Mbweni. 



Work in the 
Island. 



The Mission was without a Bishop the greater 
part of 1883, but the work went on. Mr. Joncs- 
Bateman put up the carved women s gallery in Christ 
Church for the Arab ladies, which the Bishop had wished 
to live to complete. Fifteen fresh workers joined the staff 
this year, including (besides the new Bishop) the Rev 
Duncan Travers, afterwards Secretary. 

On New Year s Day the first number of the new maga- 



1882-3] 



LAST DAYS OF BISHOP S TEE RE, 



1 6* 



First Number 



zine, Central Africa, appeared. This should be 
remembered as an era in Mission literature, 
for never has a missionary publication kept up Jan> lf 18 
continuously so high a level of interest, proving that it is 
possible to have a mission record at once truthful and 
brightly written ; and that as mission work is never dull, 
neither need its history be dull cither. 

In September and 
October the Bishop of 
Mauritius came to the 
aid of the widowed 
Church, visited the is 
land on his way to Mom 
basa, and held several 
confirmations. 

But the time of her 
widowhood was over ; 
and God was about to 
bestow on Central Afri 
ca a fitting successor to 
those sainted men who 
had gone before. 

Charles Alan Smyth- 
ies, the beloved Vicar of 

Roath, in Llandaff diocese, accepted the bishop 
ric in the autumn of 1883, and was consecrated 
in St. Paul s Cathedral on St. Andrew s Day. 1 gSiSS? < 
Like Mackenzie, he was a Cambridge man Nov - 3 
(Trinity). His consecrators were the Archbishop of Can 
terbury (Benson), with the Bishops of London, Carlisle 
(Harvey Goodwin, biographer of Mackenzie), Oxford, 
Llandaff, Bedford, and Bishop Tozer. Canon King (after- 




SMYTIIIF.S. 
// a photograph by Elliott &> Fry.) 



1883 



1 66 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1883 



wards Bishop of Lincoln) preached on the text, " Sirs, we 
would see Jesus." The following passage occurring in it 
shows what manner of man the new Bishop had proved 
himself: 

" The ability and assiduity with which you presided over a 
parish of more than 20,000 souls ; the faithfulness with which 
you declared to them the whole counsel of God ; the patience, 
tenderness and courage with which, as a priest of God, you 
laboured to set free and teach individual souls ; the respect, 
gratitude and love which clergy and laity, rich and poor, have 
long felt for you . . . the simplicity and self-forgetting trust 
fulness with which you have given yourself to this new service, 
to serve your Lord, not knowing, not questioning, what the future 
of your life or death may be all this and more gives us good 
ground for hoping that you will go to your new and harder work 
supported by the prayers of many hearts, and encouraged by the 
evidence God has already given you of His presence with you 
and His love." 



1834. 



The Bishop sailed in January, and reached 
smyth/es Zanzibar on February 25. With him were 
Zanzibar several new members, being the first detachment 
ei). 25. o |- a reinforcement of fifteen who joined the 
Mission through his influence during that year. His first 
act was to enter Christ Church, where a Tc Dcum was sung 
with such joy as only those know who have been orphaned 
for so long a time. 

A very interesting catechumen had been re- 

Susi accepts . -_ * 

Christianity, ccivecl on New i car s Day in Zanzibar. Ab- 

clallah Susi had been a free man of about thirty, 

from a tribe on the Zambesi, when he was first engaged 

by Livingstone, and proved a willing, quiet, faithful 

follower for twelve years. It was he and the younger 



i88 3 ] 



LAST DA YS OF BISHOP STEERE. 



I6 7 



Chuma who not only brought Livingstone s body to Eng 
land, but (more 
wonderful for an 
African) took such 
good care of his 
journals, maps, and 
observations. Susi 
after his visit to 
England settled in 
Zanzibar, and was 
Bishop Steere s 
right-hand man on 
his journeys. Ever 
thinking of Christi 
anity, he was never 
able to bow his neck 
to the cross till 
more than twenty 
years after he had 
first heard of it. Ow 
ing chiefly to the 
teaching of Rev. H. 
C. Goodyear, he then 
became a catechu 
men at about the 
age of fifty- three, 
and on August 23, 
1886, was baptized, 
taking the name of 
his great leader, 
David. He was a 

, , , T ^. , DAVID SUSI. 

great help tO Bishop Companion of Livingstone. 




1 68 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1883 

Smythies till 4! years later creeping paralysis came on. 
He received his last Communion, and sank on the 5th of 
May, 1891. The large number of people, headed by the 
Consul, at his funeral showed the respect he had won. 
His thirty years of steady, consistent loyalty and well 
doing were a record for which an Englishman might be 
thankful. 



PART IV. 

" U7HTE ALREADY TO HARVESTS 



CHAPTER XI. 

TIIK MISSION ON THE LAKK. 



, Id tliis tliv message be, 

s- of Him, who in His Ham! 




THE launching of the Charles Janson and her entrance 
on the waters of the Great Lake have already been 
mentioned ; but as yet no spot was chosen to act as head 
quarters. 

The broad and beautiful waters of Nyasa are gemmed 
by only two islands worthy of the name Likoma and 
Chisumulu, which lie side by side just half way between 
the north and south ends of Nyasa. The larger 
of these, Likoma, is 4^ miles long by 2\ broad, 
with a population in 1885 of about 2,600. This island, 
whose name means " beautiful," or more probably " desir 
able," on account probably of its safety, lies about five 
miles from the lake s eastern shore; Chisumulu being four 
or five miles further west. Likoma seems to be a very 

persistent bit of the earth s surface, which, when the crust 

169 



1 70 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1885 



forming the Nyasa basin subsided, simply stood firm and 
never went under. It was discovered in 1877 by Elton 
(who, by mistake, recorded its name as Dikoma), having 
been missed by Livingstone, who seems to have got the 
other island in a line between him and Likoma. 

The island is somewhat barren ; a few sheep and cattle 





VIKVV ON LA K 



do well among the scrub and bushes ; monkeys, coneys, 
wild cats, snakes, and crocodiles are to be found there ; 
also the fish eagle, hornbill, kingfisher, dove, and smaller 
birds. The cormorant builds its nest on the baobab tree, 
colonies nesting on one tree till it sometimes drops be 
neath the strain. 



iSSs] 



THE MISSION ON THE LAKE. 



The inhabitants of Likoma, who are mainly Nyasas, are 
an industrious race, constantly occupied in fishing and net- 
making. Unfortunately, though, the island has proved 
neither healthy nor fertile. As headquarters for the 
steamer it is invaluable ; but for the bulk of the workers 
some more suitable home will probably have to be found. 




ON AT LIKOMA. 



It was this island that Bishop Smythies and 

. . , r . ,.-. Likoma chosen 

the Rev. G. H. Swinny now selected for the Mis-astiieNyasa- 
sion headquarters. The Bishop had left Zan- Aug. 24, isss. 

. , ,/r - i -r i 1 -i i i The Bishop s 

zibar with Mr. bwinny, his wile and child, and first visit to 

. Nyasaland. 

had gone up in June by the old Zambesi route, 

visiting Bishop Mackenzie s grave, taking several weeks 

to reach Matope, where the diaries Janson was being put 



172 If IS TO KY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1885 

together. They went on to the lake, as far as Chitesi s, 
where Mr. Johnson had been stationed, and after surveying 
Likoma, decided on it for the Mission. This was on St. 
Bartholomew s Day one of good omen for the new 
Mission. 

This was the first episcopal visit to Nyasa itself, and 
this settlement at Likoma, destined ten years later to 
become an episcopal see, was the first realization in that 
district of Bishop Gray s memorable words at the great 
Zambesi meeting in Cape Town at Mackenzie s consecra 
tion, when he spoke of this effort as a first link in the 
chain of Missions which should one day stretch from Cape 
Town to Cairo. 

One such link was the Zululancl bishopric, founded by 
Miss Mackenzie ; and when the chain is complete, one of 
its strongest links will be found to have been originally 
forged at Likoma. 

The Mission was now at the end of the year left in 
charge of the Rev. G. H. Swinny, with a deacon, the Rev. 
L. H. Frere, Mr. Bellingham, Mr. Sherriff, and the crew of 
the diaries Jans on. 

The Rev G Mr.- Swinny had been a great acquisition. 
H. swinn y : IIe was son to the p r j nc j pa i o f Cuddesdon, a 

bright, merry young Oxonian, full of reverence and 
humility. He had such a training as falls to the lot of few 
men. First in a " holy household," but the "-home delights 
so keen and pure " did not beguile his heart, and when " a 
sterner sound " summoned him he was not found wanting. 
After a curacy at Clewer, and a short time at Cowley, he 
sailed for the Cape, where he took charge of Newlands, a 
few miles from Cape Town. But his face was set towards 
Central Africa, and as a step, he went up to Zululand in 



iS8 5 ] 



THE MISSION ON THE LAKE. 



173 




FOUR NYASA WORKERS. 



174 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1886 

1882, and took charge of Kwamagwaza. It was here that 
he felt called to minister among the Magwangwara, whose 
language was still Zulu, so that he would be understood. 
Meantime he had married Miss McKenzie, the Bishop of 
Zululand s sister, and together they devoted their hearts to 
this work. Thus it will be seen that the work at Likoma 
was to them only a preparation for carrying the kingdom 
of Christ to that wildest of all races in the Xyasa district. 

1886 A sorrow fell on them at Likoma, in the 

Mary shinny, middle of Lent, in the death of Mary Swinny, 
April 9. th(jir j n f ant c hild ; and thus a baby s resting- 
place was the first Christian grave at Likoma. In May 
the parents went on a mission tour up the lake to M bam pa 
Bay, whence they walked to Amakita s, reach- 

The Bishop 

starts on his i n <>- it May 22, the very day on which the 

second visit to 

Nyasaiand. Bishop left Zanzibar to pay his second visit to 

Xyasa, taking the Magwangwara on the way. 

Mr. and Mrs. Swinny were now three days journey from 

The Bishop tnc Magwangwara headquarters. But they had 
M^gwarfgv^ara t return to Likoma, and it was two months 
July 19. i a ter when Bishop Smythies reached Sonjela s, 
whom he mistook for the paramount chief. 

The Rev. W. P. Johnson, in his unfailing energy, utilized 
his time of convalescence in helping his brother, who was 
assistant curate of Aberdarc, and before he was really well 
insisted upon returning to Africa. Once more he was 
turned back on the very threshold of his work, further 
medical treatment was necessary, and for that he went back 
to the Cape ; but returning thence in November, he has 
accomplished the feat, unexampled probably in the annals 
of Central Africa, of working in Nyasaiand for ten years 
without a single break. Meanwhile the Bishop took Mr. 



1886] THE MISSION ON THE LAKE. 175 



Maples from Nevvala to supply his place. Mr. Maples 
went straight to the lake, while the Bishop turned aside to 
the Magwangwara. As he neared them, evidence of their 
terrible and savage wars was found in the number and 
audacity of wild beasts. So many bodies of the slain are 
thrown by these savages into the bush, that lions and 
hyenas have acquired a taste for human flesh. They also 
found the elephant, buffalo, and eland in their path. 
Arrived at Sonjela s, the Bishop presented 

At Sonjela s. 

two loads of handkerchiefs, and the chief re 
ceived them gratefully, saying he had been afraid no more 
Europeans would come, as he might have said things 
which displeased them. 

"As he is so often drunk, this is possible," writes the Bishop. 
" He got in a passion and scolded the people who crowded the 
door to see us. The Zulu * click came out strongly at the end of 
each sentence. . . . The houses in the village were very 
well built and spacious, coming very low down all round. . . . 
In the afternoon I went to see the source of the 
Rovuma. . . . The source was a marshy basin "Jhe Rovuma. 
full of long grass, surrounded by mountains, from 
which hidden streams no doubt ran into it. ... The small 
basin and narrow valley, with its rapid little stream, were a great 
contrast to the great marsh of Chiuta, from which the broad 
waters of the Lujenda rise, which I saw last year. I little ex 
pected two years ago that , . . the ordinary course of my 
work would lead me to the very sources of these two large rivers." 

After spending a week with the Magwangwara, the 
Bishop started for Nyasa, having obtained a promise 



1 This is a peculiar sound made between the tongue and cheek, 
and in common with two or three other clicks made in the roof of the 
mouth and in the throat, is neither Zulu nor Kafir, but borrowed by 
them from Hottentot dialects. 



1 76 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1886 



that the Masasi district should not be raided in future. 
He had discovered that Mhaluli, and not Sonjela, was 
paramount, but could not reach him. 

Arriving at Likoma, the Bishop found the 

The Bishop at , T . r 

Likoma, Mission Church and houses on the slope ol 

the hill, a " palace " of grass and bamboo 

having been special ly run up for him. T\venty-five boys 

were already boarders at the Mission School, under native 

teachers trained at Kiungani. 

After visiting Charles Janson s grave at Maendenda, 
the Bishop passed on to Makanjila s, where he was much 
struck with the size of the town in which Mohammedan, 
though not Christian, teachers had been at work and 
with the dignity of the chief, who only asked for a teacher 
and a little paint for his dhows. The latter could be sup 
plied, but, as yet, not the former. 

The Bishop was in <jood heart, for he hoped 

Rev. C. Maples 

appointed Mr. and Mrs. Swinny were about to push on 

Archdeacon of 

Nyasa, to the Magwangwani, leaving the Lake-side 

Aug. 9. 

stations to Mr. Maples, who was now appointed 
Archdeacon of Nyasa. 

The Charles fanson was in full work. Her 

Cruise of the . ,,..., , , 

"Charles weekly trip was to Cnitesi s on Sundays (somc- 

Janson." 

times on Mondays). 1 hen, returning to Likoma, 
she ran down the east coast, visiting the Nyasa towns for 
sixty miles, and returning on Thursdays. On Fridays 
and Saturdays she either took short trips or remained 
at anchor. Once a month she ran across to Bandawe 
(the kindly Scotch station) for letters, and once in three 
months to Matopc, on the Shire, for stores. 

captain ^ er captain now was George SherrifT, a 
sherriff. m iddle~aged Brixham trawler, who came out 



i886] 



THE MISSION ON THE LAKE. 



ill the spring with Mr. Johnson to take Captain Calla- 
ghan s place. So devout was he that when first asked to 
carry the processional cross in his home parish Church, he 
knelt clown and gave thanks that he was allowed to clo 
something for the Church ; and he who had been faithful 
in that which was least, was called to be faithful in a 
greater matter. 

In the November of this year, to the great 

Death of the 

advancement of the work, the Rev. W. P. John- Rev. G. H. 

Swinny, 

son was once more able to resume work on the Feb. is, 

1887. 

Lake. About the same time Mr. Swinny re- 




GRAVE OF REV. G. II. SWINNY, AT BANDAWlS. 

turned from a visit to the Magwangwara, having obtained 
permission to settle in their country, which he and his wife 
hoped to do in the following May. But that time was 

N 



178 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1878 



never to conic for him. They were at Chingomanje s 
when he fell ill of fever, and though taken across to Ban- 
dawe and nursed by his wife and the good Scotch mis 
sionaries, George Ilervcy Swinny s pure soul passed away 
calmly on Sexagesima Sunday. Just before his death, 
looking straight up with wide-open eyes, he said, " There 
is the Land we have so long desired ; all our loved ones 
are there." lie was laid in the burying-ground at Ban- 
dawe, the first of the Mission to rest on the western shore 
of the Lake. 

The time of the Magwangwara was not fully come, and 
a Mission has never been planted there. 

Mrs. Swinny bravely stayed at her post at Likoma till 
Kaster, 1888, taking charge of the little girls, and then 
sailed for England, dying on the voyage. In two years 
the whole family had laid down their lives for Africa. 

In 1887 the Bishop again visited Nyasa, 

smythies taking with him Mr. Joseph Williams, a valu- 

third visit , _. . , ... . 

to Nyasa able lay worker, whose help the Lake Mission 

(July to Sept.). . i r r^ \ 

retained for many years. On the way they 
visited Mataka, who had now moved from Mwcmbe to a 
hill called Mwera, a day s journey further west. Crossing 
a range of mountains with flowers growing on the very 
summits (among which was a blue larkspur, exactly 
like our garden flower), the Bishop came to Unangu, 
where he held Sunday services, and was well received 
by the chief s daughter and her women. Thence he 
went on to Chingomanje s, meeting a caravan laden 
with ivory ; but as he approached the village there was 
silence. At first, seeing no houses, the Bishop thought 
the stockade was made high enough to hide them ; but 
the village proved to have been burnt up as a punishment 



THE MISSION ON THE LAKE. 



179 



to the chief for helping his ally, Jumbe, at Kota Kota, 
across the Lake, to kill Kazembe, a chief related to 
Mataka. Mataka had therefore ordered this revenge, 
Here the diaries Janson and Mr. Johnson met 
the Bishop and took him to Likoma, where he Lkomaj a 

r i , . . July 29. 

found all in order and remained six weeks, 




travelling about with Mr. Johnson, who rejoiced that his 
Bishop saw r the people in their normal state of inattcn- 
tiveness to their message, behaving no better than usual, 
and yet blessed the work and bade them take heart and 
extend it. 

If those at work saw keenly the shortcomings of their 
influence, others from outside felt that the Spirit of God 



I So HISTORY Or THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1887-8 

was in them of a truth ; and in this year a young 1 ex- 
guardsman, Mr. R. Crawshay, who had come to Nyasa 
elephant hunting, was so struck with the Mission that he 
returned to Africa and for a time worked with the Nyasa 
party. 

On his homeward path the Bishop skirted the Ma- 
gwangwara, and even entered some of their villages, in 
one of which the headman hid himself, lest he should die 
within a year from the ill-luck of looking upon a white 
face. Hut elsewhere the fear and dread of the Magwa- 
ngwara dominated the lives of the poor people. Every 
where refuges were prepared on the hill tops to fly to. In 
some parts they grew the scantiest crops lest they should 
attract these savages ; in others they were compelled to 
sow and raise good crops that they might pa}- a good 
tribute. How long shall this reign of terror last? 

At the Rovuma the Bishop came across the only 
Masasi Christian woman who had not been ransomed 
since the raid. Me failed, however, to get her. 

Several years of quiet, stead} work followed, 

Continued _ _ . . , _, . , T 

work at Mr. Johnson making trips in the Charles Janson, 

Archdeacon Maples working on the island, and 

making short journeys. After Mrs. Swinny went he 

carried on the Girls School himself, with apologies to them 

for intermitting their needlework studies. In September, 

1888, there were six adult male and twenty-eight female 

catechumens, and nine of the boys were baptized. 

Mr. Johnson at luring a temporary disablement of the 

Msa sn ir| 1 the Charles Janson, when she was stranded in the 

the r "^?ries ^ m r ^ f r eight months, Mr. Johnson started 

J ^8 n toMay!" schools at Msala, near Matopc, using native 

teachers. Three of Mr. Waller s boys, whom 



1 888] THE MISSION ON THE LAKE. l8l 

he had taken in 1863 to Cape Town, and who had been 
baptized and confirmed in Archdeacon Lightfoot s Mission, 
came on board the diaries Janson to see Mr. Johnson. 
They were now in the service of the African Lakes Com 
pany, and had kept up their Christian teaching, remember 
ing the Canticles by heart. So the bread cast in such 
faith and love on the waters by Mr. Waller had not been 
lost. 

In November this year some ladies came 

Lady recruits 

to Likoma Miss M. E. Woodward and Miss atLikoma, 
McLaughlin travelling part of the way in a 
canoe, and stopping to inspect Mr. Johnson s new school 
at Msala and to distribute the prizes. To the great 
relief of the Archdeacon, they freed him from the care of 
the little girls and their needlework. 

The political troubles of 1888 had threatened Polit icai 
to involve the Mission. The Portuguese in- Troubles - 
suited the British flag. The Acting Consul, Mr. Buchanan, 
and Mr. Johnson went to visit and reassure Makanjila, 
telling him that the dispute need not affect friendly rela 
tions with the natives. The Arabs, however, persuaded 
him to seize the Englishmen ; Mr. Johnson s 

r Mr. Johnson 

cassock was torn from him piecemeal, and an and Mr. 

rr . c Buchanan 

effort made to put them in letters, which, how- seized by 

Makanjila. 

ever, proved a bad fit. I he Mission steamer 
hacl to draw off, leaving them prisoners. A messenger 
arrived from Mataka to tell them that only by misfortunes 
can we learn experience, which did not comfort them 
much. Then Captain Sherriff and the diaries Janson 
came back, and, finding that Makanjila made a grievance 
of a flag having been unfurled in his territory, a ransom of 
two drums of paint and one of oil and some calico was 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES^ MISSION. [1888-9 



sent ashore, and the vice-consul released. Makanjila said 
that if one more drum and one bit more calico were given, 
they would throw Mr. Johnson into the bargain, and thus 
they were freed. The chief also liked one of the Mission 
boats and requisitioned it, but a friendly gale blew the 
boat back to its owners. 






?K ~;- : >*rf|t 

3 , ; .... /, .+*><*&&$ ;-:* |N,,| ir,- r tff ; |- Ui^te^-. :,: 

^f :u4f^;^r$fe v ,^ 

: Sfcr*;4f|iv^Ar j Pl lfl 

Ilpiii 
1 








: - "; - 



MISSION HOUSE, CIIISUMl I.U ISLAND. 

The troubles ended for that time in the Portuguese 
being made to understand that Nyasaland was under 
British protection. 

A time of trouble is, however, often a time of grace, 
and in 1889 Mr. Johnson could write : 

"The Church is becoming visible in the land, and is weaving 
a thousand links around our hearts. I cannot explain all the 



1888-9] THE MISSION ON THE LAKE. 183 



hopes I feel in the baptisms and confirmations the Bishop has 
just effected. 

This from a man who uniformly " forgets the things that 
are behind," and presses forward, scarcely noticing success, 
speaks volumes. 

A new station was opened this year in the 

. . . . . New Station 

sister island of Chisumulu, under Mr. Joseph atcmsumuiu. 

v ,,.... . T T i First Celebra- 

Williams and two native teachers; and Holy tion, 

. June 6. 

Communion was celebrated for the first time 
on June 6. Thus on the Octave of the Ascension another 
jewel w r as set in the diadem of our ascended Lord, and 
liis kingdom was planted in another of the isles which 
had waited for Him. 

The Bishop s visit alluded to above was his 

Bishop 

fourth. He arrived in July, and found at Nyasa smytwes 

J : J fourth visit 

a field " white already to harvest." On one toLikoma, 

July 22. 

day he baptized forty of Archdeacon Maples 
flock at Likoma, half of whom were the first women 
baptized here. Several other groups of Mr. Johnson s, 
dotted along the edge of the lake, were an encourage 
ment to him, as we have heard. Most of the adults were 
confirmed, resulting in some sixty or seventy communi 
cants in the island. Still better was it that the six boys 
baptized two years before were all steadfast three at 
school, one actually become a schoolmaster, one a car 
penter, and another an engineer. A dispensary and a 
printing press were also started, and a larger stone Church 
1 begun. 

The next year the Rev. L. H. Frere and 

f * , . ,^, . rr Meeting at 

Captain bnerrin, who had been home lor a cape Town 
rest, sailed for Nyasa, via Cape Town. There 



184 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1890 



they held a meeting, presided over by the Speaker, Sir 
David Tennant, with the Metropolitan and Archdeacon 
Lightfoot present. To this meeting came Anne Daoma, 
once saved from death by Bishop Mackenzie, now one of 
the head teachers in Miss Arthur s Mission School in con 
nection with St. George s Orphanage. She now offered 
a sovereign for the work among her own people. 

That work was being pushed forward rapidly. Three 
new stations were formed under native teachers ; yet Mr. 
Johnson still wrote warnings against roseate views of the 
Mission. 

" Are the people on the Lake all a^o^ to see me 

Actual state , 

of the heathen or any ot us? I hey are by supposition heathen 

Natives. ,, , . ... , 

that is, more engrossed in their gardens, hippo- 
chasing, war scares, dancings, etc., than villagers at home." 

And he draws a sad picture of the lives of these poor 
natives : 

" There broods oppression on a petty scale, with tragic burnings 
and poisonings, fear of lions or sudden night attacks, and mur 
ders of a mother or near relative, who has been half the little 
world of life things that leave the child an old man in heart, 
cut off from comfortable security. 

Archdeacon ln Ma } T . this year, Archdeacon Maples re- 
M E P ngLId lts turned to England for a visit. Here he aroused 
(May). nujch interest in the winter of 1890-1, and re 
turned to Nyasa again by r the Rovuma route, reaching it 
in October. 

Perhaps an extract from Canon Scott- Holland s 

Anniversary . , , 

Meeting, speech at the anniversary in 1891 will best 

show the extreme simplicity of the working of 
the Lake stations in these clays of primitive Christianity. 



1891] THE MISSION ON THE LAKE. 185 



Mentioning a letter just received from a missionary at 
Likoma who was enthusiastic about his offertories, he 
says : 

"Referring to a certain offertory of February 15, he writes, 
There was collected an offertory of salt, fowls, and fish-hooks, 
to the extent of is. 6dJ But on the following Sunday the record 
was beaten : Flour, beans, and salt collected, to the value of 
half-a-crown. A delicious picture comes up before us. But in 
picturing it, it is not wrong to remember those great kings who 
knelt to offer gold and frankincense and myrrh, and to believe 
that these offerings of Africa are just as valuable in the eyes of 
God as those rich gifts of the kings. He tells us of boys whom 
he dares not ask to fast, for they live a prolonged fast all the 
year round, and so he allows them beans in their porridge on 
fast days ; and those very boys in thankfulness are carrying stones 
with their own hands to build their Church." 

Truly, as was said in that same speech, " history is 
beginning for Africa." Yes, history is beginning, and the 
harvest is ripening round Lake Nyasa, but the fullest 
ears are taken first ; and in this year one of those 
apparently most needed here was taken. George Sherriff, 
the brave, simple skipper of the Charles Jauson, had 
fetched the Bishop, who was ill at Chitesi s, to Likoma. 
Two days later he ran across with Mr. Frere and Mr. 
Alley, who were ill, to the Scotch station to see a doctor. 
Owing partly to the upsetting of a boat, Captain Sherriff 
caught cold, but worked on another week, communicating 
at Likoma on Sunday, August 9. All day 7 he felt unwell, 
but would work on, lying down at times in his berth. 
Next day he wished to take Mr. Johnson across to cele 
brate at So Songolo s station. FLarly^ in the morning, 
though too ill to move, he said " Try " ; and that was 



1 86 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1891 



nearly his last word. The vessel went across, but in the 

Death of evening they brought him back to Likoma, 

sherffff where he was nursed by Miss Fountaine. The 

symptoms were like sunstroke; nothing seemed 







CREW OF THE " CHAKLES JANSOX." 



to do him any good, and he passed away on Wednesday 
morning. One who knew him well in England, wrote : 

" The letters received from Nyasa speak of his being a great 
loss, and one of the very best workers, and Mr. Johnson writes : 



1891-2] THE MISSION ON THE LAKE. 187 

* Don t think it hard that he worked to the last he would. He 
loved for us to go early to celebrate. The Bishop himself was 
at Likoma when George died. He blessed the grave. The 
crew bore him to the Church and grave, and there his body rests 
beside the Lake he loved so well the body of a true Brixham 
trawler, who knew how to use his skill, which was great, so very 
humbly, for our Lord s sake." 

This was the first grave in Likoma cemetery since little 
Mary S \vinny s, five years before. 

The Bishop was ill during most of his fifth TheBishop . s 
visit, but he confirmed fifty-five candidates. 



Mr. Johnson could write cheerfully concerning Aug- 2> 
the slave trade : 

" We have got a hearing. We are known to the Yaos. . . . 
They have in times past been overbearing and insolent, but we 
have their confidence." 

This illness of the Bishop, and his certainty 

Scheme of a 
that he could undertake no more expeditions Bishopric for 

Nyasaland. 

to Nyasa, even with his special powers of 
travelling, were among the main reasons for asking for a 
division of labour, by placing a Bishop in Nyasaland. 
Another reason was the growing importance of the 
country to Englishmen, and of the Mission to the whole 
Lake district, coupled with the re-opening of the Zambesi 
route, which made the overland journey from Lindi little 
used. 

At Easter the Christians from the Lake 
stations, with their teachers, hastened to keep itkoma at 
the feast at Likoma. All the Christians and 
catechumens observed Good Friday in silence till the 
Three Hours were ended. At seven a.m. on Easter morn- 



1 88 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1892 



ing 108 persons communicated ; and then came the 
" usual preaching at the tree " for hearers from the island 
villages. Matins followed, with the baptism of twenty 
adults and eight children. " Very affecting," says the 
Archdeacon, " to us priests who know what depths of sin 




our candidates have often come out of." A census taken 
this Easter gives altogether 961 adherents of all sorts, 
with fourteen European workers in the district. 

On the nineteenth Sunday after Trinity a 

J 



Great Fire at 



Oct. 23. 



misfortune befel Likoma. 



well-nigh burnt to the ground. 



r 

Ihe station was 
/\ wretched 



1892] 



THE MISSION ON THE LAKE. 



carrion crow picked up a piece of native porridge after a 
feast ; there was a live ember sticking to it ; this it stored 
in the thatched roof of the dining room early in the after 
noon. It was soon in flames, which quickly spread to the 
Church, library, dispensary, and most of the living- 
houses. All these were separate buildings, yet the flames 
were carried from one to the other, and all were burnt ; 
the most heartrending loss being the library of 1,400 




MISSIONARY STAFF AT NYASA. 



books. But it is thankworthy to note the way in which 
those faithful men took it. Archdeacon Maples, Mr. 
Johnson, Mr. Atlay, and Mr. Joseph Williams, with the 
ladies and converts, gathered for Evensong in the new 
schoolroom, and sang a Te Deum to God for what Me 
had spared them ! Well might the Archdeacon write : 
" First, what we didn t lose no human lives and no 
tempers." His letter announcing it was not merely cheer- 



190 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1892 

ful, but merry that of one who sat lightly to the things of 
this world, only sad when he says a far worse misfortune 
had come to them six weeks before, when four of their 
boys had come back drunk after their outing, and he told 
the boys so now. 
second Fire, O n November 5 a second fire occurred, burn- 



Nov. 5. 



ing up the Girls School and seven other houses 




LIKOMA (the Bishop s Home on the left). 

so that the ladies had to be sent away Miss Turner to 
England, Miss Fountaine to Bandawe, Miss McLaughlin 
to Zanzibar, Miss Woodward being already in England. 

Bravely they set to work at once to rebuild. They said 
they had long been ashamed of the Church, and now 
would build a better one. Surely never was misfortune 
met in a more saintly spirit. In the words of the Christian 
Year for that nineteenth Sunday after Trinity : 



IS 9 2] 



THE MISSION ON THE LAKE. 



IQI 



" Yot know ho not what angel came 
To ninko tin* rushing fire-flood soorn 
Like summer breeze by woodland stream." 

But the year 1892 closed with an event of grc.it import 
ance for Nyasaland, which must have comforted the hearts 
of the waiting missionaries. 

It had been decided by the Bishop and the Home Com 
mittee, in consultation with the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
that Nyasaland should have its own bishopric, and the 



sum of 9,000 havin; 




been raised, supplemented by 
grants of 1,000 each from 
S.P.G. and S.P.C.K., a bishop 
was appointed at once. 

The priest chosen Wilfrid Bird 
was the Rev. Wilfrid Fil H s n? s y ho P 



WSIIOP IIORXKY. 



Bird Hornby, Vicar 
of St. Columba s, 
Sundcrland. He was a Brase- 
nose man, who had rowed in his 
college eight, and had been one 
of the founders of the Oxford 
Mission to Calcutta, where he 
spent six years. He seemed the very man for the work 
one who could rough it and put life into his work. He 
had in seven years transformed a few poor people in a 
room over a pawnbroker s shop into a devout congregation 
worshipping in a beautiful church dedicated to the saint 
of lona ; and he now went forth, full of hope that, like 
St. Columba, he might, from his African islet, gather in the 
African races to the obedience of Christ. 

Bishop Hornby was consecrated on St. 
Thomas s Day in St. Paul s Cathedral, with the 



IQ2 II/STORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1892 



title of Bishop of Nyasaland, Bishop Smythies adopting 
that of Bishop of Zanzibar and Missionary Bishop in 
East Africa. They were to work in different parts of the 
undivided field of the Universities Mission. 

The nc\v Bishop went out by way of Zanzibar, and then 
bv the Zambesi route, visiting Mackenzie s 

Bishop Hornby * 

m route for grave, which was rather overgrown, but the cross 
still standing. What a contrast between 1862 
and 1892 ! Then the badly-managed canoes were the only 
means of progress ; now steamers were plying regularly on 
the Zambesi and Shire, and from them to the lake ; while 
at Ruo, where that river runs into the Shire, where Macken 
zie wrote his last letter to go down whenever Livingstone 
should arrive, there now stood a post-office, that evident 
mark of European civilization, stamping its letters with its 
own post-mark. 

The Bishop had drawn out with him several new 
workers, among whom were the Rev. James Wimbush and 
Mr. Herbert M. Pearson, the former of whom is still doing 

o 

the Mission s work at Nyasa. 

Directly on arriving at the lake the Bishop held some 

Confirmations, in June, 1893, and was much struck with 

the beaut}- of Likoma and the good work going on 

there. 

New station A new venture was made on St. Matthew s 

at Unangu, 

sept. 21. Day the opening of a Mission Station, at last, 
in the heart of the Yao tribe at Unangu. With the lesson 



e> 



of the saint who rose up from his seat by the waters of the 
Galilean lake sounding in their ears, a little party, consist 
ing of the Archdeacon, the Rev. Dr. Hine, W T illiam Cowey, 
four boys and thirty-one porters, started off from their lake, 
which had reminded Charles Janson of Galilee, and took a 



1893-4] 



THE MISSION ON THE LAKE. 



193 



fifty-mile walk, reaching " a great, solitary, double-peaked, 
or rather, double-domed mountain, towering above all the 
other hills which crowd the view to the horizon." This is 
the site of a really large Yao town of thousands of houses. 
The chief, Kalanje, gave them leave to settle there, provided 
they did not spy on his slave trade. He was assured that 




they came for religious purposes only. After a week the 
Archdeacon left Dr. Hine and Mr. Cowey in their new 
home and returned to Nyasa, with his heart warmed once 
more towards the Yao people. 

Bishop Smythies was enthusiastic when he heard of the 
new station, and offered at once to lend, for two years, to 

u 



J94 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1894 

Unangu, Yohanna Abdallah, a chief s son, one of his best 




DR. IIINE AND \\TLLIAM COWEY AT UNANGU. 

native teachers, whom he hoped to ordain shortly. He 
and Dr. Hine have worked there since, but Mr. Cowey, 



1894] THE MISSION ON THE LAKE. 1 95 



another of Bishop Hornby s old flock, who first Death of 

assisted Dr. Hine, fell ill and died as he reached ^ a y m 

the coast, and was buried at Quilimane. March 6- 

More unfortunate still was it that, after a visit Bishop 

Hornby s 

to Unangu, the Bishop was obliged to be in- illness and 

to . resignation 

valided home, and returned to England, via the (August). 
Cape, where so seriously did the medical men think of 
his chances of health in Nyasaland, that he had to resign 
his diocese in 1894, after about eight months work on the 
lake. 

The disappointment to him and to the whole Mission 
can hardly be gauged. This second attempt to plant the 
Episcopate in Nyasaland had been even of shorter duration 
than the first. Well may it be said that, whereas those 
who work against God must use impatience as a weapon 
and do well to hurry, those who work with Him must be 
content to use patience. He Who has waited willingly 1,900 
years to work His plans in darkest Africa, may well call 
on us to tarry His leisure, and to " account that the long- 
suffering of our Lord is salvation." 



CHAPTER XII. 

CHRISTIAN VILLAGES OX THE KOVUMA. 

" O Lord, our Lord, how spreads that little seed, 

\ \ Inch was, at first, of every seed the. least ! 
The birds of air shall scarce its growth on t speed ; 

Its world -wide branches knit the West and East. 
Rude as the Saviour s birthplace are its halls, 

O er whicf^ like Bethlehem s star, the cross appears ; 
And oft the watchman of those outpost walls 

In tented fields his wakeful voice up rears." 

IT will be remembered that in the history of Masasi, 
the sub-station of Xewala was often mentioned. 
A Mission is founded, now in this way, now in that, 
perhaps least frequent!} , but most happily, under the in 
fluence of the chief or ruler. If u not many mighty, not 
many noble" arc called, yet here and there we find a Clovis 
or an Ethelbert to go before his people in Christianity, as 
in war. 

So it was that the Yao chief, Matola, showed 

loio. 

founded himself friendly to the Mission, and eighteen 
(May). months after the first settlement at Masasi, he 
eagerly received the Rev. H. H. Clarke as a missionary to 
the Yaos. For six months, in the temporary church, the 
Yaos listened to the words of life, interpreted by a Kiungani 
boy. Sunday began to be observed, and the people were 
obedient to Christian teaching. It has been told how Mr. 
Clarke had to be withdrawn to Masasi, Matola, in touching 

words, begging him to return as soon as possible. 

196 



1879-80] CHRISTIAN I /f.LAGES ON THE ROVUMA. 197 

Next, Bishop Steere received a letter from 
Abdallah Pesa, the Mohammedan chief of a AMaiiah 

11 T i. i TI/T i i Pesa s Letter. 

village between Lindi and Masasi, asking him, 

" after compliments," to let his " English children " always 

visit him on the way to Masasi. 

" I should be rejoiced very much if you were able to send me 
an English teacher, to live with me, to teach my people, and the 
people of the neighbouring towns. If he comes, I will build him 
a house." 

By the August of the following year we find 
preparations being made for Mr. Joseph Williams wmiamsand 

.., Ndegele begin 

to sfo to this village, taking 1 with him Charlie work at Pesa s 

(Nov.) 

Ndegele, a Kiungani lad, of the Mwera tribe, 
who had just supplied himself with a wife, Cornelia, from 
among Miss Thackeray s girls. She was to teach the girls, 
being the second female native teacher of this Mission on 
the mainland. By November the station was occupied. 

About this time Newala was held again by 
the Rev. C. Tanson and the Rev. A. C. Goldfinch, and A. c. 

Goldfinch at 

The former was rather disappointed in Matola. Newaia. 
He suspected him of mixed motives in his desire for a 
Mission, and of making as much as possible out of his 
building contract. This was not unlikely in one not yet 
even a catechumen. Newala proved a good centre for 
influencing the Makuas and Makonde. Edwin Ramathani, 
who had come as interpreter from Kiungani, waxed shy 
when Mr. Janson began to preach, and could not translate, 
so Matola acted as interpreter himself, doing it very well ; 
and was so much pleased with himself that next time 
Edwin began to interpret he watched him closely, till he 
could exclaim triumphantly, " You have left something 
out ! " After which the chief was allowed to interpret, 



///.STOAT OF THE UNITERSfTlEV MISSION. [1880-82 

The history of these Rovuma Missions was, till the fate 
ful year of 1882, an essentially quiet and unobtrusive one. 
There was little of the romance attaching to Masasi, but 
" the trivial round, the common task," are chronicled again 
and again, a most satisfactory state of things for the 
Mission, if uninteresting to the student of history. Flcury, 
it is said, dreaded nothing so much as a " historical ad 
ministration." 

So for the next two or three years Mr. Williams and 
Xdegclc worked quietly at Mtua, a district of about ten 
miles around Abdallah Pesa s, where the Mission house 
stood. Occasionally Mr. Williams found means to collect 
a few .Arabs and Swahilis at Lindi, the seaport 35 miles 
from his station, to talk on religion. u I am often able 
to say a few words for our Lord and Master." 
Lind byt c h u e pied So blest were these " few words " that the Rev. 
Rev N "v C 22 rke H. H. Clarke was sent to Lindi, and thus the 
chain of stations from the coast to the lake 
began to take shape. 

The next year the year of the fatal raid on 

Progress ,, . Ii_ i_ i 

ontho Masasi much work was going on in the whole 

Rovuma. 

district. I he Rev. L. Maples could record many 
villages which had renounced Islamism, the outward and 
visible sign being their keeping Sunday holy, instead of 
Friday. A native reader, Charles Sulimani, travelled round 
these villages, holding classes. 

Better still, from Newala, Matola, after great 

Matola 

declares scarchmgs oi heart, came to Masasi to declare 

desirous to be himself willing to be a catechumen. Much had 

a Catechumen. . 

to be given up before this could take place ; and 
not in one year nor in two could affairs be arranged. 
Polygamy stands always in the way for a chief : he must, 



IS82-3] CHRISTIAN riIJ,AGES ON THE ROVUM,\. 199 



before he can be baptized, put away all his wives save one, 
and must make a proper settlement for the others and their 
children, treating 1 them only as sisters. Many tribal cus 
toms connected with heathendom and witchcraft must be 
given up if possible without alienating his people. But 
from this time Matola set his face towards Christianity, 
even suggesting surrendering his chieftainship and coming 
to live near Masasi. But four months later came the raid, 
and Xewala was the city of refuge for the released slaves. 

For when all around him were flying to the impenetrable 
Makonde thickets, where alone they felt safe from the 
Magwangwara, this true friend, Matola, said, "If any escape 
from Masasi, they will come to me, and I must be here to 
help them." Thus, when Mr. Maples and his part} stag 
gered in, starving and ill, he was there to tend and feed 
them. 

The next year, after anxious consultation Tho mQVQ 
with Matola, it was decided to move the colony ^S? 
in a bod} from Masasi to Xewala, or rather (June) 
to Chilonda, a spur of the Makonde plateau, close to 
it, and close to a good place of refuge in case of danger. 
Thus the raiding of Masasi brought about the great 
wish of Matola for resident missionaries. 

The native colonists set to work to build church and 
schools and to clear ground ; and being paid with beads, 
brass wire and calico, could buy food, which was plenti 
ful, while time was allowed them to build their nc\v 
houses, and to plant maize and pumpkins. The church 
was built entirely of bamboos, poles, and thatch, costing 
20, and calculated to last seven or eight years. Matola 
took a deep interest in all, coming over on Sundays to 
hear and to ask counsel on stopping witchcraft. Supported 



200 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1^84 



Bishop 






by Mr. Maples, he made up his mind to try first to cure 
his people of sorcery, and if he failed, to abdicate in 
favour of a distant cousin, and to become a Christian 
a resolution which his Christian friends must have felt to 
be thankworthy. 

I n 1 884 the Mission had the great happiness 
f a visit from Bishop Smythics, who remained 
in the district two and a half months, making 
himself familiar with the work. At Xewala, 

where the Bishop 
arrived on July 
28, a conference 
debated whether 
to stay there or 
to migrate to 
the Makonde 
plateau, and it 
was decided to 
stay for another 
year. 

Then the 
Bishop visited 
AtMasasi P oor raided Masasi, where he preached on the 
Aug. 17. tenth Sunday after Trinity; for Christianity 
was kept up there among a few natives by Charles Suli- 
mani, with occasional visits from the clergy. Looking 
on the ruined station, how must the Sunday Gospel 
have come home to the Bishop. Did he remember One 
who wept over the Holy City, saying, " If thou hadst 
known " ? Did he remember how shortly before the de 
struction of Masasi, Mr. Maples wrote that the hearts of 
their hearers were cold and dead, and that they were too 







1884] CHRISTIAN VILLAGES ON THE KOVUMA. 2OI 

prosperous, adding, " In all time of our wealth, good 
Lord deliver us "? Now their enemies had indeed come 
upon them, and their teachers were removed. The Yaos 
came to hear the Bishop, but not the Makuas, who still 
said openly, " The Makuas don t know God, and they 
don t want to know Him." When the Makua chiefs, 
however, asked for the Mission back, he told them they 
had lost their opportunity, but that he would try to send 
a teacher. 

Returning to Newala, he held a confirmation 

. . Retreat at 

and a short retreat for the Mission workers ;Nowaia ending 
there were present the Revs. II. II. Clarke and 
S. Weigall (who had come with the Bishop) ; Mr. Irving, 
preparing for Holy Orders, with a view to Masasi ; Mr. 
Williams, from Mtua ; and Charles Sulimani. Apparently 
the Revs. G. H. Swinny and E. B. Smith had just arrived, 
the former hoping to go to the Magwangwara, the latter 
to work with Mr. Williams at Mtua. What a refreshment 
in the midst of years of anxious work must this retreat 
have been ! On the following Sunday Mr. M. L. Irving 
was ordained to the Diaconate. 

The Bishop made some short expeditions to 

, . - Blessing the 

see various chiefs, and before he left Newala villages, 
held a solemn service to ask for the village 
the Divine protection against war and pestilence. After 
preaching on the subject, he led them in procession round 
the villages, chanting litanies, heathen and Christian 
alike joining ; afterwards they had a festival and invited 
all the chiefs to dinner. 

This was the first Episcopal visit to the Rovuma since 
Bishop Steere founded Masasi eight years before. 

On his way to the coast the Bishop visited Machemba, 



202 HfsrOKY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1885 

a sort of bandit, of whom we hear more. In the road 
they met a poor runaway, who was found and seized by 
eight or ten of Machemba s men, and in spite of a 
promise to the Bishop not to murder him, he was strangled 
as soon as they were out of sight. Verily the land was 
crying out for the reign of Christ to end the reign of 
violence. Machemba, however, gave the Bishop two 
pupils to take back to Zanzibar. 

Next year the Bishop came again, on his return from 
his first visit to Nyasa. This was the journey on which 
he discovered the source of the Lujcnda, which had 
hitherto been believed to rise in Lake Shirwa, On the 
way to Xcwala they spent a few days with the powerful 
chief Mtarika, who had heard a good report of them 
from Matola. 

The Bishop s Reaching Xcwala on October 24, the Bishop 
S the n Rovuma remained there, and in the neighbourhood, for 
Oct. 24. more than a month. The happiest event of 
this visit was the admission at last of Matola as a catechu 
men. His long del a\- was partly caused by his people 
fearing that if he became a Christian he could no more 
lead them to war. Some openly talked of leaving him 
and selling themselves into slavery. But all was now 
understood, and on the last Sunday of the Church s year 
Matola was to receive his cross from the Bishop. 

Some eight or nine chiefs, with a goodly 

Matola becomes 

a catechumen, crowd of natives, assembled for the short Yao 

Nov. 22. 

service, consisting of the commandments, a 
hymn, a Xcw Testament Lection, and then the Office 
for the admission of a catechumen, beginning with " The 
Lord is my Shepherd." Matola was led to the Bishop 
by Mr. Porter and Mr. Weigall. Mr. Maples then 



ISS6] CHRISTIAN VILLAGES ON THE ROVUMA. 



asked the usual questions, and after prayer the Bishop 
pronounced the Exorcism, and gave him the cross, 
worn by all native Christians, exhorting him in English, 
which was interpreted. There now only remained his 
polygamy as an obstacle to his baptism ; but it was an 
obstacle which remained nearly to the end of his life, ten 
years later. 

Eor some time the Bishop had wished to 
remove the Mission Station at Mtua further in- 
land, as the converts were too near the dcmoral- 
izing influences of the coast people. There was 
a Yao village six days march from the coast, but still one 
long day short of Newala Chitangali, whose chief, Bar- 
naba Matuka, was already a Christian, being in fact an old 
Kiungani pupil. On this village the) fixed, and when the 
Bishop passed up to the Magwangwara in May, he sent 
the Rev. Cecil Pollard and the Rev. Cecil Majaliwa there, 
their first Sunday being Whit Sunday, June 8. Soon after 
the Rev. E. B. L. Smith took Mr. Pollard s place. 

Some account must now be given of Cecil Cecil 
Majaliwa, who worked at Chitangali as long as Ma J allwa - 
there was a Chitangali to work at. He was a Yao, a re 
leased slave child received by Bishop Stecre, and educated 
at Kiungani. In August, 1879, he married Lucy Mgom- 
beani, one of the Christian girls, and a teacher. Before 
the Bishop s death he had become a Reader, and worked 
at Mbwcni, being very devoted to his Bishop, and heart 
broken at his death. 

At the end of 1883 Cecil was sent for a year s training to 
St. Augustine s College, Canterbury, and return- ordained 
ing in February, 1885, worked quietly on for A P n14 - 
another year before receiving deacon s -Orders at the hands 



204 Il/STOKY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1886 







REV. C. MAJALIVVA AND FAMILY. 



iS86] CHRISTIAN VILLAGES ON THE ROVUMA. 205 



of Bishop Smythies in Christ Church, Zanzibar, many of 
his Kiungani and Mbweni friends filling the church for the 
ordination of the third native clergyman of the Mission. 
He was now sent to Chitangali, and as a specimen of an 
educated native s letter we here give one from him to 
Archdeacon Hodgson : 

"CHITAXGALI, August 1 1, 1886. 
" MY DEAR FATHER, 

" I was very pleased when I got the good news of 
Mbweni that you were all well, though it was other- Majaiiwa s 

I fit t fit* 

wise with our brethren at Magila and Nyasa. But I 
am sorry for you, my father, that you should be all alone. . . . 
It is the same with me here. I am left alone in the midst of 
the heathen, like a cottage in middle of a forest. . . . The 
children here are not like those at Mbweni. There they honour 
the bell; here it is not so. One has to hunt them up like wild 
beasts. I have church every morning at half-past six ; but I only 
use the Lord s Prayer and a few Collects, for here we have no 
Christians but Barnaba ; he is the only one. ... I have 
made it my custom to read by myself every morning from eight 
o clock to nine o clock. Then I go my rounds to look up the 
school children. . . . But on Sundays I have a great deal 
to do. . . . Prayers at nine in Yao. First I say the Ten 
Commandments in Yao, then the Litany, and after the Litany 
preach, with Barnaba for an interpreter. When I come out from 
church, I go to the Makonde towns to preach, and they are a 
long way off. Then I have Evening Prayer at five. For the 
Holy Communion I go over to Newala; but the two places are 
a long way apart, so I go once a fortnight. ... I have got 
here a small harmonium ; it used to be at Mtua with Mr. Joseph 
Williams. Many children come to school for the pleasure of 
hearing the sound of the harmonium. I think if I get some 
pictures they will come better. . . . Now the first thing I 
want to teach them is the small Catechism (Bishop Forbes ). 



206 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



[1886 



The day before yesterday I went to visit a Makonde 
chief, and talked to him about the things of God. He promised 
to give me his sons to be taught. The Makonde do not love 
friendship. They dwell by themselves in forests, and are very 
much afraid of other people. . . . They never wash, except 




CII1TAXGALI STATION. 



possibly in the rainy season. They say it is the most unlucky 
thing to live near water. Now good-bye, father ; my respects to 
your wife. 

" I remain, truly, your son in Christ, 

" CiiCiL MAJALIWA." 

The loneliness of which he complains was caused by 
the deaths of the Rev. J. S. C. Wood at Newala, followed 



1SS6] 



CHRISTIAN VILLAGES ON THE .ROVUMA. 



20- 



immediately by that of the Rev. C. S. Pollard, Deathsof 
both of fever. The latter, being invalided, was R w^odand 
on his way to England, but only just lived to c.s.Poiiard. 
reach Mozambique, and died there, in the British consul s 
house, tenderly nursed to the end by Mr. Hainsworth. 
The Bishop, on his return in November from 

Bishop 

his second visit to Nyasa, paid his third visit to smytmes 

. . . . . third visit. 

this district. He found that there had been a 




little scare of Mag\vang\vara, which ended happily, the 
most serious consequence being that the friendly Masasi 
chief Akumbemba, who had retired before them to a hill 
top, like all the natives, died suddenly of heart disease 
while scaling his temporary abode. Yohanna, Barnaba s 
step-son, had been helping Cecil in his school, and was 
now sent to Nevvala ; and the Bishop returned to Zanzibar, 
taking seventeen boys from Newala and Masasi to Kiu- 
ngani. It was, he said, very trusting of the parents to send 
them, for, barring slave-sticks, his party looked just like a 



208 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1887 



slave caravan. It was a great step forward for 
recruit, free boys from the mainland to recruit the 

Kiungani. . 

Kiungani ranks, which once consisted entirely 
of freed slave boys. 

Now that the Mission had spread on the mainland, how 
well it was that a Bishop who could travel was at the 
helm ! He visited this district, the next year, both in 
going up for his third Nyasa visit and in coming clown. 

In somcr up in Tune, he made peace between 
* * J 



The Bishop s ^ . 

fourth visit two Yao chiefs. 

(June), and . 111111 r 

fifth visit In coming back, he held a conference at 

Newala, where, among other things, the custom 

known as Unyago was discussed. The custom varies in 

various tribes. The one constant feature is cer- 

Unyago. 

tain dances, with singing. Much that is heathen 
and very objectionable is mixed up with Unyago customs. 
Hence they are incompatible with the acceptance of Chris 
tianity. A good chief can stop the worst features, but even 
so the songs are abominable. Of course the orphan chil 
dren belonging to the Mission never join in an Unyago. 

Something very interesting now happened. 
becomes Barnaba Matuka s uncle, Nakaam, a powerful 

Nakaam, ^ . . 

and para- paramount Yao chief, chea. Barnaba was 

mount Chief, 

chosen to succeed him over the heads ot several 
senior men. His elder unchosen brother said that the 
chiefs chose him because the breadth his Christianity had 
given to his character had made him quite the leading 
man in the district. Barnaba had a difficult time. His 
Confirmation was fixed for the time of his investiture with 
the name and dignity of Nakaam. Moreover he, a Chris 
tian chief, found himself, to his horror, legally possessed of 
several wives, his predecessor s being by custom inherited, 



1S8 7 ] 



CHRISTIAN VILLAGES a\ T THE ROVUMA. 



And is 



Till he had made legal and honourable provision for them, 
he could not be confirmed. But he came 
through it all well ; was invested at Masasi, 
and managed to get to Newala in time for the Confirma 
tion. His sons and stepson were also confirmed. 

1 he The Magwa . 
next n & wara scare - 

year there was 
again a war 
scare. The Ma- 
gwangwara did, 
in fact, visit the 
country, and the 
natives fled. 
Cecil Majaliwa, 
who had just 
brought his 
wife and four 
children to Chi- 
tangali, put them 
in safety on the 
hills, and re 
mained himself 
at his post till 
danger was over 
This was really 
courageous, for 
all the Newala 
natives absconded to the Makonde plateau, dwelling 
in booths like the Jews at the Feast of Tabernacles. 
The Magwangwara will not climb a hill, so they were 
safe there ; but the desperate fear with which they 




BAKNABA NAKAAM. 



2To fs/sroxy or THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [isss 



went about was instanced by a little scene witnessed by 
Mr. Wathen, of Newala. The plateau rises 1,000 feet of 
sheer wall above the lowlands, and only by precipitous 
goat paths could the people scramble down for water. As 
Mr. Wathen and his men were passing near this water, 
they were taken for Magwangwara, and heard a yell of fear 
as a boy dashed down the gully and ran a mile or two 
without stopping ; after him ran his father, wishing he 
could go as fast as the boy ; after him a grandmother 
tumbled down the path and started at a good run ; but 
the two last heard reason, and thankfully stopped when 
they recognised a white man. 

Machemba When the Magwangwara came, they marched 
Magwangwara as ^ ir as Machemba s, who fortunately defeated 

(June). ti iemj anc ] the invincible warriors left about 
fifty shields on the field of battle. 

This inroad occasioned one of those migrations of a 
whole village so puzzling to a geographer ; for when one 
traveller has given latitude and longitude, the next 
discovers a serious discrepancy in the site. But if puzzling 
to the geographer, it is worse for the missionary, who 
site of Newaia must fU w R i- s people and lose all his build- 
r Skonde H1 S S - ^ TOW was scen tne wisdom of the tempo- 

piateau. rar y buildings at Newala. The move was only 
to the dense undergrowth of the Makonde table-land, just 
above old Newala ; the reason being that the Magwa 
ngwara are lost without the huge Zulu shields they still 
carry, and they cannot drag them through the thick 
underwood. Feeling that even this migration might not 
be final, more temporary buildings were put up, and 
probably the entire mission buildings at Newala have 
never been worth more than 100, 



1 889-90] CHRISTIAN VILLAGES ON THE ROVUMA. 211 

Here the Bishop found them in May, 1889. TheBishop . s 
He had visited Chitangali, and had been dc- t^ewail 
lighted with Cecil Majaliwa s work, who, after (May) - 
a year and a half, was able to present twelve candidates for 
baptism, the chief s wife among them, making twenty-two 
Christians under his care ; and when all the twenty-two 
were confirmed, the good chief, Nakaam, interpreted the 
charge. His stepson, Yohanna, now came to take the 
school under Cecil. 

It will be remembered that in 1887 the Bishop Rescueof 
met near the Rovuma the only Masasi Chris- Lilla Mawezai - 
tian woman who had not been ransomed from the Magwa- 
ngwara, and that he failed at that time to obtain her release 
The next year Mr. Porter managed to recover her ; and 
after six years of slavery Lilla Mawezai had kept her 
Christian heart, so that the Bishop now had the happiness 
of confirming her at Masasi, before going on to the Lake. 

The year 1890 was troubled., owing to some 
of the chiefs not submitting kindly to the 
German power, to which this district had been 
assigned as a "sphere of influence in the general 
mania for possessing Africa." Great distrust of the new 
European power was naturally felt at first, travelling was 
interrupted, and the Mission work hindered, not by the 
Germans, but by the natives unfriendly to them. This 
was only temporal*} , and of course our missionaries in the 
German sphere act loyally to the German authorities, teach 
ing their people to look to the Emperor as their suzerain. 

This year was marked by the third milestone 

* J The Native 

to a native ministry. 1 he first was when John Ministry. 

, John Swedi 

Swedi and George Farajallah definitely offered subdeaoon. 
themselves for the ministrv by being made 



212 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1890 
Deacon, subdeacons. The second was reached when 

June 8, 1879. T , , , . 

John Swcdi was made a deacon, and now, on 

Cecil Majaliwa, 

first native the day of the Apostle of the Gentiles, the 

Priest of : . L 

universities first native priest of the Mission was ordained 

Mission, 

Jan. 25, 1890. in Christ Church. 

Here in Zanzibar, afar from the cradle of Christianity, 
afar off in time and place and customs, knelt Cecil Maja 
liwa, first of all his race to be called to the Christian priest 
hood. Four chaplains of the British Navy took part in 
the laying on of hands, and Archdeacon Jones-Bateman 
preached on the text, u This is the day which the Lord 
has made." 

"Two days whole holiday was given in honour of the event 
in all schools throughout the Mission. It is not easy to estimate 
what this day will become in the annals of the East African 
Church, nor what must have been the feelings of any present 
who could remember the old sad scenes that used to take place 
in that very spot where now one rescued from actual slavery thus 
received his heavenly Master s commission to loose the captive 
bonds of sin from the hearts of his fellow-countrymen." 

A touching example of the way in which an African 
viewed the immense significance of this ordination is 
found in a letter which Cecil received from St. Mark s 
Mission, Transkei, Kaffraria, written by the Rev. T. K. 
Masiza, the first South African native priest, on hearing 
the joyful news, to express his rejoicing sympathy. In 
return Cecil wrote a charming reply from Chitangali. 
want of Lady The want of English lady workers for the 

workers. R ovuma district was much felt. The boys, as 
they grew up, had to take heathen wives, and thus fell 
under heathen influence, for an African literally leaves 
father and mother and cleaves to his wife and to her 



[890] CHRISTIAN VILLAGES ON THE ROVUMA. 21 



people. Mothers-in-law are stern realities in Africa. For 
it is a carious outcome of polygamy that the children 
obey the mother before the father, feeling her to be their 
own parent. The father, who divides his affection between 
many wives, has a divided authority over his children. One 
mother-in-law in this district even took away a catechu 
men s wife, because he did not work hard enough for her. 

In this year died a convert, whose history illustrates the 
ups and downs of Mission work. 

Charles Sulimani was the first free Makua to 

, r . . History of 

come to school at Masasi in lo/o, and the next Charles 

Sulimani. 

year he came under the influence of the Rev. 
Chauncy Maples, he being then eighteen years old. 
Charles was a singular exception to the Makua don t-care 
attitude of mind. Mr. Maples, whom he loved dearly 
through all vicissitudes, says of him : 

" His contrition for his sins was as deep, and his devotion for 
our Lord as tender, as any it has been my privilege to witness." 

Among his teachers he was also devoted to the Rev. H. H, 
Clarke. 

Baptized on Whitsunday, 1878, and named after a dear 
brother of Mr. Maples, he was, two years later, brought to 
Zanzibar for confirmation by Mr. Clarke. Mr. Maples, 
who arrived from England just after, took him to Magila, 
where, with earnest preparation, he received his first Com 
munion. Returning to Masasi, he married one of the 
Christian colonists, and, working as a reader, sowed much 
good seed in the villages round. 

In the Magwangwara raid (1882) he behaved Heroio 
like a Christian hero. His wife was among the ^theTa^ 
captives, and he at once gave himself up for of 1882 - 



214 HISTORY OF THE UNITE RSI TIES" MISSION. 

her, lest she should suffer dishonour. The Magwangwara 
asked why the Christians did not fear those who could 
kill them. With deep reverence Charles made answer, 
" Because it is only our bodies you can kill with your 
spears ; it is our souls that we care about, and you can t 
touch them. It is said that the savages were awestruck, 
having never realized there was that in man which they 
could not kill. A man giving himself for his wife im 
pressed them much. Next clay Mr. Porter ransomed him. 
Charles suii- After this Charles worked on at Masasi, stay- 
,m sfaii, - m g ^herewith Mr. Porter, when the emigration 
to Newala took place. Then came his temptation. lie 
had worked hard, out of kindness, to ransom his relations 
and friends, but instead of handing them over to their 
natural chiefs he kept them under himself. The lust of 
power awoke in him, and he began to make himself a 
petty chief. No advice would he take, and he became 
involved in much that was sinful ; and in his sin he re 
mained for about five years, till, in 1888, his conscience 
And awoke, and he wrote to Archdeacon Maples at 
repentance. Xyasa, asking to come and see him, saying, 
11 Though I have had many masters in Christ, yet I have 
only one father." The next year (1889) he joined the 
Bishop s caravan when going up for his fourth visit to 
Likoma, and Charlie acted as cook. One night some 
thing happened which made a great impression on him. 
He and another man were lying on the edge of the dark 
ness by the camp fire, when a lion came up suddenly, 
without roaring, and made a mistake for the first and 
probably the last time in its life: passing by Charles he 
seized the Bishop s saucepan of porridge. Finding this 
uneatable, he dropped it, again passed by Charles, and 



1890] CHRISTIAN riLLAGRS ON TH ROVUMA. 21 



was startled and driven off by the other man, who was 
saying his prayers. Charles felt that God had saved him 
from the paw of the lion to give him space to repent. At 
Likoma the joy of full Confession and Absolution awaited 
him. Surely his father and guide must have felt that 
happiness of which John Coleridge Patteson spoke when 
as a little child he longed to be able to say the Absolu 
tion, " because it must make people so happy." 

After this Charlie was advised to enter the Charles Suli . 



service of the Germans at Lindi, and he re- 
mained steadfast for the little time left him. In ( ctober )- 
the following October, as he was guiding the Germans 
through Machemba s district, they fell into an ambuscade, 
and Charles Sulimani was shot dead, and buried the same 
evening. A little cross afterwards marked the spot where 
he rests, under the shadow of Him who had brought back 
and forgiven His erring child, " for he loved much." 

By the end of the year the Christian chief, Barnaba, had 
brought about a good understanding between the Germans 
and the natives, and all was quiet. 

For the next two years there is little to 
record. The Bishop visited the Rovuma clis- 
trict in 1891 and 1892, and found all well. In 
the first he spent Whitsuntide and Trinity Sun- (March 2 > 1892) - 
day at Lindi and Chitangali. At the latter he baptized 
the first Makonde, and also baptized Nakaam s nephew 
and heir ; and he visited Miwa, a sub-station entirely 
begun by Cecil. In the latter year he spent Ash Wed 
nesday with Cecil, and, noticing a peculiar collection of 
rice, beans, etc., round the font, inquired the meaning. 
" Oh ! " said Cecil, " being a fast clay, no Christians would 
think of eating their midday meal. They have brought 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



it to offer to God. This food will be sold for the poor 
and given to the Church." 

changes of There were great changes among the workers 
workers. at t | 1 j s time, but, roughly speaking, Mr. Porter 
and Mr. Hainsworth occupied Newala, and their place was 
taken by the Rev. R. F. Acland-Hood when they took 
their holiday. The Rev. T. L. Taylor had died in charge 
of Masasi. The Rev. E. Bucknall Smith, who attended 
his deathbed, was building a new Masasi ; the Rev. Alfred 
Carnon (ordained 1891) remaining at old Masasi. By the 
end of 1892, however, the Rev. William Porter was once 
more at Masasi, with a deacon the Rev. J. C. Haines 
under him. At Xewala, Mr. Aclancl-Hood was joined 
a little later by the Rev. James Grindrod ; while Cecil 
was still at Chitangali, which, in 1891, had undergone 
a migration. There were also a large body of native 
teachers working under the clergy, some of them occupy 
ing sub-stations. 

When the Bishop came in 1893, his reception 

The Bishop s r i 1 \*. A--L 

ninth vjsit was even more joyful than usual. At Chita 
ngali the natives came out to meet him, firing 
guns, and throwing dust on their heads, which, contrary 
to Jewish use, is a sign of gladness. Behind them came 
Cecil Majaliwa and Barnaba Nakaam. Little more than 
five years ao these two had been the only 

Chitangali a ,,. . . , M . . ... 

Christian Christians, now it was a Christian village. 
Better still, Cecil could ask the Bishop to make 
two of his friends Readers. These were Cypriani Chitenje 
and Hugh Mtoka both since in Holy Orders. For this 
the waiting time of thirty years was worth while, and 
worth while, too, the precious lives poured forth like water 
for love of the lost sheep of the Good Shepherd. The 




KEY. J. HAJNSWORTH, REV. W. C. PORTER, AND MR. WATSON AT NEVVALA. 

217 



2l8 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES" MISSION. 



1893 



African, it was proved at last, can teach and understand 
the African. 

At Xewala, too, the Bishop s was a happy 

visit. For in the school were over one hundred 

boys ; on Whitsun eve thirty-six candidates were baptized, 




Visit to 



CHRISTIANS AT CHITANGALI. 

while on Trinity Sunday seventy candidates were con 
firmed. 

In the Whitsun week the Bishop visited 

T 

Lumanga, a village lying in dense Makonde 
bush, about twenty-five miles from Xewala. 
The Bishop entered riding on his donkey, which, as he 
said, caused about as much sensation as Wombwell s 
menagerie in an English village. Here the native teacher 



May 23 



CHRISTIAN VILLAGES ON THE ROVUMA. 



219 



was taken away to pursue his studies at Kiungani, and 
another was left in his steacl. 

Masasi also was visited, where a new sub-station, 
Mkwera, had been started. 

Once again Newala w r as to see its Bishop. TheBish0 p s 
In Advent he came to the district, and, it S^S* 
seems almost monotonous to say, he found all Dcc - 4- 




S HOUSE AT MASASI. 



in good order. It was here that he heard of the founding 
of the Unangu Mission by Dr. Hinc (already mentioned), 
and by an inspiration thought of sending Yohanna Ab- 
clallah, Nakaam s stepson, there as soon as he was or 
dained. 



220 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1893 



During this visit the Bishop spoke out on the status 

Bishop f wom cn as affected by polygamy. He boldly 

^status* Advised the ladies to take the law into their own 

of women. i lanc i s> anc ] to re f use to ii vc w j t h husbands who 

took another wife. It was an absolutely unheard-of thing 
for women to take any action, but he was not without 
hope that they might do so. After all it would be a less 
change than that wrought in the position of women by 
the coming of Christ. Compare their position tinder 
Solomon with their position when a Greater than Solomon 
had come and touched the hearts and hands of women, 
and uttered His Talitha Cuuii, making possible the 
dignity and glory of the Christian wife and mother, ay, 
and of the u Consecrated Virgin." 

To such a future for African women we confidently look 
forward. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

MACilLA IN THE BONDS COUNTRY, 

" Seise the baunfr, spread its fold, 
Spread it with no faltering hold , 
Spread its foldings high and fair, 
Let c.l I sec (he Cross is there." 

KEBI.E. 

WE must pick up again the thread of the Magila 
story, whose early founding and temporary occu 
pation, followed by the beginning of Archdeacon Farler s 
work, have been told before. 1 

During the years 1880-1886 the building of 188l 
the permanent stone church takes a prominent Srch 
place in the story. Church building is apt to 
bring out what is good in the faithful, binding them to 
gether for a common object. It also raises the keenest 
opposition of the enemy. And so it was here. 

The Archdeacon asked leave of Charlie 
Kibwana to quarry stone for the church in his A ^ver ful 
shamba, and several tons were taken. 

" Last week," writes the Archdeacon, " I found that our people 
had cut up his shamba a good deal with holes and hillocks, so I 
sent for him and offered him a kanzu and a dollar for his kind 
ness in giving us leave to win the stone. He indignantly refused 
to take them, and said, What is this for? Why will you not let 
me share in the work for God ? Am I not a Christian ? Shall I 



1 See chapters iv., v., and vii, 



222 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [iSSo 



take money for this stone? God placed the stone there, and 
shall it not be used to build a church for His honour and glory? 
I will not take a present. I want to share in building our 
church." 

Armed resist. ^ n l ^ 1 a mason, Mr. Gill, had Come to 

anc bmidfng cl1 Ma S ila > and in two years time the station was 
(i860). entirely rebuilt. Church building had already 
begun in such earnest that a party of armed Itondeis 
arrived to forbid the work, which they were persuaded was 
a fort to dominate the whole country. They cut off com 
munication with the coast, and for a few days there was 
actual danger. 

" I invited their chiefs over to sec what we were doing. But 
instead of one or two chiefs they sent a small army of soldiers, 
with orders to fight us and destroy the church and Mission 
station. I had a sharp attack of fever, when I was suddenly told 
that the valley was full of armed men, bent upon fighting. Our 
native Christians began to gather their guns, but I told them to 
put them away, and we all went down unarmed to meet these 
Makumbe people. I went up to the chief man, and asked what 
he wanted. He said we must give up building, give up teaching 

u and preaching, and live like heathens. After a lone 
The church 

stopped talk I promised to stop the church building for a 
for the time. ... ... . . . . .. . _ 

little while ; but the rest of their demands I utterly 

refused. With a little patience and tact we got them to go away. 
All the people of this country stood round us splendidly, and this 
trouble has created a bond of sympathy between us and the 
heathen which will greatly aid our work." 

For a time, therefore, a smaller temporary church was 
built. 

The Rev. W. D. Lowndes, who joined the Mission in 
1 88 1, was now able to relieve Mr. Fader of a great deal of 
\yor.k of the more secular kind. 



iSSo] 



MA GIL A IN THE nONDfr COUNTRY. 



223 



Next came the lime troubles. Limestone The Iim3 
was found in the Nyika (wilderness), half a clay troables 
from Magila, and easily burnt. But transporting it was a 
difficulty. 

<: When I was in Zanzibar I bought seven donkeys to bring it 
over, but the donkeys proved a failure. First a lion ate one, 




ARCHDEACON FARLER AND NATIVE BOY 



then four died (could not stand the climate), and the remaining 
two arc laid up." 

Carrying it on men s heads was slow and expensive, and, 
worse still, the Nyika people, after laughing at the idea of 
burning stone for anything less precious than silver, re 
fused to let it be burnt or taken. The Archdeacon wrote 
for soldiers from Zanzibar, to insist on the lime being 
carried. The Bishop, however, wrote ; 



224 17 W TORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1881-2 



" The more I think of it, the more it seems to me 

(Nov. 28.) 

The Bishop s that the Mfunti people have a right to interfere with 

the burning of lime in the Nyika near them . . 
I should think there is no doubt that they have a right to cut 
wood and to cultivate the ground where you have been burning 
lime. . . . H says the lime lies within a gunshot of the 
actual clearings of the Mfunti people. If anything like this is 
true, I am sure we ought to make an agreement with them, and 
satisfy all reasonable claims." 

So successful was this course, that two months later the 
Archdeacon writes : 

" All our troubles are over. ... A letter 
Harmony came from Umba to say that the people who had 
Jan. 20. refused to let us burn lime any more in the wilder 
ness, and demanded fifty dollars for leave to carry 
what we had burnt, had now accepted my offer of thirty dollars 
to settle all claims in the place where w r e burn lime, and also the 
perpetual right to carry lime through their country. I am so 
pleased that I intend, on my next visit to Umba, to make them a 
present of twenty dollars, to show them that it was not money I 
contended for, but justice." 

Bv Easter Day the temporary stone church 

The tarn- 

poraryohuroh was finished, and the Archdeacon wrote joyfully 

opened. . . . 

that it was crowded in every part, though twice 

the size of the first church, the chief and all his officers 
coming- in state, and every confirmed Christian com 
municating. 

"It was a grand sight to see this large congregation worship 
ping the Risen Saviour; not freed slaves, but free natives, coming 
of their own accord, because they felt the need of God. I heard 
one man say, I could never feel hungry here, it is so beautiful. " 

Mr. Gill had also erected a new stone house, with bed 
rooms upstairs, for the missionaries ; a great improvement 



1882] MAG7LA IN THE BONDE COUNTRY. 22$ 



on the mud huts where, when it rained, mud below and 
mud descending from above were the missionary s portion 
by day and night. 

As the natives acquired more confidence in 

Confidence of 

the builders, the permanent church went on the Natives 

gained. 

again. By the end of 1883 we hear of the 
north aisle being roofed in, and the next year the church 
was half finished, and waiting only for funds ; while the 
natives said : " Let the missionaries go where they like, 
build where they like, teach all the Bondeis." 

The spiritual work during these years had advanced and 
retreated, but only like the waves of a steadily flowing 
tide. This was a true native church. Many people say : 
" Where is the difference between free men and freed 
slaves ? A slave may be of higher rank, and only recently 
taken." But the Christianity of the slave, freed and given 
to the Mission, is more or less a thing of course ; the free 
native serves God of his own accord. By the end of 1882, 
two native deacons John Swecli and James Chala Sal fey, 
three readers Acland Sahera, Lawrence Kombo, and 
Ackworth Songolo, with eight native schoolmasters, were 
at work in the district. 

Early in the same year Archdeacon Farler writes : 

"We have been having some little trouble with the 
natives. Not our neighbours, they were involved 
with us, but people living some distance off, who 
have been urged by the coast Mohammedans to drive 
us out of the country. I got wind of the matter, and sent a 
friendly chief to the meeting with a letter, which nobody could 
read ; but as I had coached my friend up in its contents, and he 
held it in his hand, as he delivered my message, it did quite as 
well. They thought it a great compliment on my part. Every 

Q 



226 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1882 



one took the letter and solemnly looked at it, and expressed 
himself perfectly satisfied. We were then voted with acclama 
tion the brothers of the natives. The coast people were very 
angry, hut my friendly chief told them they had tried to breed 
discord in the land, and told many lies." 

In May he writes : 

"The work grows beyond my control. I cannot check it; I 
can only try to guide it. lUit we must have a doctor, another 
musical priest, and a schoolmaster who can play the harmonium 
and train the choir." 

Dr petrie The first of these wants was soon supplied. 
Bcforc Michaelmas, Dr. Petrie, sent by the 



S L L Ma 9 o-iia ils Guilfl of St Lukc as thcir first medical mis- 
sept. 19. sionary, arrived at Magila, where he was resident 
three years. Mis cures were the greatest help to the 
Mission, taking the place, as the Bishop remarked, of the 
miracles in the Early Church. 

Mazagija s ^ u ^ n ^ T , as ever, the tares were among the 

of n hiscross, corn. A young catechumen, named Mazagija, 

June 14. WRS cut Q f f from f c j] owship wit h the faithful for 

taking a second wife. This a catechumen, of course, pro 
mises not to do. True, there were extenuating circum 
stances. The first wife had run away three years before, 
and lie thought her gone for good ; but on his marriage 
she reappeared, demanding her rights. The second wife 
had been highly paid for, and his father would not hear of 
his giving her up. For five years he had been held back 
from baptism previously, from doubts of his real conver 
sion. Even now he wished to follow Christ and the clesturi 
(customs) of the land ; so that when the Archdeacon 
publicly took away his cross, asking if he valued a fe\y 



iS82] 



MAGILA IN THE BONDE COUNTRY. 



sheep above his salvation, it had a great effect : Hisrepent . 
epentance followed, and on St. Bartholomew s r JSorat?<m, 
Day he made a public confession, and received Au s- 2 
back his cross, having put away the second wife. 

From time to time the good seed sown in early days 
was found. A man, who came to church for the first time, 




BUILDINGS AT MACILA. 
(The bells on the right. ) 

was heard repeating the Lord s Prayer, and said he had 
been taught ten years ago by Mr. Fraser. 

On Christmas Eve the peal of bells sent out 

, T T T ^,. , 1 ^, Church bells 

by Lady Elizabeth Clements rang for the first atMagiia, 

time (just a month after Christ Church bells 

had rung their first peal). Before daybreak on Christmas 



228 IUS TORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1883 



Day the boys were ringing them con amore, and the natives 
were delighted with the sound. 

Early next year Archdeacon Farler returned to England 

for a year s rest, the Rev. IT. W. Woodward remaining 

at Magila in his place. Before the Archdeacon goes let 

us examine his daily work. Here is the re- 

A day s work. i r i > i 

cord oi a day s work. 

"6 a.m., rise. 6.30, Matins. 7, L. s wife came to say her 
husband had beaten her, and she would go to her mother. I 
sent for L., and heard his story. Succeeded in reconciling them. 
7.30, breakfast. 8, dressed the hurts of five men. 8.35, in 
spected kitchen roof, which was letting the rain through. Ordered 
repairs. 9-10.30, received out-patients, and made up medicine. 
10.30-12, business, including instructions for storing rice, etc. : 
buying wood ; finding drain wrongly made, had it altered; settled 
dispute between two goat-boys ; looked at bullocks for sale. 1 2, 
sext. 1 2.15, class for heathen and catechumens. i, private 
instruction to Christians. 1.15, lunch. 2, cook asked advice 
about fowls, Ackworth about work. 2.15, reading and rest. 3, 
instructions about work. Paid monthly wages. 4, tea. 4.15, 
Mission accounts for month. 5, went with Lawrence to Mbwego 
to measure ground for school chapel. Addressed the people on 
our purpose in coming. 6.45, returned and found Selenge with 
letter from Mr. Woodward at Umba ; felt too tired to attend to 
it, and told him to come to me in the morning. 7 p.m., dinner. 
8, evensong. 8.30, saw a patient. 8.45, saw Ackworth about 
his reading. 9, retired to my room. 10, saw all shut up; wound 
up clocks, and went to bed." 

During his absence a desultory war went on between 

the Wadigo and Bondeis ; but more melancholy were the 

Aman . eating stories of a man-eating lion. He attacked a 

Lion. woman and little girl walking between Magila 

and Umba. The people, who ran up at their screams, 



1884] MAG I LA IN THE BONDE COUNTRY. 22<) 



found the lion eating the woman, while the little child beat 
the brute with a stick of mahogo, crying, " Leave go of 
mother ; leave go of mother." Verily, if a mother s love is 
strong as death, the love of a child does not fall short. 

Another time he walked up to John Swedi s wife as she 
sat on her baraza with her children, in her husband s. 
absence. Nothing could have saved her if the animal had 
not (as she said) been led by God into a pit made for 
snaring such animals ; and she had time to shut up the 
house. In the end a Digo hunter killed him with poisoned 
arrows, but before the poison had taken effect the hunter 
himself had fallen a victim to the animal he had shot. 

Early in 1884 the Archdeacon returned with Bishop 
Smythies, and in Lent they went up, together with the 
Rev. Duncan T ravers, to the Usambara country. 

Reaching Magila, they found the adherents Bishup 
of the Mission drawn up to receive them. The v^^MagUa 
party came riding on donkeys, the Bishop s a March31 - 
noble white Muscat donkey. Thus they passed through 
the orange avenue. 

"To me," said the Bishop, "no English village could bring 
the same feelings of strange emotion as that first sight of Magila. 
To see Christ our Lord enthroned in the midst of heathen 
Africa; to see here, faraway from civilization, a civilized Chris 
tian village ; to see the men and women rush forward from their 
work in the field to greet the man whom they look upon as their 
father, and who for all these years has devoted his life to them 
this was quite different from anything one has ever experienced. 
. . . So near are the mountains that on the first evening I 
climbed up one of the lower heights, from which I had a splendid 
view of all the beautiful country, and right away to Zanzibar 
Island, eighty miles off. But it must not be thought we are 
housed very luxuriously at Magila. Our dining hall is what you 



230 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1884 



would call a mud barn with a thatched roof. . . . My bed 
room, which serves as a sitting-room also, is a comparatively new 
luxury, but it has a mud floor and walls. The church is no 
doubt a marvel of skill to the natives, but it would hardly be 
thought respectable for a small village in England. We are now 
building a much larger one. . . . 




VIEW OF Tllli MISSION STATION, -MAC, II. A. 

" Just now they have all been in fear of famine 
Rain-making. ... . 

from the rain being so late in coming, and lately the 

chiefs had a meeting, and proposed that they should send a goat 
to Kibanga, the greatest chief in the country, to ask him to bring 
the rain. . . . Mr. Lavender said he supposed that they 
were going to send to Kibanga, because he was the most power 
ful, but the Sultan was more powerful than he, and the Queen 
of England more powerful than the Sultan. To this they 






iS 4 ] MA GIL A IN THE BONDE COUNTRY. 23! 



agreed. Then he said but even she could not bring rain ; there 
was only One who could. One man pointed up to heaven. Mr. 
Lavender said, Yes ; it was only GOD who could send the rain, 
and they had better keep their goats, and ask Him to help them. 
They did not quite see it, but said they would postpone the 
meeting ; and before the time was up the rain came, and they 
are all out here planting. 

"We had our Confirmation on Palm Sunday, palm Sunday 
when twenty-one natives were confirmed. . . . 
Amongst those confirmed was the old chief from Umba Semkali 
and his wife. He walked over from Umba (twelve miles) on 
Friday, though he has a bad foot, which must have made it very 
painful to him. We began with a celebration of Holy Com 
munion at six o clock for the English-speaking new comers. Then 
at seven o clock we had the Confirmation, the addresses being 
interpreted by Mr. Woodward. 

"Then there followed a procession of palms round the village, 
in which the whole population took part, as they have always been 
accustomed to do on Palm Sunday, and afterwards there was 
Holy Communion in Swahili. . . . Several chiefs came in to 
the service from the surrounding villages. . 

"I hope to baptize three boys on Easter Eve, one of whom has 
quite a history. He said he was a free boy, an orphan, that he 
had heard of the Mission, and was determined to come and be 
taught. He accordingly asked a man who was coming here to 
bring him, but on the way the man sold him as a ASto i en Boy 
slave. He was afterwards sold to another man not 
far off, who one day happened to come here, bringing the boy 
with him. He told Mr. Woodward that he wanted to come and 
be taught at the Mission, but his master would not let him. 
However, the boy said he was a free boy, and determined not to 
be a slave. . . . Mr. Woodward then managed to redeem 
him, and set him free last Christmas Day. After some little time 
the boy came and said he had found the man who had stolen 
him, and he turned out to be a man who is sometimes employed 
by the Mission, and who had been baptized. According to the 



232 HISTORY OF THE UNITERSITIES MISSION. [1885 

custom of the country, the matter was referred to his friends, who 
decided that the man should either be sold himself, or work out 
the redemption money paid for the boy, and the man is now work 
ing for the Mission until he pays off the money. ... It will 
take him nearly a year to keep himself and work out the sum. 
The whole matter shows that even baptized Christians take often 
a long time before they can see such a crime in its true light." 

But the Archdeacon could not take up his residence 
here again till January, 1886, and Mr. Woodward s health 
compelling a holiday, Magila and its sub-stations were left 
to younger heads, who threw themselves warmly into the 
breach. Magila was chiefly worked by the Rev. C. S. B. 
Riddel!. 

A visit from the Bishop cheered them all in 1885. The 
buildings progressed, and now Mr. Gill had nearly com 
pleted the quadrangle, which (in spite of fires) has ever 
since crowned Magila hill. The stone church stands at 
one end, while houses for the missionaries, dining-hall, 
hospital, houses for boys and natives, and a store-house 
form the sides, and the Archdeacon s house and school 
were at the other end. 

Feb 2 A deeply interesting event occurred during 

B Sng P tonT" this visit to Magila. James Hannington, Bishop 
visit. Q |- Eastern Equatorial Africa, visited Zanzibar. 
The most cordial kindness existed between the members of 
the C.M.S. Mombasa Mission and those of the Universities 
Mission. Their differences of opinion as to modes of 
Church thought and practice seem but of slight import 
ance in the presence of the kingdom of Satan, which all 
Christians are resisting. Brother draws closer to brother, 
with the feeling, " Whether it were I or they, so we preach, 
and so ye believed." 



1885] MAGI LA IN THE BONDE COUNTRY. 233 



Bishop Hannington, then a priest, had preached in 
Christ Church, Zanzibar, June 19, 1882, " as a small return 
for the many kindnesses the Universities Mission had 
shown us." But now he had come to hold counsel with 
Bishop Smythies, and finding he was at Magila, followed 
him up the country. At Mkuzi Mr. Wallis entertained 
him, and supplied him with a donkey to ride the eleven 
miles to Magila. As he rode, he saw Bishop 

Meeting be- 

Smythies coming to meet him, and the younger tween Bishops 

J J Smythies and 

man lighted off his beast, and falling on his Hannington, 

knees, asked his brother s blessing. He tarried 

awhile at Magila, holding earnest counsel and discussing 

plans. 

In the Magila record book stands the signature of 
"James, Bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa." On Feb 
ruary 10 he departed, and on October 29 in the same year 
was led out to die by those he yearned to save. 

Something should be now said of the civil 

The Eonde 

state of affairs in the Bondc country. We read Federation of 

villages. 

of many more u chiefs " here than elsewhere. 
Whole classes of chiefs occur as catechumens. But there is 
no true chief in the district, for since the Wakalindi chiefs 
were driven out in 1870, instead of paramount chiefs or 
" kings," a sort of federation of villages took place, each 
having its " head-man," often called u chief." These arc 
the people who are so plentiful. A sort of respect has, 
however, always been paid to the Sultan of Zanzibar, and 
gradually also to Kibanga, a powerful Ukalindi chief, 
under whose protection, at a fortified outpost of Bondc, 
called Handei, lived his nephew, Kinyassi, the true heir of 
old Kimweri. The false Kimweri at Vuga often tried to 
resume the sway, but unsuccessfully, and the German 



234 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1886 

occupation put an end to such claims. Kibanga was very 
friendly to the Mission. " In fact," wrote Mr. Gcldart, at 
the end of the year, a the whole Boncle country is in touch 
with the Mission ; we are welcomed everywhere ; even the 
Mohammedans are civil." 

Next year the Bishop s visit was exceptionally 

Bishop 

Smytwes visits interesting. He remained in the district seven 

Usambara . . 

Feb. 4 to weeks; and during this time visited Kibanga 

March 26. . * 

and Kinyassi. The latter behaved like a youth 
ful Solomon ; asking how to get wisdom to rule, how to 
deal with thieves and those who practised witchcraft. He 
was not very strong, but suffered from indigestion, and was 
much struck by the Bishop s advice to eat moderately. 

One evening the Bishop accompanied Mr. Riddell round 
his villages. u Me preached at two villages ; our native 
reader, Ackworth, interpreted. It was quite dark long 
before we got home. This is what Mr. Riddell continually 
does, week after week. The country is full of little 
villages, and he is always going round from one to the 
other." 

And then on the Feast of the Annunciation, 

March 25. 

Church of the Manila permanent Church was consecrated at 

Holy Cross, 

Magiia, last. Want of means, warfare, and weather had 

consecrated. 

hindered it, but now it stood complete, con 
sisting of a nave of five bays, with aisles and an apsidal 
chancel. There was a very dignified High Altar of rough 
stone, covered with cement, inlaid with mosaics in front. 
The Bishop, Clergy, and choir met in the old Church at the 
foot of the Quadrangle, and singing the Litany, marched 
to the new Church on the top of the hill, which was then 
consecrated under the title of the Holy Cross. It was well 
that this, the first and till lately the only consecrated church 



1 886] 



MA GIL A IN THE BONDE COUNTRY. 



235 



in the Mission,, should receive that name ; for deeply on 




MAGILA CHURCH. 



every page of the Mission records has lain the shadow oi 



236 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1886-7 



the Cross. It was a link, too, with good Dr. Krapf s visit 
to Usambara forty years before, when he carved the Cross 
on one of the trees. 

i St. Barna- 
Day in the 



June 11. 

Death of the u 
Rev. C. S. B. Udh 

Riddell. 




same year passed 
away the Rev. C. S. Bu 
chanan Riddell, dying of 
malarial fever. Fortunately 
Ur. Herbert Ley had ar 
rived at Magila six months 
before, so that all was done 
for him that was possible ; 
nor had Archdeacon Farler 
the distress (as on a former 
occasion) of not having 

real necessaries to give him. Conscious to the last, he 
received the Holy Sacrament, and died just afterwards, 
calmly sending a message to the French Mission, which he 
was to have visited : " Tell the French I cannot come ; I 
am called to Court." 

In the next two years many troubles fell on the district. 
Fire, storm, and war all played their parts in the trials of 
Magila. But before this the longed-for sisters 
arrived. The community of St. Raphael s, 
Bristol, sent out Sister Agnes, Sister Anne Mar 
garet, and Sister Mary Elizabeth. They reached 
Zanzibar in August, and after a week s rest started for 
Magila, with Miss Allen and Mr. Gill. At Pangani, where 
they were met by Mrs. Wallis, they were such objects of 
delighted interest, that they felt like royalty. Next morn 
ing they started on donkeys, single file ; for whenever they 



Aug. 11. 
Arrival of 
Sisters at 
Zanzibar. 






188;] 



MAG I LA IN THE BONDE COUNTRY, 



237 



tried to hold converse, their donkeys did the same, in most 
defiant strains. The road to Mkuzi was like riding through 
a botanical garden with Borassus palms, aloes, euphorbias, 
etc. They arrived on a Saturday night, and were heartily 
welcomed by Mr. Wall is and John Swcdi. Here they 




GRAVE OF Till : REV. C. S. R KTDDELL, MAGILA. 

spent two days, and were delighted to find Mkuzi had 
dispensed with the usual Dawa or fetish over the gate 
way. 

On Tuesday they reached Magila, all the 
people coming out to meet them, shouting Tha&ten 

111. reach Magila. 

and laughing heartily, with guns firing and 

green boughs waving. Thus they approached the station 

through the orange avenue, and after kneeling in thanks- 



238 HISTORY OP THE UNfTERSITIES MfSSlON. [1887 

giving in the church, went to live in the hospital for the 
present. 

At once they started a flay school for girls, with sixty 




THE SLSTKRS AT MAGILA. 



children, and as many women and girls on Sunday for 
instruction ; Miss Allen helping them much with classes 
for women, and learning Bonclci by visiting the villages in 



the evenings. 



188;] MAG I LA IN THE BONDE COUNTRY. 239 



The beginning of women s work for ^ 7 omen Evilsofmixed 
in Magila was an era in its history, as an ^Jifan and 
augury of the end of heathen marriages for Heathen - 
Christian men. An evil of such unions is that heathen 
wives generally insist on their vihili being observed 
among the marriage rites. 

" These vihili or mysteries are quite unfit for any Christian or 
decent-minded person. The women refuse to marry unless these 
vihili are observed, and the men weakly yield. A man who 
yields is placed under Church censure till the wife is converted, 
or till he has shown true repentance." 

Again, the heathen wife often insists on living under the 
care of her mother, and on heathen ceremonies, when her 
children receive the tribal marks, incorporating them into 
the tribe. 

" Many Christians have been successful in resisting these cere 
monies. Most of the vihili are so permeated with uncleanness 
of one kind or another, that the purification of these ceremonies 
is impossible, and therefore they are forbidden to Christians 
under pain of censure." 

Therefore we shall 
never do much for a 
native Church, until the 
women can be made 
helpmeets and not hin 
drances to their hus 
bands. 

The Sisters were fol 
lowed in November by REV MONTAGUE ELLIS -VINER. 
Miss M. C. Townshencl 

and the Rev. M. Ellis-Viner. The latter had Rev M Ellig . 
given great promise both in England and in his Vm< 




MA GIL A IN THE BONDE COUNTRY. 24! 



few months residence in Zanzibar. On his journey to 
Magila he had tended a poor fellow whose foot had been 
bitten off by a crocodile. " Mr. Viner makes an admirable 
nurse ; he has not had his clothes off for a week," writes a 
fellow-worker. Another tells how, in their passage across 
to the mainland, in a dirty, comfortless dhow, his spirits 
rose high as their discomforts increased, till when heat and 
rolling, cockroaches and stench reached their height, he 
exclaimed with genuine delight, " This is grand ! " He 
was at Magila for little more than three months, and then, 
after assisting at a baptism of a large number of converts 
when he ought to have been in bed, he quite broke down 
and returned to England. After resting in England for 
some time, he started again for Africa, full of joy at the 
idea of getting back to his work ; but his old illness re 
turned, and he died at Mozambique, October 5, 1890. 

Scarcely were the Sisters well settled in their 
work, before half the station was destroyed by Great Fire at 

r r r> Magila. 

nre. it was the first disastrous fire in the 
Mission, if we except the Matope fire three years before ; 
and, oddly enough, it happened on the ill-omened fifth of 
November, on which, five years later, one of the Likoma 
fires took place. The native carpenter s wife carelessly 
set her house on fire. It was at 10 a.m., and a high wind 
was blowing. The Quadrangle was quickly filled with 
men and boys, water was fetched from the river, but in 
vain the natives houses and several European ones were 
burnt, including the Sisters and the half-built hospital, 
one schoolroom, the boys dormitory, dining-hall and 
kitchen. But, by great exertions, church and clergy-house 
were saved. Miss Allen had to be sent for room to 
Mkuzi, and there was much illness in the cramped quar- 

R 



242 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1888 



ters during the rainy season. The Bishop came up to 
comfort them in their troubles (which now included 
rumours of warj, held a retreat and a conference, and 
spent Christinas there. 

But again on the Epiphany a native hut 
second fire at caught fire, and this time the big schoolroom 
and carpenter s shop went. Over ^1,000 worth 
of damage was done, but one lesson was learnt. No more 
grass roofs were to be allowed in future in the Quadrangle. 
Six weeks later a tremendous tornado burst 
Tornado at over Magila, tearing off the hospital roof, and 
driving the lay members of the Mission to take 
shelter with the boys below. In another part of the hos 
pital the Sisters were suffering from deluges of rain, 
covering everything they possessed with mud from the 
roof. Great part of the church was unroofed, but this 
did not hinder a very large congregation from assembling 
on Sunday morning, who were not driven away even when 
a storm of rain deluged the partially unroofed church. 

Scarcely was this disaster over before there was war in 
the land. 

On the morning of February 27 war-drums 

Feb. 27. J , . . 

Masai Raid were heard, no unusual sound, tor Kimwen had 

into Bonde. 

been at war some months with the friendly 

Kibanga. Xow, however, the war was carried into the 

Magila district, 400 Masai, armed chiefly with spears, 

The Masai being sent against the Bondei. The Masai are 

Race. t ] lc mos t W arlike and invincible tribe in Central 

Africa, dwelling beyond Mount Kilimanjaro, towards the 

Victoria Xyan/a. They are not allied to the Bantu, or 

negro race, to which most Eastern Central Africans and 

all South Africans belong, but are thought to be of another 



1 888] MAGI LA IN THE BONDE COUNTRY. 243 



Hamitic race, akin to some of those in North Africa. 
During the fierce tribal wars between the different sec 
tions of Masai, some have been driven south, even as far 
as Zigualand, where they keep tribally distinct from the 
Zigua. Some such body of Masai had lately come with 
their cattle into the neighbourhood, seeking pasture on 
account of scarcity, and these were hired by old Kimweri 
to help him in the vain struggle to recapture the Shambala 
or Bonde country. The latter are not remarkable for 
courage, and they were pitted against the greatest warriors 
of Africa. But " there s safety in numbers," and the 
Bondei came together in such force, and used the vantage 
points of the country so well that they drove the enemy 
off those who fell on both sides having their wounds 
honourably in front. 

On the first alarm, the Archdeacon sent the ladies and 
boys to Mkuzi, and barricaded and provisioned Magila 
Church as a place of refuge, which might have been 
needed, for old Kimweri, believing his Masai could only 
have been defeated by European help, sent a message that 
he would wipe out the Mission. The Archdeacon there 
fore set forth to seek Kimweri at his camp in the moun 
tains, and make peace. Sending Ackworth forward with 
a letter, he took with him another Reader, Petro Limo, 
nephew of Kimweri. Pausing outside the camp for per 
mission, the Archdeacon desired to bathe and 

Archdeacon 

change his clothes before being presented. I he Fariermakes 

peace with 

only possible bath was an empty powder cask, 



and crowds assembled to see him take it. lie 
modestly retired into the bush, but found every spot of 
vantage ground occupied by admiring spectators. Kim 
weri, on his side, not to be outdone in politeness, made 



244 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1888 



himself very uncomfortable in a complete suit of European 
clothes, and patent leather boots. 

"He was a handsome man," wrote Archdeacon Farler, "very 
light coloured, and with a kingly look about him. ... I in 
troduced his nephew, Petro Li mo, to him, and he questioned 
him closely. When he found that he knew English, Swahili, 
Bondei, a little Hindustani, as well as writing in Arabic charac 
ters, he was delighted with him, and introduced him to his 
brothers as one of the family." 

Then came the serious talking over terms of peace, which 
must include Kimweri abandoning his stockaded camp, and 
going back to Vuga. At last he consented, and the Arch 
deacon started off for Kibanga, where he had still harder 
work to make Kibanga s brothers believe that crafty Kim 
weri meant peace. Peace, however, was made, but at the 
Aug. 28. cost of Magi la losing its Archdeacon, who was 
Arier leaves carried ill to Zanzibar ; and though he came 

the Mission. II-T\T , \ - i r 1 1 

back in May for a time, in August he finally 
returned to England, having left Petro Limo at Kiungani 
to prepare for Holy Orders. 

Mr. Fader s retirement was a great loss to 

His work. 

Usambara at this troubled period. Thirteen 
years before he had found a few huts belonging to the 
Mission a few natives influenced during the too transient 
visits of the clergy. He left a beautiful and important 
central station, with its stately quadrangle nearly rebuilt, 
schools of more than 200 boys, two clergy, sisters, lady 
nurse, doctor, schoolmaster, builder, carpenter, storekeeper, 
and three native readers. He left three regular sub 
stations Umba, Misozwe, and Mkuzi each with its 
clerical head and little staff of native teachers, whose 
labours extended into many neighbouring villages. He 



1 888] MAGI LA IN THE BONDE COUNTRY. 245 



left also a large body of native Christians, catechumens, and 
hearers, and part of the Holy Scripture translated into 
Bondei St. Matthew and St. Luke being specially named. 

The Rev. H. C. Goodyear now took charge till his death 
next year, and during the last three months of that time 
he was Archdeacon of Magila. 

Magila s troubles were not yet over. Like all Germa n 
other stations, it was much tried by native hatred troubles - 
of German rule not the rule of the German Empire, but 
of the German East African Company. Certain persons 
went round the country in 1885, professing to make treaties 
with the chiefs in order to acquire sovereign rights over the 
tribes. Now, no native chief in his senses ever disposed of 
his rights to entire strangers for no just equivalent. Hear 
ing of these pretended treaties, the natives began to say, 
" The Arabs we know, and the English we know, but 
who are these?" Next these Germans obtained in 1888 a 
treaty from Seyid Barghash, giving them rights Death of 
over the coast from the Umba to the Rovuma B ar^hl?h 
for fifty years. The poor Sultan said such a March27 - 
treaty would kill him, and it did. He died March 27, 1888. 
The coast Arabs declared that if the Germans meddled 
with anything beyond the customs, they would know the 
reason why ; and when the Company insulted the Sultan s 
flag, they rose and expelled them, especially at Pangani, 
the Magila seaport. Fortunately they did not confound 
the missionaries with the Germans, but all communication 
was cut off for a time. The Sultan, prompted by the 
Consul-General, Colonel Euan Smith, sent an Arab guard 
to fetch the Mission, but they were not allowed to land. 
The German Government then took up the matter on 
behalf of the defeated German trading Company. 



246 JIISTOKY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1888 



The Blockade ^ ^ c ^ n S n>sn anc ^ Germans proceeded to 
NOV. 12. blockade the coast, as it seems to be a cardinal 
point of politics that no European, however wanting in 
tact, may ever be driven away by natives. After the 
blockade the German Government expedition, under Major 
Wissmann, prepared to bombard the coast towns. 

When the troubles began, the Bishop was in England ; 

but immediately the news reached him, he 

leaves England hurried back to Zanzibar. At the Farewell 

Service, before leaving, he laid down clearly 

the duties of the Missionary to his flock in the hour of 

danger, and throughout the disturbances resolutely refused 

to withdraw the Mission, though pressed hard to do so. 

Upon reaching Zanzibar, he at once hurried to the scene 
of the disturbances. In the Pangani river the steamer, 
in which the Bishop went, was repeatedly fired upon, and 
shortly after landing, the house where he was lodged, was 
surrounded by an excited mob. From this threatened 
danger he was saved by the courage of Bushiri, the insur 
gent Arab leader, who stood in the doorway and said that 
no one should enter unless they killed him first. Next 
morning, November 16, the Bishop, Susi, and others 
were conducted out of the town by an Arab escort, and 
proceeded to Mkuzi. From thence the five ladies (three 
being sisters of mere) ), escorted by three members of the 
staff, were sent for safety to Zanzibar. To the rest he 
gave the choice to go or stay, and all remained. There 
was real danger, as the whole country was in a ferment, 
but the Bishop remained there, and it is touching amid 
peril to find them observing St. Andrew s Day as one of 
intercession for Foreign Missions, nearly 300 persons at 
tending service. 



1889] MAGILA IN THE BONDE COUNTRY. 247 



Thus, " kept peaceful in the midst of strife," passed 
Christmas Day. The Mission records show only peaceful 
journeys, baptisms, confirmations, going on as if war were 
unknown ; and when in January the Bishop made his way 
to the coast, by a circuitous route, taking ship at Wanga 
on the Umba, and being twice boarded by Germans on 
the way to Zanzibar, he said it was like passing from 
calm to storm. 

This unhappy outlook soon changed for the End of the 
better. The German Government took affairs 
from the hands of the Company into its own strong grasp, 
and its agents acted with such wisdom that the whole hill 
country was quieted. 

When the Bishop paid a short visit again in 

March, 
ture 
Ley. 



March, Dr. Ley, to the sorrow of all, returned to Departure of 



the coast with him, being recalled to England 

by private affairs, and for a time there was no medical aid 

at Magila, the sad effects of which were soon seen. 

During this short visit, the Bishop ordained Ordination of 
the Rev. C. J. Sparks to the priesthood, being R |JaSs J 
assisted by Archdeacon Goodyear and the Rev. March 17 - 
II. Geldart. By the end of the year these three priests 
had passed to their rest. 

Herbert Geldart was the first to go. From Deaths at 
boyhood lie had devoted himself to Church Ma s ila - 
work ; winning the confidence of street arabs in Shrews 
bury in a way that helped him, when in 18/9 he joined the 
Mission, to deal with the Kiungani lads. Writing at the 
end of 1880, the Bishop told how he 

"had managed the whole of a Kiungani, in its varied operations, 
alone during two or three months in the year, and now carries on 
the school with a freshness, effect, and vigour which never flags 



248 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1889 



except from mere illness. He has complete command of Swahili, 
knowing it thoroughly as spoken by the boys. . . . His 
sympathy and gentleness make him firm friends among the boys, 
while he has firmness and strength to lead them." 

lie was on a visit to England, when, hearing how troubled 

(1) was the Usambara district, he hurried out with 
f oSdart H thc Bishop, who considered his presence most 

May 11. valuable, and he remained in charge of Mkuzi 
till what was called jaundice, but was in reality haematuric 
fever, attacked him ; and though well nursed by Mr. Mercer, 
he sank to rest, and was buried in Mkuzi churchyard amid 
sorrowing crowds of natives. 

(2) The same illness attacked Archdeacon Good- 

f Goody e e ai C , n > TCar in J U11C > snortl > T aftcr he ancl Mn Knowles, 

June 24. building superintendent, had visited Mkuzi to 

lay the foundation of 
the new church. As a 
pupil teacher, Henry 
Goodyear had years be 
fore given himself to 
mission work. Becom 
ing a schoolmaster, he 
sought special training 
at St. Boniface, War- 
minster, and receiving 
deacon s Orders at the 
age of twenty-six, he 
sailed for Zanzibar in 
1883, where his work 
L lay till his visit home in 
1887. How those, who 
;ive themselves heart and soul to Mission work, develop 




I8S 9 ] 



MAG I LA IN THE BONDE COUNTRY. 



249 



new faculties, may be seen from the remark of one who 
then saw the young priest : " I never saw so young a man 
so ripe a saint " ; while the editor of a sporting paper 
recommended the Universities Mission, because u it has 
among its staff so splendid a football player, and so genial 




a man, as Mr. Goodyear." Just before his death he wrote 
a pathetic appeal for helpers, because " Knowles is in bed 
no doctor, no nurse." Alas ! Mr. Knowles succumbed 
in the following September, but Archdeacon Goodyear 
preceded him into Eternal Life on St. John Baptist s da) . 

Sadly enough his funeral service was said by (3) 
the Rev. C. J. Sparks, who was the next victim. f j th s p ??ks, 
He too was a recruit from our national schools. Se P t - 22 - 



250 HISTORY Or THE UNIVERSITIES^ MISSION. [1890 



But he was in business at Fromc when his parish priest 
suggested missionary work to him. lie drew back, think 
ing liis education deficient, " and besides, I am only a work 
ing man." However, at Warminstcr and St. Augustine s 
the education difficult} was removed, as his brief but excel 
lent work at Kiungani and in Usambara proved. To help 
his sick friend, Mr. Knowles, he pushed down to the coast 
before the road was quite clear, procured a dhow, and was 
twice fired at, but succeeded in reaching Zanzibar, where 
he died of fever and was buried at Ziwani. 

The losses of the district were completed by the Rev. F. 

Wallis being compelled to take his wife to England, only 

(Dec) * ^ osc ^ ier ^ lc ncx t year. Hut Magila had one 

^tm-ffn 3 ra y f comfort at the beginning of Advent, for 

lOtUlU tO * o r> 

Magiia. |-] 1C Sixers returned after a year in Zanzibar. 
After this, for a few years Magila was not so sorely 
tried. The Rev. James Sal fey, after two years in England, 
returned to Magila, having received priest s Orders at 
Cuddesdon. He has since joined the Cowlcy Fathers 
Mission at Capetown. 

The Natives The native side of the work was very cheer- 
work 1 for i n m 1890. Hearing how much workers were 
themselves. wantcc ] > a Magila boy at Kiungani wrote to 
Mr. Woodward : 

"When we received your letter saying how much work was to 
be done, we, of the second class, consulted together and resolved 
to prepare diligently for the work." 

The Rev. H. w. ^ n tnc mainland, too, some villages built 
woodward. sc ] loo ] s o f their own accord, in hopes of having 
teachers sent to them. 

We must speak of the work of the present staff, though 
they arc not of those " whom praise cannot injure nor 



i8 9 i] 



MAG f LA IN THE BONDE COUNTRY. 



251 



blame hurt." " Don t call 
yet when all others were 
dying or invalided 
around him, when war 
and pestilence were 
crippling the work, Mr. 
Woodward had the 
great privilege of re 
maining well-nigh alone 
at his post; an d 
strength was given him 
for his task. One of 
his Kiungani boys, going 
home for a holiday, was 
almost persuaded by 
his parents to desert 
Christianity. Mr. Wood 
ward sent him this mes 
sage : "He that loveth 
father or mother more 



us heroes," one of them wrote ; 




than Me is not worthy of Me," 



and he returned to Kiungani. 



The Bishop came up for a time, and had a 
great happiness. Eight persons who had been Absolutions. 
censured, or excommunicated for gross sin, 
came and begged to be restored. Two of them received 
Absolution at once, and three more were to follow. At 
the same time the Sisters were able to write of nearly 
2OO girls in the schools of the district. 

By Ascension Day Mr. Woodward, after a holiday, was 
back at work, bringing with him Mr. Herbert Lister. The 
schools, though flourishing, had, as usual, to be closed 
while the crops ripened, while the boys went bird-scaring 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1892-3 



and monkey-scaring. Mr. Woodward utilised the time by 
having the teachers as much with him as possible. To 
wards the end of the year these native teachers began a 
quarterly magazine in Bondei for the Usambara 

A Native 
"Quarterly" country, which was the third native magazine 

in Usambara. . .. , , . 

published by converts themselves. \V hen retro 
Limn was in England this year, some one said it was a 
waste of health and wealth to improve the Africans, who 




MAOII.A QUADRANGLE. 
{From a fJiotf^raph l>y Dr. Palmer, 1294.) 

were a fading race. With manners superior to those of 
the speaker, Petro replied, " Even if it were true that we 
are a dying race, we may at least claim the privilege of 
dying as Christians." 

Of the year 1892 we need only say that Sister 

Death of _ 

sister Frances, Frances, a new recruit, and most valuable as 

a nurse, had to be sent home in March, and 

that she died and was buried at sea. The sorrow was 



MAGI LA IN THE BONDE COUNTRY. 



253 



Return of 
Dr. Ley. 



chequered by joy, as Dr. Ley, after three years 

in Pondo-land, returned to Magila. "If we 

had only had a doctor when our dear friends were ill ! " 

had been the sorrow-stricken cry of Mr. Woodward. 

Passion Sunday, 1893, was a great day at Magila. The 
first of all the Bondei race to give himself to the sacred 
ministry -- Petro Limo, related to the chief Petro Limo 
Kimweri was made a deacon. Two bishops ^/BishopT 
assisted, and it must have been an impressive Sm Hornby an< 
service, with the stately, gracious presence of Marc 
Bishop Smythies, and the frank, bright bearing of the 
Bishop of Xyasaland. 

In the middle of the year Mr. Woodward went to Eng 
land, where he joined himself to the Society of the Sacred 
Mission, and did good work by his speech at the Confer 
ence of Missions. 

And so comes round that sad and yet thankworthy 
era for each Mis 
sion centre tJic 
last visit of Bis hop 
Smythies. In its hours of 
darkest sorrow and bitterest 
trouble, Magila had turned 
to its Bishop, and never 
found him wanting. Had 
that truly apostolic man, 
with his " care of all the 
Churches," a favourite sta 
tion ? And was it Magila ? 
The last Easter he spent on 
earth was spent there. On 
Passion Sunday he ordained KEV . PEiRU LIMU. 



Bishop 

Smythies 

last visit to 

Magila. 




254 HISTORY OF TPIE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1894 



Petro Limo to the Priesthood. Very touching it is to re- 
petroLimo member that this was Mr. Yorke s first convert. 



IIow must his thoughts have turned to that 
Mai-en 11. c . ir] y , ind sooll _] ost teacher. All the priests in 

the district assisted Mr. Griffin, Mr. Lawson, Mr. Cham 
bers, and Mr. Dale. The last-named presented Petro, and 
noticed the absorbed look of the new-made priest. 




a photograph by Dr. Palmer.} 



After this the Bishop worked hard too hard, people 
said but for himself it was as he wished. 

" I have reason to be thankful for our Easter. A week ago 

we had a visitation of locusts. I hope they came 

fro^Magiia. to car ty to ^ muca harm. It was some compensa 

tion that they are liked very much fried ! I hear 

that there was a difficulty in getting what we call * kiteweo, or 



1894] MA GIL A IN THE BONDE COUNTRY. 255 



relish, for the boys to eat with their porridge at Kologwe, and 
they have been content with fried locusts for a week. 

" To return to our Easter. The Church was fairly full for the 
Three Hours service on Good Friday, and I have never seen the 
people more attentive. Hardly any one went out the whole time, 
though we were three hours and a quarter in church. Now, as 
ever, it is the story of the Cross which rivets people s attention. 

" On Easter Eve I ordained Mr. Gerrish deacon in the morn 
ing, in English, and we had our first Easter service at 5 p.m., at 
which seven men and youths and one woman were baptized. 

" To-day the church seemed fairly full at Holy Communion, 
and 124 natives communicated the largest number, I think, 
we have ever had. 

" ^ C. A. SMYTH IKS, 

Bishop of Zanzibar." 

Something we shall have to say of his visits to the other 
stations, but now, just in the face of that great and terrible- 
army which be still hoped might not come, Charles Alan 
Smythies passed away from beautiful Magila, leaving it 
beautiful and fruitful still ; for never did his eyes behold 
the desolation which fell on that much-loved station, and 
never again, for blame or praise, did his people see the 
chief pastor, who had sorrowed with them in their mani 
fold afflictions. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE USAMBARA GROUP OF MISSIONS. 

" \\~hile iv sit idle do ve think 

The Lord s great work sifs idle too , 
That light dare not o erleap the brink 

Of morn, because tis dark with you ? 
Though yet your valleys skulk in night, 
In God s ripe fields the day is cried ; 
And reapers, with I heir sickles bright, 
Troop singing down the mountain side." 

LOWELL. 

IT \vas a pious custom in olden time to group together 
seven churches around some centre, in memory of the 
Seven Churches of Asia, and of Him who has in His right 
hand seven stars. Ireland, especially, owns such groups, 
" In Churches set like stars round some peaceful hermi 
tage." 

Such a group gradually grew up on African 
G e roup S of a soil around Magila. More or less permanent, 
sometimes withdrawn, sometimes started afresh, 
here entirely abandoned, and there planted in other direc 
tions, yet grouped ever round Magila, we find such well- 
known names as Umba, Mkuzi, Misozwe, Msaraka, Kwa 
Kibai, besides a larger number of schools and sub-stations, 
so that in this region, more than in any others, the Church 
may be said to possess the land. 

The story of these stations runs parallel with that of 
Magila. 



1 88 1] THE US A MB AR A GROUP OF MISSIONS. 257 



The founding of Umba, and the work of the Rev. 
C. Yorke, have been given in chapter vii. In 1881 the 
station was entirely rebuilt, just outside the old ^^ andthe 
town, and though the houses were still of sticks, Re ^j H so - B> 
plastered with mud, they were raised two storeys 
high, as it is healthier for the Europeans to sleep upstairs. 
The Rev. H. A. B. Wilson was in charge here, and the 
tremendous earnestness of. his work resulted in the very 
unusual conversion of a chief over seventy; Convers i nof 
Semkali, the half-blind old chief of Umba, who Henry semkaii. 
was baptized by the name of Henry, and afterwards 
walked to Magila with a lame foot, to receive Confirmation 
during Bishop Smythies first visit, bringing his wife with 
him, and showing the Bishop that they knew how to walk 
arm in arm, European fashion, having noticed a married 
missionary and his wife doing so. Some time after he had 
to be suspended from Communion for giving the tribal 
marks with heathen rites, but for this lapse he was truly 
penite-nt. It was Henry Semkali who introduced the 
fashion of ratifying deeds thus : " This is finished in the 
Name of Jesus Christ." 

Very soon after this conversion, the devoted deacon died. 
His last letters speak of what is well known to workers in a 
heathen land the power of the evil one as a presence that 
can be felt. 

"You who live in England don t know what it is. Mr. Wilson on 
You recognise Christ s touch, you hear His voice. devil worsM P- 
There is something in the atmosphere of England which shows 
at once that it is tinted with the sweet scent of our Saviour s 
presence. . . . But here we see Satan, with extraordinary 
power, causing Christ s sheep to fall down and worship him. 
I have seen signs of the devil s power here, such as I could never 

s 



258 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1882 



have believed, had I not been an awe-struck witness, and wondered 
how Christ s Church in this land is ever to spread her wings far 
enough to cope with this evil. But I have found comfort in the 
words : 

" Mid toil and tribulation, 

And tumult of her war, 

She waifs her consummation 

Of peace for evermore." 

His death, He cu e d at 1 angani, on the way down to 
sept. 12. Zanzibar, and his body was brought over by 
Mr. Wallis, and buried at Kiungani. One of his native 
boys wrote of him : 

"We watched by his side and took all care of him; we put 
flowers on his coffin, and every day I put flowers on his grave, 
and two of his little Umba boys, who loved him very much, they 
pray for his peace to Jesus, our Saviour. I am he who loved Mr. 
Wilson as his own life, and my grief is great." 

Archdeacon Farler wrote : 

" I have lost the best, the truest, and most lovable fellow- 
worker that man could have. Dear Wilson is dead. What a loss 
to the Mission ! What an awful loss to Umba ! I have never 
felt a death more." 

It was Mr. Whitty first and then Mr. Geldart who 
stepped forward to fill up the blank. But by 1884 Mr. 
Geldart perceived that Umba was ceasing to be a good 
centre, the villages around being more or less " dead " (i.e. 
deserted). 

A Testimony to Yet so great was the perception of truth 
Truth. ^ a difficult virtue to an African) awakened in 
their minds, that Mr. Geldart overheard an Umba man 
affirm something " by the truth of Mr. Farler," adding, 
" don t you know that means perfect, honest, straight 
forward truth, because Mr. Farler never told us a lie." 



iSSi] 



THE US A MB AR A GROUP OF MISSIONS. 



259 



The third station, opened near Magila, was Founding of 
begun at the entreaty of the natives. There Mkuzi Oct " 
was a town in the midst of those Makumbe who had 
most bitterly opposed the building of the Magila Church. 





MKUZI. 

(I ri}in a sketch by Rev. C . J/. f.aivsj/i.) 

Its name was Mkuzi. Lying about ten miles from Magila 
on the road to Pangani, it is the great timber-producing 
district, and the centre of a hundred villages. Here the 
Rev. F. A. Wallis saw the chiefs, and marked out the site 
for a cottage. lie took charge, and the next year a large 
house was begun, and the Mission boundary planted with 
cocoanut trees. 

Mkuzi was often left entirely to John Swecli, 

The first 

who joined Mr. Wallis after the house was built ; catechumens, 

Aug. 24. 

but Mr. Wallis was constantly there, and in two 
years time had five converts ready to be catechumens, 
who were admitted on St. Bartholomew s Day, one of 
them, Semgogo, being a relation of the Christian chief 
of Umba. 



260 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1883 



Desultory war But the work was uphill indeed. One day a 

wadigo and young native convert to Mohammedanism paid 

Bondei. a f r j cnc iiy v j s j t to ]y[ r \Vallis, and in the course 

of conversation announced that he had taken a captive in 
" war." The " war " proved to be a brutal attack on a poor 
Digo woman, whom he murdered, and whose girl of twelve 
years old he secured and sold for forty-two dollars. Mr. 
Wallis convinced him of the sinfulness of his act, but the 
result was that the Wadigo made reprisals and attacked 
Night attack Mkuzi by night. Mr. Wallis cook, Xguruwe, 
onMkuzi(Dec.). unfortunately went outside the Mission en 
closure, which they respected, and fired ; the Wadigo fled, 
leaving him with two arrows in him. When a piece of 
one was drawn out, he licked it, and crying out that it was 
poisoned, begged to be baptized. As he was one of the 
five catechumens, Mr. W allis, supporting him with one 
hand, baptized him with the other ; and in a few minutes 
he passed from all the confusion and noise consequent 
on a night attack, into the peace and light of Paradise, 
almost the first fruits, for there had been one baptism 
there before this. 

Nine miles north of Magila stands Mlinga, 

Mlinga, the 

Spirit Moun- the spirit mountain, its bare, precipitous peaks 

rising above the woods of its lower slopes. It 
was veiled in mystery, for here, tradition said, dwelt spirit 
ancestors of the Wabondei. Hence they made known 
their will in dreams to their terrified descendants, calling 
on them to sacrifice a bullock, or to forbear certain rites 
or dances, till they were appeased. Worse still, if any 
rash mortal dared the ascent of Mlinga, he disappeared 
from mortal sight, so deadly were the dangers of that 
fatal hill 



1 88 1] THE USA MB AR A GROUP OF MISSIONS. 26 1 

Close to the mountain stood Misozwe, in the Firsi Site 
Luale district, and here in 1881 Mr. Wood- at 



ward interviewed the chief man, Sembando, and 
saying he had come in answer to many invitations, chose 
the hill Manundu for the station. But, though the field 
was " white to harvest," more than three years passed 
before a permanent settlement could be made solely for 
want of means and workers. 

Building began at Easter, 1883, and perma- 

(Easter) 

ncnt buildings were planned a central square, 

with cloisters round, and church, school, houses, 

hall, etc. but as yet only one house was built. From 

this time Misozwe was pretty regularly visited, chiefly by 

Mr. Woodward; but it was September, 1884, before Mr, 

Whitty, a reader, took up his residence there. 

On Bishop Smythies first journey in the Bonde 
country, Mkuzi and Misozwe received their smytwes 1 first 
first episcopal visit. At Mkuzi the Chief asked 
to entertain them, and received them under some cocoa- 
nut trees. He was assisted by two of his twelve wives, 
who, with their women, served them standing, not pre 
suming to sit down before their lords and masters. John 
Swedi gave the Bishop hints on native manners. First 
they washed their fingers, and then with them helped 
themselves to a little of the rice, which, with meat and 
gravy poured over it, formed the repast. John assured the 
Bishop he need only eat a little of it, and the Chief imi 
tated this European dignity, but his sons and followers 
finished all off with great relish. At Misozwe the Chief 
asked what was the use of their coming if they went away 
again directly. 

The Bishop s visit next year included an expedition to 



262 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES^ MISSION. [1885 



brave the spirits of Mlinga. They selected a 

First ascent : 

of Miinga, market day, and, in the sight of the assembled 
Jan. 28. 

people, the Bishop, with Mr. Woodward and 

four native boys, set forth at 6 a.m. and went up through 
the scrub, enjoying the lovely ferns and undergrowth, and, 
emerging on the bare precipices, ascended to the highest 
peak 3,500 feet high and looked out over the moun 
tainous country to the west, and the plain dotted with 
villages to the east. The} 7 planted a pole, tied a handker 
chief to it, and then descended again having taken just 
six hours about it while the people gazed in wonder. 

After this the mountain was ascended several 

Other ascents. 

times. In June, Dr. Petrie and the Rev. J. C. 
Sal fey cut two small trees and set them on the summit, 
in the form of a cross, as a sign that the God of the spirits 
of all flesh had taken possession of Mlinga. 

Soon after, as Mr. Whitty and some boys were about to 
go up, eight Bondei asked leave to come too ; and the 
same thing happened when Mr. Kerslake went up ; for 
now the spell was broken, they experienced a sort of fear 
ful pleasure in daring the ascent. Mr. Whitty even had 
tea on the top, and no vengeance had followed ! 

In 1886 the Rev. II. W. Woodward came to 
reside at Misozwc, and at once built the first 



at j^n S T 5 we church there. Its walls were of brick, with 
open clerestory, supported on posts, and tem 
porary roof; an apsidal baptistery at the west, while a 
permanent chancel was begun at the east. It was used 
unfinished on Trinity Sunday, and for the first time the 
people brought first-fruits of Indian corn to offer in church, 
instead of leaving them to rot on the ground in honour of 
the spirits ; whilst a man who wished to sacrifice a goat 



1 886-7] THE USA MR AR A GROUP OF MISSIONS. 263 

to Mlinga, because the stakes driven in by the Christians 
hurt the spirit s head,. was openly told to provide it himself, 
and not ask them. During an outbreak of small-pox, too, 
numbers gave up their charms and were vaccinated, and 
of these not one caught it. At Mkuzi as many as ninety- 
seven were vaccinated one day. Their names were taken, 
and the result carefully watched. A few developed the 
disease in a mild form after it, but none died. 

There was a Christian wedding at Misozwe A Christian 
this year the bride only just baptized, the 



bridegroom being a communicant. The day 
began with a celebration. At nine the bride arrived, and 
was received with a salute of guns. The first part of the 
service was open to all, in the outer part of the church, the 
last part at the chapel altar. Then for three long hours 
they sat on chairs receiving presents, with umbrellas (the 
African s idea of perfect honour and glory) held over 
their heads, while women danced and boys played around. 
They were not conducted to their house pick-a-back (Mr. 
Woodward stopped that), and they only went in back 
wards. 

The next important event was the dedication 

Dedication of 

of Umba church, where an improvement on st. John Bap 

tist s church 



the system of free seats had been devised, in , 

March 25. 

that there were no seats at all, except a few 
for old people ; only matting or cocoa-nut leaves. The 
Bishop dedicated it in the name of St. John Baptist. 
Though Umba had not many villages near, yet it was a 
regular halting place for people on the way to and from 
the coast. At this time the Rev. J. C. Key was priest in 
charge; in 1889 he combined Msalaka with Umba. In 
1890 we find Granville, a native reader, in charge of both 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



[1889 



Work of Native 
teachers. 



stations ; nor has any European since resided there, The 
school, however, continued ; and it must be remembered 
that the two native Bonde priests were both Umba boys. 

The growth in the work of native teachers 
and evangelists is nowhere more remarkable 
than in this district. Henry Nasibu, and his wife Emma, 
were sent from Zanzibar to Misozwe to take charge of the 
girls and boys schools respectively, 
and Henry sent a very good report of 
his work, saying he was preparing ten 
catechumens for baptism, and men 
tioning his difficulty in making people 
remember which 
day was Sunday. 




"Although the flag is put up every Saturday evening, some 
of them quite forget the day unless I go to them ; then 
they say, To-morrow is the day of God. " 

Mr. Salfey, writing in 1890, shows that the Mlinga 
superstition was not extinct : 

" As I write, Mlinga, the sacred mountain, faces me, and the 
light and shade upon its surface is truly charming. Between us 



i 889] THE US A MB AR A GROUP OF MISSIONS. 265 

and Mlinga several villages are visible ; at one of them lives the 
minister of Sekiteke, the chief of the evil spirits. He now and 
then gives forth that Sekiteke wants a bull, for which formerly 
the people were simple enough to subscribe. I need not say 
that the minister of Sekiteke got more of the bull than all the 
evil spirits together. . . . The latest mandates that Sekiteke 
has launched forth are that drum-beating at night is a cause of 
disturbance to his spiritship ; that no dances are to be indulged 
in, or lights carried about at night. . . . May God soon 
deliver these dear people from their delusions about Sekiteke 
and all his clan." 

So thoroughly did the supposed wishes of Sekiteke 
dominate the Wabondei, that on one occasion, when the 
Kafir corn was ripe, information was sent throughout the 
country that no one was to harvest his crop, or terrible 
consequences would follow. This order was very gener 
ally obeyed, acres of ripe corn being left to the monkeys 
and birds, or to rot on the land. 

Turning to Mkuzi, we give a bit copied at A page from 

Mkuzi 

random from its Record Books, during Mr. Records. 
Wallis absence. It shows the sort of journal kept con 
stantly at all the stations : 

" November , 1889. 

" 2ist Sunday after Trinity. 

" Lawrence Kombo interpreted. 

" A good congregation, although it was market-day here. 
Subject : Mohammed not the Child of Promise, but ISA 
MASIYA (Jesus). Several people from a neighbouring village 
asked a good many questions about Mohammed, and some, who 
formerly said they were followers of Mohammed, said they would 
follow ISA MASIYA in future." 

In June, 1887, Mr. Wallis brought his wife Rev. p. wains 
to Mkuzi. So diligent had been Mr. Irving s 



266 IirSTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES" MISSION. [1887-8 



work that Mr. Gill had to begin burning bricks for a larger 
church, and Mr. Wallis also built himself a new house 
with a baraza upstairs and down, and for a year and a 
half the usual round of work went on a work where all 
the difficult mission problems had to be faced. How 
to oppose child-murder ; how to prevent people from 

being carried 
off as alleged 
slaves ; how to 
deal with those 
who resort to 
charms and ma 
gic. Verily the 
wisdom of Solo 
mon is needed 
in those who 
occupy our mis 
sion stations; 
and if the y 
sometimes fail 
in this (as when 
one young man 
went off from 
Magila, of his 
own accord, to 
try to make 
peace in war 
time a mistake of judgment, but one of the bravest acts 
ever done in the Mission), who shall wonder? Mr. and 
Mrs. Wallis, however, made their mark, and were much 
missed when sent away at the time of the blockade in 
1888. 




MKUZI CHURCH AND SCHOOL. 



1890-2] THE VSAMSARA GROUP OF MISSIONS. 



267 



Mr. Sparks succeeded to the care of Mkuzi, till he 
passed away, and after his death, the Rev. W. Mercer, 
a deacon ; but in October, 1889, Mr. and Mrs. Wallis 
were able to return to what was now, owing to the deaths 
of so many \vorkers, a heavy post ; for Umba and Msa- 
laka had both to be worked from Mkuzi. Alas ! in a 
few weeks they were ordered to England on account of 




NATIVE VILLAGE, MKU7I. 

Mrs. Wallis health, and never returned. The school was 
left in Henry Nasibu s hands, while John Swedi itinerated 
in the villages, and Lewis Bondo had a large school at 
Mwebali. 

So well did all go on later at Mkuzi under Rep0 rtof 
the Rev. Godfrey Dale, and then under the Mkuzi1892 - 
Rev. J. E. Griffin, that the following report was able to be 



268 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION, [1890^2 



written, which may be mentally compared with that of a 
ten-year-old English parish : 

" Any one who has seen the house in the native village which 
was assigned to Mr. Wallis when he first came to live among the 
people, and then looks at the fine building which now stands a 
stone s throw away, will remember to pay a tribute to the workers 
who made such a station possible. The house in which Mr. 







:,.,,,,. | 



I 



MKU/I CHURCH. 
{From a photograph by Dr. Palmer?) 



Wallis lived is now almost a ruin, but close at hand is a fine 
stone church and a large stone house for European residents. 
The new stone church, called the church of the Resurrection, 
was designed by the Rev. W. M. Mercer, and built by natives 
under Mr. Allen s direction, and is the admiration of all who 
behold it. It will contain from 250 to 300 people. It was 
opened in the summer of 1891, and has since then been the 
scene of a Christian wedding and Christian baptisms. 



1892] THE USAMBARA GROUP OF MISSIONS. 269 



" Matins and Evensong are said every day, Evensong being 
fairly attended as a rule. On Sunday there is a Celebration at 
7 a.m., to which only Christians come. The average attendance 
is from twenty-five to thirty. At 10 a.m. there is a Bonde 
service for Christians and catechumens, and another for heathen 
in the old church. The attendance at both services is from 
sixty to ninety. The Bonde service consists of three hymns, the 
Ten Commandments, a metrical Litany, a Lesson and an address. 
The boys school generally averages from twenty to twenty-five, 
most being boarders. ... A boy is considered to have made 
satisfactory progress when he can read and write in Swahili and 
Arabic characters, knows the elements of arithmetic, the geography 
of Africa, and has been firmly grounded in the Christian faith ; 
but of course our great desire is to send them on to Kiungani, 
where they will be trained for the work of teachers and readers, 
and, in a few cases, for the higher work of the Ministry." 

Msalaka (or Msaraka) has been mentioned M saiaka, 
several times. It is nearly three miles from begun> 1886 
Umba, on the way to Manila. Being thought healthier 
than Umba, the Mission dwellings were removed there, 
and the priest in charge was to spend Sundays at Umba, 
and most of the week at Msalaka. When the Bishop 
came up to Magila, after the fire, he visited the new 
station to which Mr. Key was appointed. 

In 1890 Sister Agnes wrote of riding to Msalaka for the 
girls treat. No European could now be spared, but Gran- 
ville often had a good congregation, and 173 came for the 
Harvest Thanksgiving ; while Lewis Bonclo had converted 
his old father, who was baptized on his deathbed. 

Day, too, was breaking over the Zigua race, a 

Jt A Mission to 

finer people than the Bonde. Mdami, a power- zj 
ful Zigua chief, sent messengers to Mr. Wood- 
ward at Magila, asking for friendship, chiefly 



270 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1890 



that he might secure a good trade route for his ivory. Mr. 
Woodward sent an expedition back under Dr. Castle, the 
result of which was that one little Zigua boy came to 
Manila for education, while Mr. Woodward began, in the 
light of his Swahili and Bonde studies, to pay attention to 
Kizigua. There was also a Zigua Wilfrid Madudu 




K LUVU AT KUI.OGWK. 



among the native teachers, whom the Bishop determined 
to send to Kologwe (or Korogwe), the station selected. It 
is on an island of the river Luvu. These large islands, 
caused by the parting of the stream, are thickly populated, 
the position giving their inhabitants a sense of safety. 
The first Kologwe worker, Mr. Lister, arrived in Zanzi- 



i8 9 i] 



THE USAMBAKA GROUP OF MISSIONS. 



271 



Herbert 
Lister. 



bar, February 20, 1891 ; he was in a few weeks 
sent to Magila. At once the Magila boys and 
he took to each other. " You are just from England, 
Bvvana Herbert, said one. Yes, I am. Do you know 
my mother ? I looked in his dear black face, and said, 
4 Your mother ? Yes, my patron mother ; she loves me 
much, and I love her, and pray for her every night. " 
Who shall say what blessing the prayers of these African 
children bring to the lives of those who adopt them ! 




KOLOGWK, TIIK FIRST MISSION 1IOUSK. 

At last Mr. Woodward, Mr. Bone, and Mr. Mission 
Lister, started for Kologvve, which they reached ^ogwe 1 
on the Feast of the Visitation, and pitching their July 2 - 
tents on the hill of Fundi, began to build. But Mr. Bone 
falling ill, Mr. Woodward had to hurry him back, and for the 
rest of the year Mr. Lister held on alone, with two native 
teachers, one of whom, Wilfrid the Zigua, worked at Zavuya. 
So much was Wilfrid respected that he w r as soon able to 
prevent a father from murdering his son as a punishment. 

Mr. Lister pushed on into Zigualand, making friends 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1893 



with the chiefs, especially with him who had first sent 
messages of peace, and thus at least preparing the way for 
others ; but, falling ill in Lent, he was invalided to Zanzibar 
and England, while Henry Nasibu carried on the work 
until the arrival of the Rev. P. R. II. Chambers. Henry 

worked so well that at Easter he took over four- 
First Kologwe 

catecnumens teen boys to Manila, where Mr. Woodward ad- 

(.Ljtiotcr). * 

mittcd two as catechumens Kidungwe, and his 
friend Mgaya. So earnest was their preparation that the 
Bishop shortened their probation as catechumens, and they 
were baptized in little more than a year, on Whitsun Eve. 

" On Friday they did not go to school, but spent 
nm P Koiogwe the morning in devotion and instruction, and in the 
C May e 20 S afternoon washed their clothes and shaved each 
other s heads, in preparation for Holy Baptism. 
Saturday they fasted, and kept apart from the other boys till 
3 p.m., when we began Evensong. . . . About one hundred 
came ; our little church was crowded. . . . After the second 
Lesson our procession started out of church, down the hill to the 
font, built in the ground with a light roof over it. ... As the 
boys knelt to be baptized we all felt we were engaged in a won 
derful work in bringing to our Lord the firstfruits of this land, 
where two years ago the name of Christ was utterly unknown. 
Then they changed their black dresses for chrisoms. . . . 
On Whit-Sunday the new Christians were present at the Holy 
Eucharist in their chrisoms. . . . The names the boys 
chose were Herbert Benjamin (Kidungwe) and Charles Mattayo 
(Mgaya). 

The lesson of ^ ow > m som c of its aspects, the Christian life 
the Good i s practised by the native teachers, we see from 

Samaritan. L J 

the story of a Masai, who chanced to be taken 
as a slave, and being too tired to hurry on the march, was 
cut and hacked, and left to die. When Henry Nasibu 



[893] THE US A MB AR A GROUP OF MISSIONS. 2/3 



found him, many natives were coming and going to look 
at him ; but he got bearers to carry him to a village, and, 
sending for the Magila doctor, tended him till, in spite of 
all his care, the poor savage died an unconscious means of 
teaching Kologwe folk the lesson of the Good Samaritan. 
In October the Bishop visited Kologwe, and 

The Bishop 

preached to three hundred people, speaking very 
strongly against child murder, which was ram 
pant among the Ziguas. Charms, too, abounded, and the 
people of one village on the Luengera, a river infested by 
crocodiles, made much money by selling charms to put in 
the river to keep them off. The missionaries built a bridge 
and so took away their trade. These charm-makers the 
Bishop compared to those who made silver shrines for 
Diana. But it seems certain the natives do know of 
special trees or herbs the crocodiles dislike, and they make 
the water safe for cattle to cross by infusing it with these 
leaves. 

It was a disappointment to find that Henry 

XT ., r ^ i Henry Nasibu 

Nasibu was one of those persons who, though resigns his 

. . work (Dec.). 

doing well at a crisis, or when alone, cannot 

work under others, and in December he resigned the work 

in which he had lost interest. 

Some account must be given of the preach- 

The 

ing tour this year, when the Bishop and Pctro Preaching Tour 

(Oct. 2-16). 

Limo set forth, as St. Paul and St. Luke of 
old, to travel up and down the land simply to obey the 
Divine word, "Preach the Gospel to every creature." They 
went forward in faith and hope to village after village, 
preaching the glad tidings to old and young. 

Leaving Mkuzi on October 2, they preached at Torondo, 
a village under Mohammedan influence ; thence to Jamvi, 

T 



274 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION, [1893 



a place full of Petro s relations. The Bishop always made 
a point of eating his fowl and porridge with his fingers, 
to break down the barrier between the races. The first 
night they slept on beds of fresh grass, in a baraza at 
Kwa Kibai, the largest Bonde village yet visited. The 
next morning they found that Kibai was an intelligent 
blacksmith as well as Chief, and promises passed of new 
tools when he should pay a visit to Magila. 

Next day three or four more villages were visited, and 
as many on the third day ; getting now among the more 
conical Zigua huts, and so making their way to Kologwe, 
as already told. The Bishop and his deacon now visited 
the river islands, and passed a German caravan carrying 
building materials to Mount Kilimanjaro, and so jour- 
The Bishop neyecl at last to Vuga, in the Shambala country 
atvuga. ^ t | ie true Usambara), the historical home of 
Kimweri, which is to them what Aix-la-Chapelle was to 
the German Emperors the coronation city, the city of 
regal functions. Only here can a Kimweri lawfully marry 
his wife, and it was held that young Kinyassi could not 
claim the title till, on his marriage, he could enter Vuga. 
Kimweri received them with a feast, but next day said he 
was too rheumatic to see them any more, and they went 
on their mountain path to Misozwe once picknicking 
with two German gentlemen, whom they casually found, 
and who must have been surprised to find in the dignified 
and gracious man in torn white cassock the missionary 
Bishop of Zanzibar. Finally they reached Misozwe in 
time for the Patronal Festival of St.. Luke, and, reaching 
Magila soon after, had the happiness of finding Kibai 
come to ask for a teacher. At once the Bishop appointed 
Petro Limo to visit Kwa Kibai from Magila till he could 



1 894] THE USAMBARA GROUP OF MISSIONS. 275 

settle there, and this station was the first practical outcome 
of the tour. 

It remains only to tell of the Bishop s last visits to the 
stations owning Magila as their mother. 

A sad little story is connected with his last visit to 
Misozwe. A native reader, Martin Furahani, Martin 
with his wife Mildred, had been in charge of the Furahani - 
Mission House, and, at her suggestion, had boarded ten 
girls, whom she brought up and mothered ; and she seems 
in every way to have been an admirable person. When 
the Bishop came up in Lent, 1893, for Petro s ordination 
to the diaconate, Martin went over to Magila, and stayed 
late for an address to teachers. Returning, he found Mil 
dred very ill, and in two days she was at rest. Great 
sympathy was shown with poor Martin, and the Bishop 
himself took her funeral. After this Martin grew careless, 
and at length fell into grievous sin, but continued to com 
municate up to Christmas. 

When the Bishop arrived at Misozwe, his visit Bishop 

r i -\/r- -i Smythies last 

was saddened by nndmcf Martin without sicrn visit at 

J Misozwe, 

of repentance, retro tried to move him ; but, March 2. 
alas ! he had to be excommunicated. Even then he had 
no wish to leave the Mission, but had to be sent away by 
the German authorities. Two years have passed since 
then, and in Central Africa for July, 1896, we read that 
Bishop Richardson has been able to restore Martin to the 
peace of the Church, and that he is working at Mkuzi 
under his old friend, Petro Limo. 

At Kwa Kibai the people were so delighted Rev Petro 
with their fellow-countryman, Petro Limo, that, Limo * 
hearing he would not settle there till his marriage, they 
consulted together, and determined to hasten the happy 



276 PUS TORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1894 

day by bestowing on him the Chief s niece. He was 
obliged to tell them " he was engaged to another " ; and, 
in fact, he has since married Blandina, one of the Mbweni 
teachers. There is a picture of Padre Petro and the first 
eight boys put under his care from Kwa Kibai, and in the 
thoughtful face of the African priest we see the impress 
on every feature, so purely African in form, of what the 
Christian life (and not merely civilisation) can make of 
the native races. 

The sad drawback in this year was that regular services 
ceased in Umba Church, owing to the indifference of the 
few remaining people. The poor supply of water, and the 
proximity and raids of the Wadigo, had caused most of 
the people to remove elsewhere. 

Mkuzi, on the other hand, had a happier record at 
Christmas. One of the converts, who had lapsed into Mo 
hammedanism, now after three years returned and desired 
reconciliation. 

Mohammedan There is no doubt that the Mohammedans in 
ci!S?S e c?S-the district more or less actively try to prose 
lytize the Christian converts, and the simplest 
method is to say, " If you follow Islam, you might have 
another wife." They also hinder catechumens by telling 
them they will be compelled to eat forbidden food. A 
child at Capetown declined baptism for some time, on the 
ground that the Malays had told her that, when baptized, 
she would have to eat a whole pig ; and one had unfor 
tunately been brought into the Home in her sight ! 

As one reads the Record Books of the Bonde Missions, 
one can only wonder at the faith and patience which can 
work hopefully on in the face of such and so many dis 
appointments. 



CHAPTER XV. 

TEN YEARS IN ZANZIBAR. 

"Darkness around them and above, 
Desolate, ivith naught to love ; 
And through the gloom on every side 
Strange dismal forms are dim descried; 
Then the ever lifted cry, 
Give us light, or we shall die, 
Cometh to the Father s ears, 
And He hearkens and He hears. 

***** 

Tis Truth awaking in the soul ; 

Thv Righteousness to make them whole." 

THE mail from England is signalled!" These joy 
ful words, fully understood by those long absent 
from their native land, broke on longing ears Landingof 
in Zanzibar one Monday morning in 1884. At gmytSes, 
once every member of the Mission, except the Feb> 25- 
ladies, poured down to the landing-place, for at last, after a 
year and a half of orphanhood, their Bishop was coming. 
Off they went in a steam-launch, to shake hands on board, 
and to bring Bishop Smythies to his new home. 

The ladies meantime drew up the little boys and girls 
on the steps to greet the new comers. Miss Mills said her 
little boys thought it a new kind of Service, and some 
stood with clasped hands, and devoutly hushed up the 
others. Then up came the nine travellers, headed by the 
long-desired Bishop. With him came Archdeacon Farler 
and Mr. Bellingham, who were welcomed as old friends, while 
the new ones scarcely less welcome were the Rev. Dun 
can Travers, and Messrs. Herbert Allen, M. L. Irwing, H. 
Kerslake, J. M. Lavender and William M. Mercer. After 
Evensong in Christ Church a solemn Te Deum was sung. 

Such was the happy inauguration of an epis- TheWo rk 
copate of which so much has already been told, ^ the island. 

that the wonder is there is anything left to say. But we 

277 



2 78 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1884 



have heard little since chapter x. of the work on the Island 
of Zanzibar. 

It may be well at this juncture to remind ourselves what 
they were at this date : 

1st, Mkunazini, under the shelter of Christ 
Church, on the edge of the Creek, so well known 



Mkunazini. 






./ 

M > , -I .: " 



1 

Hi 




THE OLD MISSION IIOUSK AT MKUNAZINI. 
(Demolished 1895.) 

on the cover of Central Africa. Here stood the house 
which, after being headquarters of the Mission staff, has 
only recently been pulled down. Here also was Miss 
Mills School of fifty-three little boys, from which was 
drawn the choir ; a nursery of twenty infants under the 
care of Miss Bashford ; and, living in houses close at hand, 



88 4 ] 



TEN YEARS IN ZANZIBAR. 



279 



about 150 Christians, mostly old adherents of the Mission, 
former pupils, and freed slaves. Later on here was built 
the Hospital and the Industrial Home. 

2nd, Kiungani. The Home for the bigger 

Kiunganl. 
boys, a mile and a half from the town. There 

were now eighty-six lads there, in charge of two clergy 




Rev. If. Geldart, Rev. J. Key, Mr. Roberts, Mr. Madan, Mr. U hitty. 

and three laymen. Here was the Mission Press and a 
large laundry, where the boys washed the clothes of the 
Mission Staff, with Miss Josephine Bartlett as housekeeper 
and general superintendent of laundry, cooking, etc. 
3rd, Mbweni. The village for 250 adult 

J J Mbweni. 

freed slaves, mostly married and living in cot 
tages, cultivating their gardens, and burning lime. Here 



280 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1884 



it was that Miss Thackeray established her home for 
seventy girls, destined to become teachers and wives of 

teachers. The children of 
the married couples came as 
flilfi^^ *,."i : -^SjiBK^ c ^ a y scn l ars > tne girls to Miss 




Thackeray, the smaller boys 
to a little school of their own, 
such elders as were suitable 
going to Kiungani. 

Directly after his arrival, 

industrial tne Bishop began to improve the industrial 
)rk> work, especially among the girls, twelve of Miss 
Thackeray s girls (who were unsuitecl for teachers) being 
put under Miss Allen s charge. In July arrived Miss 
Ruth Berkeley ; she at once took charge, and it is her 
name, with her sister s, and later on Mrs. Key s, which are 
specially connected with this work. 

MissR. Ber- When first the girls were handed over to 
the 9 in5ustriai Miss Berkeley, they were put on the roof of the 
schoolroom, where they lived and were taught 
cooking and work of all sorts. As any civilized method 
of cooking would probably set the roof on fire, the girls 
Native cooked in a native arrangement of a box of sand, 
ookery. ^\<fa three good-sized stones on the top, and the 
fire lighted between them, while a pot stands on the stones. 
But in spite of difficulties the girls did very well, having 
a great aptitude for cookery ; and they can even dispense 
with the grandeur of the range described above. Quite 
little ones may be seen with a cocoanut as a cooking 
pot, and a few small fish they have caught, or vegetables 
from their own little gardens, cocoanut juice and a flavour 
ing of capsicum and limes. The girls bake the native 



1884] TEN YEARS IN ZANZIBAR. 28 1 

bread daily, small cakes of pounded rice, set to rise in 
the sun ; treacle is then stirred in and the cakes fried 
in oil. They make other cakes of millet, also porridge 
and curry in endless variety. They do not learn Euro 
pean cookery, as that is done by men. 

When the girls are old enough to think of courtship 
marriage, they are allowed to receive visits from wSSSm 
the boys on holidays, in the beautiful new wing puplls 
built by Miss Thackeray in 1887. Of course the teachers 
also receive their friends. Then all sorts of native sweets 
and dainties are prepared, and the boys and girls feast 
together. Great are the hopes that the boys who arc 
teachers will take the educated girls, who can help them 
in their work. But, alas ! even under Mission supervision, 
the course of true love will not always run in prepared 
channels, and the teachers sometimes think a girl who 
has learnt industrial work will make a better wife ; so 
care is taken to continue their studies that, if necessary, 
they may help their husbands a little, even if they can 
not take schools. These girls now do the washing for 
the ladies ; and their needlework, including embroidery, is 
often exquisite, owing to their clever, supple Girls , 
fingers. They also plait native mats of strips of Needlework - 
palm leaves, dyed in colours. These mats are used as 
seats, curtains, and sheets for the living, and as palls to 
wrap the uncoffined dead. 

It may surprise English people to learn that Fieldwork 
the Mbweni girls also, many of them, do done by Girls - 
field work. But this is customary for African women ; 
and after marriage, cooking being all got through in the 
early morning and late evening, and new cocoanut vessels 
and mud floor requiring hardly any attention, she would 



282 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES^ MISSION. [1884 



have an idle time of it. But with one baby slung on 

her back and another toddling beside her, a woman often 

works for hours in the Shamba, or even at road making 

and building work. Anything is better than idleness for 

Motives for them ; but it is said that only two motives will 

work. ma k c the African work continuously and not 

by fits and starts ; 
one is intense love 
for employer or 
teacher, and the 
other is the love of 
God. 

A three 

First Synod , , .- 
in Zanzibar, Clays by- 
May 5. 

nod was 

held in Christ 
Church, Zanzibar, 
in May, when the 
Bishop presided over 
eleven clergy and 
two laymen. Each 
day he celebrated at 
7 a.m., at the high 
altar facing east, so 
that the clergy in 
their stalls in the 
apse were facing 

him. The Sessions began at 9.30, the Bishop occupying 
the throne behind the altar. On the first day the whole 
question of polygamy was dealt with, and though there 
was much debate and opposite views, the resolutions were 
passed nemine coiitradicente. It was decided, among other 




BAOBAB TREE, MBVVENI. 



i88 4 ] 



TEN YEARS IN ZANZIBAR. 



283 



things, to receive no more freed adult slaves from the 
Consulate. 

Another resolution decided that a Theological A Theological 
College should be established for promising Colle s e - 
native pupils. Nothing could at first be done in this 
direction, but it was gradually determined to transform 




BOYS AT KIUNGANI. 
Mr. Roberts, Rev. D. T ravers, Miss Bartlett, Rev. J. P. Farlcr, Rev. L. //. Frcre. 

Kiungani into such a college, eliminating more and more 
the industrial element, drafting the latter into town, where 
they could be (and already were occasionally) apprenticed 
to trades. 

A set of studies was built out of the " Bishop 
Steere Memorial Fund " in 1 887 for the theo- studSfsat 

... Kiungani. 

logical students ; and this year the examination 



284 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1887 



passed by the lads was a really stiff one. When we think 
of the material from which the boys are drawn, \ve are 
amazed at their proficiency. Nicholas, one of the boys in 
the second class, was twelve years old ; he had been born 
in a slave dhow, and till four years old was with his mother 
at Mkunazini, when they were sent to join the colony at 
Masasi ; and thus, three years later, Nicholas was carried 
a second time into slavery by the Magwangwara, but 
ransomed by Mr. Porter, and at nine years old sent to 
Kiungani. Yet we find this lacl answering correctly such 
questions as " How \vas Melchizedek a type of Christ ? " 
" What do you think of Jael killing Sisera ? " " How does 
our Lord teach us chastity, purity, humility ? " Questions 
were put in Church history and doctrine, and he was 
expected to read and compose in Swahili and English, 
and he obtained nearly full marks in these two. There 
is good material at Kiungani, for Nicholas was a very 
average boy. 

It is always better, if possible, to educate 

African educa- . . . 

tion for African the native clergy in Africa than in England; 

Clergy. 

and now that Kiungani is more entirely the 
theological college, few of them need come to England, 
where the good of their education is balanced by loss of 
touch with their own people, and by an acquired taste 
for luxuries not easily attainable and not desirable in a 
poor church. The result so far has been a small but 
worthy set of native clergy, and a large body of 
teachers. 

In October, 1888, the first number of the 

First number . ... j i . i i i 

of "Msimuiizi" college magazine, edited and printed by boys 

(October). * 

themselves, came out. It was the first to 
appear of the three native magazines, and received the 



[SS6] 



TEN YEARS IN ZANZIBAR, 



285 



name of Msimultsi or The Reporter, and was to be had 
for a farthing a number. 

It was not only the boys whose education Theeducation 
progressed so satisfactorily. In 1886, we find f the GMS. 
the Rev. H. H. Clarke examining Miss Thackeray s 
school and reporting well of papers on the authorship of 




MRVVENI. 



the Epistle to the Hebrews, and on the Niccnc Creed, as 
well as on general Scripture knowledge. The geography 
of European countries included some account of their 
history, and we find England, Germany, Holland, France, 
Switzerland, and Athens among the places so treated. 
Some will ask, " Of what use are these subjects to poor 



286 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1887 



African girls who will never have to teach any one but 
more ignorant Africans ? " We answer, " Of what use 
are the same subjects to English girls, nine-tenths of 
whom never teach any one at all ? " " That s quite differ 
ent," is usually the conclusive and concluding answer to 
such an argument, for Africa-lovers know better than to 
answer a fool according to his folly. 

When the new Industrial wing was opened 

?nduiiai & in the Jubilee year, Archdeacon Hodgson and 

Mbw S eni, the girls decorated the place with Jubilee flags. 

Nov. 21. _, S . J ~ 

The procession looked very picturesque, moving 
among the palm trees, headed by the beautiful cross given 
to Christ Church by a lady in memory of Gordon, and 
now first used. It was inscribed : 

" In memory of C. G. Gordon, R.E., C.B. Born, 
Th cS d n January 28, 1833. Called into Egypt, there he bore 
his Master s Cross ; defending the defenceless, he died 
at his post within Khartoum, January 26, 1885." 

After the Bishop came the industrial girls in blue dresses 
and scarves and red kofias the school girls in red and 
white. Singing Swahili hymns, they passed into the 
house, where Psalm Ixvii. was chanted, and sweetly these 
young cultivators of the ground sang of the time when 
the earth should bring forth her increase. 

The new wing, which was most complete in every way, 
was Miss Thackeray s gift to the Mission. 

Christian chanty towards the sick has ever been a great 
means of drawing hearts to the Church, since the days 
when our Lord " laid His hands upon a few sick folk and 
healed them." We have seen this was the case on the 
mainland ; and here in Zanzibar, the work went on as it 



iS8 7 J 



TEN YEARS IN ZANZIBAR, 



287 



Mrs. 



could. In this same year the Dispensary which 
Halliday (Miss Bashford) had worked for was built. 
The Jubilee festivities had been kept before 

* me juDiiee 

at Kiungani, but in Zanzibar itself on July 9. at Zanzibar, 
There were many Hindi merchants, and these, 
of course, were subjects of the Empress of India. The 
whole town was like one garden. Loyal addresses were 
made in a tent blazing 



in 

with silks and 
Then at 4 p.m. 
was laid 



jewels. 




Foundation 
the stone of 
hospital laid. 

Found at ion 
stone of a new hospital, 
the gift of Tharia Tho- 
pan, a merchant, to the 
city. A golden trowel 
was used, and the stone 
laid to the music of the 
Sultan s band, lent for 
the occasion. In the 
evening thousands of 
people walked about 
looking at the magnifi 
cent illuminations and 

fireworks. Some of them asked if the English would 
" write and tell Victoria how nice it was." The grand 
finale was a game of football played by the Kiungani boys 
in smart blue and white caps given by a Hindi, with 
many thousands looking on. 

And then some one did " tell Victoria," for her Majesty 
graciously accepted the copy of Central Africa, which 
contained the account, 



THACKERAY. 



288 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1888 

In 1888 died the Sultan of Zanzibar. Seyid 

D s^id f Barghash was born in 1835, being a younger 

M a a r r s ch a 27: son of Seyid bin Sultan, ruler of Muscat and 

Zanzibar. On the latter s death, the kingdoms 

being severed, Barghash claimed Zanzibar, and for this 

presumption was, on the accession of his elder brother 

Maijd, exiled to India, with the result of a great widening 

of his mind ; so that when, in 1870, he succeeded his brother, 

he had laid up a store of wisdom, which made his eighteen 

years of rule a time of great progress for Zanzibar. 

He showed great appreciation of English influence, and 
listened to our counsels, while he treated the Universities 
Mission with uniform kindness. He accepted the in 
evitable gracefully, and from the time of the first treaty, 
restricting the slave trade, he kept loyally to its terms, 
though at a great loss of income. So good a financier 
was he, however, that he managed to die rich. Much 
depressed by his troubles with the Germans and Portu 
guese, he fell ill, and was taken to Muscat for the benefit 
of the voyage. Getting worse, he caused himself to be 
carried back to die in his own palace, which he did not 
actually reach alive. 

Khalifa sue- ^ c was peacefully succeeded by his next 
ceedshim. brother, Khalifa, a mild man, very friendly to 
England. 

It must not be supposed, however, that Arab friendli 
ness extends to permission to convert Mohammedans. 
Christians may have a right to their religion, but once 
a Mohammedan, always a Mohammedan, on pain of death 
is the rule, as the following story shows : 

There was an Arab gentleman, Abdullah bin Mahomet 
by name, who had been taught by Bishop Steere, and 



i888] 



TEN YEARS IN ZANZIBAR. 



289 



as long as he was only an enquirer he might 

stand at the end of the Slave Market Church, bin Mahomet s 

history. 

and no notice was taken. But one day he un 
covered his head, and knelt clown among the Christians. 
The next day, the enlightened Seyid Barghash sent him 
to prison ; and there for three and a half weary years 




... j 



MOHAMMEDAN MOSQUE, ZANZIBAR. 



he remained, scorning all offers of freedom at the cost 
of his religion. All his Christian friends could do for him 
was to supply ftim with food, and to receive letters from 
him declaring his full trust in Christ. Then he fell ill ; 
and there, in the utter loneliness of a prison, with none 
to applaud or console him, he who had never tasted the 

U 



290 HIS IORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1888 



joys of Christianity among the faithful, and whose only 
privilege was to suffer for his Master, was content to die 
a captive. 

MISS Mills Occasionally we have referred to Miss Mills 

toys. \vork among the little boys, whose home for 

so many years was at Mkunazini. Here the little slaves, 

when released, come, and here they stay, till old enough 

to go to Kiungani to he trained as teachers, or to the 






home for industrial work. Here the saddest stones are 
heard : 

" My new child," she writes, " who looked quite fifty when he 
came, and was a mass of sores, does not look more than twenty 
now, so I hope in a year something childish may come out. He 
is an odd little morsel, but learns fast." 

In 1893 it was decided to begin building a new home 



1894] TEN YEARS IN ZANZIBAR. 291 



for the little boys, quite out of the town, near 

Mbweni. By the middle of 1894 this was ready, 

and Miss Mills and Miss Clutterbuck moved 

into it. Kilimani " the House on the Hill " 

has a much cooler climate than the town of Zanzibar, of 

which there is a lovely view from the windows. The 

boys felt at once the benefit of the change : 

" Some of them are such miserable, sickly little creatures," 
says Miss Mills. " Petro has arms and legs like knitting pins, and 
such a little pathetic old face ; and Azub has no body to speak 
of, but such great swelled cheeks, like a balloon. Cypriani and 
Bernardo can scarcely walk, and are always ailing, and Willie has 
a very weak chest. . . . We do not go in for much schooling 
as yet, but do a lot of gardening, as the Shamba has to be got 
into order." 

This motherly training of the little ones is among the 
best work of all clone for the Good Shepherd ; and what 
must motherly love be to those living in a town where 
a few years before a woman threw her own babe into 
a raging fire, to save herself. 

The work among adults, living in homes of Mbwenl 
their own at Mbweni, is not often recorded in Vllla s e - 
the Mission history. Perhaps it is more like a well- 
managed English parish, which is often happier in 
proportion as it has less history. Here in 1888 they 
lost the services of Archdeacon Hodgson and Departure 
his wife. He had been the mainstay of the ot ^^^ n 
orphaned Church when Bishop Steere died, and 
was now the leading spirit at Mbweni. As he passed 
through the Suez Canal on his way home, he completed 
Bishop Steere s great work of the translation of the Bible 
into Swahili. With the exception of the Apocrypha, Zan- 



292 11J STORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES^ MISSION. [iSSS 

zibar now had a whole Bible in the vernacular, 
the transia- And for this, the name of Archdeacon Hodgson 

tion of the , 111 

Bible, should be remembered, alongside with Bishop 
Steere s, among those who, from St. Jerome 
downwards have given to their flocks the Word of God 
in their own tongue. Like the Bishop, Archdeacon 
Hodgson left another tangible work behind him the 
building of a church. 

St. John s, Mbweni, is a handsome church, 

St, John s 

church, with an apse end, like most of the Mission 

Mbweni. 

churches, and a fine tower. Here, day by day, 
the people from the native plantation come to worship. 
The Archdeacon might be seen on a Saturday night ful 
filling the rubric by writing clown the names of all who 
desired to communicate next morning. One after another 
they would drop in sometimes as many as sixty so that 
each could have a word with his spiritual father. All 
came without constraint, quite of their own accord. On 
Christmas Day, 1889, there were 198 communicants. 

In 1892 the Rev. J. K. Key and Mrs. Key (Miss Emily 
Woodward) took charge of Mbweni, and happily they 
have been able to continue their care ever since. 

This part of the Mission work the adult village has 

long been self-supporting. How happy Bishop Mackenzie 

would have been could he have foreseen such a village, 

when he made a similar attempt at Magomero ! 

Adventure of ^ n Adventure which befell Mr. Bone, a lay 

andcyprian, member of the Mission, and Cyprian, a cate- 

NOV. so. chumen, illustrates how near to peril is all this 
peaceful island work. On St. Andrew s Day, 1889, they 
went by water from Kiungani to Mbweni, but in trying to 
return were blown by the monsoon into the open sea, and 



TEN YEARS IN ZANZIBAR. 



293 



they spent the night in sight of Kiungani, but afar off. 
On Saturday, struggling with wind and current, they could 
not make either the island or mainland, but on Sunday 
morning managed to get ashore, hungry and tired, south 
of Bagamoyo, on the mainland coast. Cyprian bravely 
tried to go first, lest Mr. Bone should be mistaken for a 
German and fired on, which actually happened, for this was 




TEACHING CATECHUMENS AT MUXWORTHY S SHAMBA, ZANZIBAR. 

at the time of the German unpopularity. But Cyprian s 
cleverness and devotion, with the kindness of a Banyan 
merchant, saved him. The Banyan, however, packed 
them off in a larger boat, without waiting for food, for the 
Arabs were showing their knives. Meantime their friends, 
aided by the flagship s officers, had been searching for 



2Q4 HISTORY 0/< JHE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1889 



them far and wide ; and it was a great relief when they 
walked into Kiungani at a quarter to six on Monday 
morning. 

Since Sir Bartlc Frcre s visit, and the closing 

Anti-Slavery 

decrees, of the slave market, no more important measure 
had occurred than that now brought to pass by 
the tact and determination of Mr. (afterwards Sir) Gerald 
Portal, who persuaded Seyid Khalifa to publish a decree 
declaring all persons entering his dominions on and after 
November I legally free. A second decree declared all 
children born after the current year free. 

These decrees, if faithfully carried out (which the} are 
not), would mean the extinction of slavery in the next 
generation. The names of Sir Bartle Frerc, Sir John 
Kirk, and Sir Gerald Portal will ever be held in remem 
brance among those who have used diplomacy for the 
noble object of freeing the slave. 

Sevid Khalifa did not live long, however, d\ ing 

Death of . i c 

sultan Khalifa m rebruary some said of sunstroke, some said 

and accession 

of Aii, the death was mysterious. His younger brother, 

Feb. 13. J J 

All, who succeeded him peacefully, showed much 

favour to the Mission, which he visited on their anniversary. 

suitan Airs Plenty of amusement was provided for him. In 

KSngani, tne printing office he was asked to print off an 

Aug. so. A ra kj c address to himself, and in the yard the 

boys had set up a ship, chiefly made up of oil-cans and 

scaffolding, from which they let off twenty-one rockets in 

his honour ; but he disconcerted them by walking round 

the ship to examine its anatomy ! 

The Sultan had that month (August) put forth an 
anti-slavery edict, more trenchant than his predecessor s. 
Mr. Lecky declares the crusade against the slave trade to 



[890] 



J EN YEARS IN ZANZIBAR. 



295 



be among the three or four perfectly virtuous acts of 
nations. Happy those who serve in this crusade ! 

For some years a Guild had existed at The Guild of 
Kiungani among those boys who looked st * PauL 
forward to Holy Orders. This, the Guild of St. Paul 




THEOLOGICAL STUDENTS, KIUXGANI. 

With Mr, Gillanders, Mr. King, Archdeacon Jones-Bateman, Bishop Sinythies, 
Rev. H. DuBoulay, and Mr. IT. J.H. Chambers, 

numbered, in 1890, a priest, deacon, and twenty members 
preparing for the sacred ministry ; and in this year the 
Principal (Archdeacon Jones-Bateman) wrote to Arch 
bishop Benson to tell him of this good work, and the 
Guild had the great encouragement of a letter from the 
Archbishop, dated from Lambeth on Palm Sunday, send 
ing them his blessing. 



296 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION, [1890 

Archbishop " In Africa tne P r phecy is already ful- 

Benson s let- filled that Ethiopia shall stretch out her hands unto 

st. Paul s God. We pray Him to fulfil for all races the word 

of the prophet that in every place there shall be a 

pure spiritual Offering, and that from all nations He will take 

men to be Priests and Levites, the ministers of the Gospel. 

. . . You must never cease to be on your guard, never cease 

to be men of prayer ; and He will make you strong to overcome 

in the hour of temptation, and resolute to weed out every evil 

habit from among you." 

The members of the Guild sent a reply to the Arch 
bishop, signed by eight on behalf of the rest. 

For the girls also there are Guilds. The 
the Good Guild of the Good Shepherd for teachers, 
founded in 1885. There are only from twenty 
to thirty members, but these are the " salt of the earth." 
The\- have a retreat generally every year, and some of 
them arrive with their babies ; for there are married 
teachers as well as sinle in the Guild. 






Guild of AH The other Guild of All Saints began on All 
saints. Saints Day, 1887, and is for any, married or 
single, who are not teachers. 

Record of These Guilds will make it easier in after life 
former pupils. to keep touc ] 1 w j t h t } lc Mission pupils. But 

even before this, touch had been kept; for in April, 1890, 
we have a record of all the boys who, from the first 
trembling group of five little unclad slaves in 1864, had 
passed through the Schools at Kiungani and Mkunazini. 
2/2 baptized boys had thus been educated in the twenty- 
seven years. Five only had apostatized to Islam, which 
holds out stronger inducements to weak Christians than 
any other religion. Not one had returned to heathenism ; 



1890] TEN YEARS JN ZANZIBAR. 297 



seventeen could not be accounted for. Thirty-one, while 
resolutely refusing Islam, could hardly be called profess 
ing Christians. Two were in Holy Orders ; thirty-two 
teachers and readers ; about as many were master crafts 
men ; while the remainder (including two interpreters and 
four overseers) were porters, cultivators of land, or appren 
tices ; two were in slavery ; seventy-nine were dead. 




KIUNGAXI CHAPICL. 

About this time Archdeacon Maples, staying ArcMeacon 
at Kiungani, speaks of the wondrous change ^Sglnf 3 
wrought in one generation on the untaught July> 
African. 

" And a miracle it is ; for water was not more surely turned 
into wine at His word in Cana of old than, by the same trans- 



II f STORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1890 



forming word, new hearts and new lives have been given to scores 
of these African lads whom God has sent to us at Kiungani. It 
is almost too solemn a subject to trust oneself to speak of ; but 
the recollection of those days at Kiungani the solemn FAicharists 
so reverently offered ; the class-room, where a score of eager 
hearers, it is no exaggeration to say, really seemed to hang on the 
lips of him who discoursed to them on the Epistles of St. Paul, 
these proofs and many others, which would tell of the reality of 
the warfare these lads strive to maintain against sin, the world, 
and the devil, as well as their zeal for God and for the extension 
of His kingdom, are sufficient to show that at last our best hopes 
are being realized, and the Mission is doing just the very work 
for which it was called into existence." 

The First This year, too, saw the first Industrial Exhi- 
Ind Smon Ex "bition held at Kiungani, boys and girls both 

Apni 17. exhibiting. Coloured mats adorned the walls, 
while patchwork quilts hung like flags from the ceiling. 
At one end were the mats and fishing nets. Several 
tables were covered with needlework, including really 
good church embroider} , done at Mbweni. There were 
also specimens of printing, hardware, a silver ring, teak 
boxes, made by the boys. Prizes were given, and the 
work sold. In the evening Mrs. (now Lady) Euan Smith, 
wife of the Consul-General, came to hear and give prizes 
for the singing. 

Into the linguistic labours of Bishop Stccrc and Arch 
deacon Hodgson a worthy successor had entered Mr. 
Arthur C. Maclan, who, having worked under both, now 
began his great work of revising the Bible, so as to make 
his new edition as perfect as possible. 

The Mission received at this time the honour 

Bishop Tucker of a visit from Bishop Tucker, of Eastern 

Equatorial Africa, who, in the absence of the 



1890] TEN YEARS IN ZANZIBAR. 299 



Bishop of Zanzibar, held a Confirmation in Kiungani 
Chapel. 

Not much has been said in these pages of the D r unk ennea3 
question of drunkenness among these Eastern inAfnca - 
Africans. The African in all ages has been much the 
same ; and it is said Egyptian wall-paintings still show 
the slaves from Central Africa dancing and drinking at 
their Pombc bouts. Tembu or palm wine, the fermented 
juice of the cashew apple, and, in Uganda, plantain wine, 
have always been made, and indulged in to excess. The 
Arabs have not made things better. They arc not pub 
licly drunk, but many in Zanzibar arc addicted to secret 
drinking ; and anyway, their hold over the minds of the 
mainland tribes is not great enough to do away with 
drunkenness. 

The European trader, however, does worse Tra ffi Q in 
he increases the evil by his sale of spirits ; and 3 P ints - 
if Eastern Africa is not as depraved as Western or South 
ern Africa, it is because it has been less known. Long 
before its Protectorate, Germany led the van in this evil 
traffic. Where the British trader brought one gallon into 
Africa, the German brought twelve at least, though we 
truthfully own that of late years the Germans have done 
much to suppress the traffic. The American brought half 
as much again as the British trader ; France and Portugal 
too did their parts. But the West coast was most acces 
sible, and there the terrible traffic gained the most hold. 
Holland, too, had nearly destroyed the Hottentot races 
with gin before England set foot in the Cape Colony. 

On the East coast, though the Portuguese sell spirits 
cheaply along the sea-board, the African Lakes Trading 
Corporation steadily refused, and is at least free of the 



p,00 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1891-2 



blood of these tribes, not a glass of spirits having ever been 
sold by them to natives in the district from Ouilimane to 
Tanganyika. Two independent traders tried to sell spirits 
in this region, but one of them perished horribly as he was 
drinking with a chief, for a demijohn of spirits took fire, 
and he was enveloped in the flames ; the other quarrelled 
with the Makololo, and was slain by them. 

At present, though there are spirit factories and even 

opium factories on the coast, where wages are paid in 

spirits, yet, thanks to Messrs. Moir, Messrs. Buchanan, and 

others, it is not carried far inland in any quantity. 

Sultan s Edict J 

restraining And we are glad to record that the Sultan of 

sale of spirits 

to Natives, Zanzibar, acting through General Mathews, 

March 2. 

proclaimed that on and after March 2, 1892, all 
sale of spirituous liquors to natives should be prohibited 
within his dominions, and that all non-natives should only 
buy under special retail regulations. The time will, how 
ever, come when the natives will begin to ask why we 
forbid them what we do not always use in moderation 
ourselves. At present the Europeans in the country are 
few, and those are perforce temperate, or they die ; but 
European newspapers reach these lands, and European 
examples are quoted by Africans. 

If England has shown bad examples to these races, she 
has shown also the best and noblest, and the years 1891-92 
were saddened by the loss of some of these. 

Miss Mary Townshend, daughter of Major Townshend, 
of Wincham Mall, Cheshire, had long worked for others, 
when the loosening of all home ties in middle life set her 
free to join the staff of the U.M.C.A. in 1883. After some 
training as a nurse at Charing Cross Hospital, she went 
out, and for eight years did a quiet work in Africa, of 
which little record is kept ; 



1 89 1 -2] TEN YEARS IN ZANZIBAR. 301 



" She was in turn teacher, housekeeper, nurse, doctor, surgeon, 
spiritual guide, sacristan, secretary ; whatever the work of the hour 
might be, she would always bring into it the brightness which 
springs up in a life given to God, and the sympathy and grace 
which were learnt in her Cheshire home." 

And when she was called to " go home," there 

Death of Miss 
was peace and happiness. Like the saintly Townshend, 

Xorth Anglian chronicler of old, she asked her 
attendant to write down a memorandum of a few little 
things she wished given to one and another ; and the last 
earthly glory she noticed was a lovely sunset. The natives 
loved her, and many of her great Kiungani lads cried like 
babies as they looked their last on her earthly form. 

She was buried the same day at Ziwani, the 
Mission burying ground, which had already for 
seven years been the resting-place of the departed. There 
under the palm trees lie those who, though they may not 
be called martyrs, yet knew the martyr spirit, and are 
surely among those " meek souls " of whom it is said that 

" The rod they take so calm 
Shall prove in Heaven a martyr s palm." 

Next year Albert Beetham, a business man in 
Leeds, who literally " sold all that he had," and Beetham, 
worked as Stores Superintendent and Trea 
surer of the Mission at Zanzibar, and had planned and 
built the Hospital, passed away on May 11. 

A month later Miss Janet Emily Campbell 
was taken to rest. She had been drawn by Campbell, 
love of God and His poor (under the in 
fluence of the All Saints Sisters) to offer herself for train 
ing at University College Hospital, entering as a regular, 
though unpaid, nurse, and not as a lady pupil ; and it is 



302 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1891 



said that if ever a disagreeable piece of work had to be 
done, Nurse Emily Campbell was the one to do it. After 
some years, desiring a life of more complete self-surrender, 
she offered herself to the Universities Mission, and sailed 
for Zanzibar with the Bishop in 1890. For a year and a 
half she worked devotedly, nursing the worst cases, till 
she literally sank under her work, and on Whit-Monday 
she too was laid to rest at Ziwani, her favourite hymn, 
" Art them weary," being sung over her who had so often 
known weariness, and counted it all joy for Him Whom 
her soul loved. Without some record of such lives, history 
is like dry bones indeed. 

The history of Miss Campbell brings to mind the history 
of the beginning of our Hospital work in Zanzibar. 

The Dispensary, which had been at work since 1887, \vas 
now to be made much more useful by the building of a 
small hospital behind it. This was rendered necessary by 
the removal of the work of the German hospital to the 
mainland. 

Founding The foundation stone was laid by the Bishop 
hospifai, m May. They went in procession from the 
May 12. church to the site, and there, after the choirs had 
chanted the Psalm, " Except the Lord build the house," 
the stone was laid in the presence of the European con 
gregation. 

In about two years the hospital so long 
March 8 i2. wished for was finished, and opened on Refresh 
ment Sunday with a special service in the 
Cathedral, when many of the English sailors were present, 
with a large congregation. Bishop Smythies and Bishop 
Hornby, with all present, proceeded to the new hospital, 
where a Benediction on the wards was spoken. 



I8 9 2] 



TEN YEARS IN ZANZIBAR. 



303 



The hopes of those who worked for it have truly been 
fulfilled by the three years of work accomplished already. 

It has been nursed by volunteers from the The Guild of 
Guild of St. Barnabas, to which Miss Emily 
Campbell had belonged. This Guild unites hospital nurses 
in a rule of holy living, and the advantages of association 




THE HOSPITAL OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION, ZANZIBAR. 

were now seen, when, one having fallen in the ranks, two 
more nurses from its ranks were ready to step into her place. 
Associations in mission work were just now order of the 
exercising many hearts, which, joined to the Sac ( r fouS ion 
fact that mission work does not come by nature, * an 1891)> 
but has to be learnt, resulted in the foundation of the 



304 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1893 

" Order of the Sacred Mission " in Vassall Road, Brixton. 
This had been clone in January, 1891, mainly by the exer 
tions of Bishop Corfe, of Corea. This order aims at 
training devout young men for work in Corea, Central 
Africa, or elsewhere. Thus we may hope that the faint 
hearted will, to their own and the Mission s great advan 
tage, faint before, instead of after, proceeding to the mission 
field, and that those who do go may be skilled as well as 
" well-intentioned " men. 1 

In March, 1893, died the Sultan, AH bin Said, 

The death of 
sultan AH, who for three years had reigned over Zanzibar. 

March 5. 

One of his sons, Khalid Barghash, contrary to 
Arab custom, which does not often place the son on his 
father s throne, got in through a back door, barred the 
palace doors, and declared himself Sultan. Mr. Rodd, 
the Consul-General, however, backed up by General 
Mathews, President of the Ministry, and by bluejackets 
from the British cruisers P/tilouiel and Blanche, summoned 
him to open the doors, which order he obeyed, and was 

promptly removed to his own house, and Hamed 

The accession i , 

of Hamed bin bin Thwain, a great-nephew of the late Sultans, 
was placed on the throne. He too was friendly 
to the Mission, but this rapid succession of amiable but 
weak men has put an end to the vigour of the Zanzibar 
dynasty. 

The second During this year Bishop Smythies gathered 

zSba /, together his workers for conference in Zanzibar, 

June so. -^ ^ meeting known as the second Synod of 

Zanzibar. First came the Usambara workers, including 

Petro Limo. Then the Rovuma group, headed by the 

1 See also Appendix II. 



1893] TEN- YEARS IN ZANZIBAR. 305 

Bishop himself. A short retreat was first held, during 
which arrived Mr. Woodward, from Magila, and then, on 
June 30, the Bishop met and addressed thirteen priests 
and two deacons, several lay workers being present with 
leave to speak. In his address the Bishop spoke of cer 
tain changes he desired to make. Hitherto all working at 
Mkunazini, gentle and simple, men and women, had lived 
with a common table, etc. It was now proposed to estab 
lish a clergy-house, and to let the ladies have quarters at 
the hospital. He said also that he feared preaching had 
been rather undervalued among them, and he quoted the 
Bishop of Nassau s words : " A missionary can hardly 
preach too often if he has that to say which his neigh 
bours, dying daily, need to hear before their race is run." 
Certain Acts, which will be found in Appendix IV., were 
then passed. 

The Rev. F. R. Hodgson and Mr. A. C. Madan received 
the thanks of the Synod for their labour of love in revising 
the Swahili Old and New Testaments. 

An instance of the paternal (?) character of 
domestic slavery amoncr the Zanzibar! may be slavery m 

T ^. . Zanzibar. 

given here. A new boy came to Kiungam 
partially paralysed, as the result of being tied up by his 
owner with dried grass soaked in paraffin oil round his 
wrists, which was then set alight. The burns were horrible, 
and the power of the left hand was gone. If it be said 
that in free England cases of cruelty are frequent, we reply 
that here it is against the moral sense of the multitude, and 

o 

there it is not. If, however, real cruelty is proved in the 
Consular Court, the slave gets his freedom. 

Yet the native population needs to be aroused to 
the heinousness of such doings by the preaching of 

X 



306 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISS 70 W. [1894 



Christianity ; and all these years it seems hardly 
Mission for credible that no regular Mission was established 

Zanzibar. 

among the townspeople of Zanzibar. But 
those only who know not the inveterate hardness of the 
Mohammedan heart towards Christianity will be surprised. 
Dimly dreamt of by Bishop Tozer ; a small beginning 
actually made by Bishop Steere in that mud hut where he 
preached and disputed on Fridays ; Bishop Smythies now, 
at the close of his life, saw a clearer way towards a Mission 
centre of work in Ngambo, the suburb on the other side of 
the creek from Mkunaxini. For some time a large mango 
tree had been used by various workers as a preaching 
station, and it had been in contemplation to fix Mr. and 
Attempted at ^ rs> Mercer here; but eventually the Revs. 
Ngambo (June). c< R Tyrwhitt and W. K. Firminger took 
up the work already initiated by the preaching tours of 
Yohanna Abdallah, amid a mixed population of some 
30,000 Arabs and Swahilis. The house stood away from 

the main thoroughfare, so that inquirers could 
See vacant. . 

come quietly to hear of the Faith, like Nico- 
demus of old, for fear of the Arabs. Xo work needs more 
intense prayer from the Church at home than this among 
the Mohammedans. 

And thus again we reach the end of Bishop Smythies 
episcopate. 

Surely in these latter days we read the lesson 

figuration of of the transfiguration of human nature touched 

by the light of Faith, and Hope, and Love. The 

African has been brought to trust, where once all was 

suspicion ; hope has been given him instead of fear and 

despair ; and he has something to love instead of objects of 

hate. " Care makes wrinkles enough on our foreheads at 



1894] TEN YEARS IN ZANZIBAR. 307 



home ; what then is the impress which centuries of African 
bloodshed and insecurity are likely to have made on the 
human countenance ? The face of the old chief is a scowl 
enclosed in a network of misery lines, and the mere child 
seems to have all the cares of his tribe upon him. But 
now when we scan a group of these converts, whose social 
surroundings are not materially altered, a distinct change 
is visible. You have ironed the wrinkles out of their 
faces/ was the comment made by a looker-on." 

And is it not a glorious work to prepare thus for the 
time when from those same faces not only wrinkles, but 
even tears, shall be wiped away ? 



The succession 
of Bishops. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

TWO CHIEF PASTORS. 

Give me the Priest these graces shall possess, 

Of an Ambassador the jit st address, 

A Father s tenderness, a Shepherd s care, 

A Leader s courage which the Cross can bear, 

A Rulers aw, a Watchman s wakeful eye, 

A Pilot s skill the helm in storms to ply, 

A Fisher s patience, and a,. Labourer s toil, 

A Guide s dexterity to disembroil, 

,-/ J J rophefs inspiration from above, 

A Teacher s knowledge, and a Saviour s love. 

Bisnop KEX. 

HE succession of Bishops who have headed 
our Mission is one of the most remark 
able in Church history. 

The saintly hero who led the van, with that tender 

chivalry which has won so 
many "to follow in his train," 
is succeeded by the quiet, 
hard-working man, content 
with laying the hidden 
foundations, but bold enough 
to take the right course, re 
gardless of opposition. He 
in his turn gives place to the 
accomplished scholar and 
linguist the wise master- 
builder, the very man for re- 

BISHOP MAPLES. J 

(Photograph by Eiuott& Fry.) ducing the East Coast Ian- 




TWO CHIEF PASTORS. 309 



guage and for shaping the constitution of the Mission on 
lines of self-sacrifice and wise adaptation to native custom. 
Then just when, under his far-sighted rule, the mission field 
had widened, so that a man with unbroken bodily powers 
was needed, came the Statesman-Bishop the great tra 
veller, whose personal oversight did so much for the remote 
parts of his diocese, and who kept his head amid the rush 
of politics and the " scramble for Africa." And when his 
work was clone, with another Bishop at the extreme end 
of the territory, and the need for the longest of those jour 
neys had ceased, he too passed away. 

But if we seem to trace the purpose under- The succession 
lying this aspect of the work, what shall we say m N y asaland - 
of that which is at once the oldest and the newest part 
of the Mission field ? Towards Nyasa Mackenzie had set 
his face as a Promised Land he was never to enter ; and 
when once more a Bishop was sent to the tribes dwell 
ing around Nyasa, he did but come and see the land, and 
then he had to leave it. To him succeeded " the man 
seasoned and experienced and beautiful in character," who 
was not even to reach once more his African home before 
he too passed away, leaving his staff to other hands. To 
this what can we say but that God shows us here " a part 
of His works," and hides others ? 

It now remains to trace the personal history of Bishop 
Smythies and Bishop Maples, who have made so much 
African Church history, towards which they played such 
parts as did Archbishop Theodore, St. Wilfrid, and St. 
Felix, to the old English Church. 

Charles Alan Smythies was born at Col- C haries Alan 
Chester on the Feast of the Transfiguration, BiSf^ s, 
1844, his father being Curate of St. Mary-the- 1844< 



3 TO HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1883 



Walls. His mother, early left a widow, married again, 
and it was in the Dorsetshire home of his stepfather, the 
Rev. G. Alston, at Studland, that he was brought up, 
learning that love of natural objects which crops up all 
through his life, though he was not, strictly speaking, 
learned in natural history. But his admiration of the 
beauty of river or mountain scenery, of the loveliness of 
flowers on an African hill-top, of the gracefulness of the 
flight of wild fowl at Tintagel, attest the powers of obser 
vation trained in boyhood. Educated at Felstead and 
Milton Abbas, and afterwards at Trinity College, Cam 
bridge, he pursued his theological studies at Cuddesdon. 
But he considered that he owed most of all to the Rev. 
Father Puller, under whom he worked many years at 
vicar of Roath, Roath, till he succeeded him in the Vicarage. 

Mention his name even now to a denizen of 
Roath, and one sees the extraordinary impress he left 
there as Curate and Vicar, where he gathered a devoted band 
of workers, clerical and lay, who caught from him the fire 
of enthusiasm. He turned the iron Mission Church into 
a beautiful building dedicated in the name of St. German ; 
and it is no wonder that when, in the midst of all this life 
and work, he was offered the Central African Bishopric, 

he definitely declined it. But a year later, 

Accepts the , ... 

central African when implored to take the still vacant see, 

Bishopric. ___. . ., , ,. 

recognising the Divine call, he was not dis 
obedient to it, much as it cost him to leave a parish to 
which he ever looked tenderly back. He took his life in 
his hands, saying it was much better to live nobly than to 
live long. 

consecrated His Consecration in St. Paul s Cathedral has 
NOV. so, 1883. been toldi Canon King, in his sermon, re- 



1883] TWO CHIEF PASTORS. 31! 



minded him that he owed his Orders to the great Bishop 
Wilberforce, and prayed 

"that the Spirit which moved his heart, and the heart of his 
great father before him, to burst the bonds of slavery, . . . 
may also guide and empower you to set them free from the still 
more terrible slavery of sin. . . . What does not European 
Christianity owe to Africa ! Who can tell the fulness of the 
harvest reaped in Europe which St. Augustine sowed in Hippo? 
. As we in England, after a thousand years and more, 
have been supported in the Faith by the lives and writings of 
another people, sons of Africa, so the same truth brought back 
by you to Africa now may (through a native Church, a thousand 
years to come) hand on the Faith to other nations beside their 
own." 

When Bishop Smythies reached Zanzibar, one The Rev . 
of the foremost men in the Mission was the Mapfes^m 
Rev. Chauncy Maples, then at Newala. He Fe *-> 1852 >- 
was a younger man than the Bishop, being born in Feb 
ruary, 1852, at Bound s Green, Middlesex. His mother 
had been a Miss Chauncy, and to her influence he said 
he owed all that was best in him. She, in her turn, had 
owed much to Mr. Bennett, of Frome (when at Portman 
Chapel). Educated under the Rev. Canon Huntingford, 
and then at Charterhouse, Mr. Maples passed to University 
College, Oxford, where he formed friendships that lasted 
his life. Oxford was very close to his heart, as may be 
seen from his charming little paper, " In Two Islands," 1 
with its description of the " wide fields of breezy grass 
through which the Cherwell wanders." 

While at Oxford, he heard Bishop Stcere s 
touching appeal for men, to which he and his 



Central Africa, August, 1887. 



312 1//STOKY Or THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1891 

friend, William Percival Johnson, responded. From twelve 
years old he had desired foreign mission work, and now the 
call had come. First came a period of work in Liverpool, 
and then Chauncy Maples was ordained deacon at Cuddes- 

clon, and served as Curate to St. Mary Magdalene 
Zanzibar, and St. George, Oxford, till he and his friend 

went to Zanzibar, within a few months of each 
other, and Bishop Steere ordained Mr. Maples priest and 
Mr. Johnson deacon on Michaelmas Day. Thus, when 
Bishop Smythies came to Zanzibar, these young men had 
already worked eight years in Africa. 

Turn we now to Bishop Smythies own work, 

smythies P much of which has been told. First, be it re- 
found. 

membered that when he arrived he found, be 
sides the Zanzibar work, on the mainland the stations of 
Magila, Umba, and Mktizi, in the Usambara country ; in 
the Rovuma district, Newala, with small stations at Lincli 
and Mtua; Masasi bein<j well-ni^h abandoned. One soli- 

o o 

tary missionary peregrinated round Xyasa, where no per 
manent station or mission steamer existed. The European 
staff for the whole mission numbered thirty-four, aided by 
a dozen natives. 

Four years I" four years time Bishop Smythies came 
ter> home for the Lambeth Conference, having nearly 
doubled his staff of workers and planted a settled mission 
on Nyasa, having visited his whole diocese thrice, and parts 
of it five times. It is said that even Livingstone had never 
in any four years of his life covered more ground. 

LOSS of Before another four years he began to show 

strength. ^^ of wear and tear. Writing from Likoma 

in August, 1891, he says he does not know how he got 

there, with a bad sore on his leg, and only porters and a 



1892] TWO CHIEF PASTORS. 313 

donkey with him. " A year or two ago I should have 
thought nothing of it ; now all the strength seems to have 
gone out of me." And this is the utmost plaint ever 
heard from a man who peculiarly needed little attentions, 
being not over skilful at managing for himself, and who, 
moreover, dearly loved companionship ; yet he had come 
450 miles in pain and discomfort, riding and walking in 
cessantly, to do his duty to one part of his diocese. 

This journey left its marks on him, and when 

The 
he came to England next year, all were shocked Anniversary, 

June 2. 

at his altered looks. When he appeared on the 
platform at the anniversary meeting, supported by Bishop 
Selwyn, on a crutch, " It was," as the latter humorously 
remarked, " not a case of the blind leading the blind, 
but of the lame supporting the lame." There was one 
moment of breathless silence, as people took in the havoc 
overwork had wrought in that strong frame, and then a 
tremendous burst of cheering, which was renewed when 
the chairman (the Bishop of St. Albans), pointing to the 
two Bishops, said : 

"You see there a soldier who has come home from a great 
campaign, bearing the marks of that campaign in his face. . . . 
I may venture to apply to Bishop Smythies and Bishop Selwyn 
some of the words which St. Paul uses of himself, . . . bearing 
in his body the marks (or brands) of the Lord Jesus. May we 
not say that they bear these marks in our eyes very honourable 
marks ? " 

On this occasion Dr. Laws, of the Scotch Dr Laws , 
Mission, who had so often doctored the mem- s P eecn - 
bers of our Mission, was present. He spoke of the un- 
healthiness of the land where their lot was cast, but added 
that Christ s command was clear, " Go ye into all the 



314 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1892 

world," and that none had a right to add, " provided you 
can live comfortably." But he added that, if they wished 
for a heavy death-roll, they would send out few men and 
women ; nothing more than overworking mission agents 
filled the graves in Africa. He had often nursed the mem 
bers of the Universities Mission as they went down into 
the Valley of the Shadow of Death, and had never heard 
a murmur, but rather thankfulness. Strongly he spoke, 
too, against demanding statistics of progress. The Gospel 
of Christ had been a leaven altering the whole face of the 
country ; and they had no right to say, " Here is the 
money ; where are the baptisms ? " Was there any New 
Testament authority for providing converts at 2 los. a 
head ? 

It was the enthusiasm roused at this meeting which laid 
the foundation of the Nyasaland Bishopric ; and the Bishop 
travelled up and down the length and breadth of England, 
till, in six months, the ,11,000 needed for the endowment 
was collected, 

In the Folkestone Church Congress he made 

Congress at 

Folkestone, the speech of an expert on the methods of 

(Got.) . r l 

mission work, 1 giving one telling anecdote 
against missionaries degenerating into large landholders. 
Being in Usambara, Bishop Smythies was asked to visit a 
chief who threatened that country. 

" I went to the fort in which he was . . . Among the questions 
that the chief asked me was how much land we had acquired in 
that country, and what possessions we had there. And I was 
glad to be able to answer him : * We have one little shamba, 
which was granted to us by your grandfather, Kimweri, who was 
the former king of the country." 

1 See Appendix II. 



1892] TWO CHIEF PASTORS. 315 



Speaking of the danger of the missionary becoming a 
chief and assuming rule over his flock, he said : 

"Every missionary has clearly to discern between the two 
powers which God has placed in the world that which we call 
the power of the keys, and the power of the sword." 

If Bishop Smythies refused to wield the sword of justice 
and the sword of warfare, it was not for lack of ability ; 
and through all the troubles between Germans and natives, 
when a very little would have set the Germans against the 
English missionaries, whom they found exercising a great 
if purely spiritual power in their Protectorate, his tact 
prevented a collision, while his grasp of the situation 
caused his advice to be sought on all sides. He acted on 
the principle that " Missionaries of the Catholic Church, 
whatever other persons might do, when they had once 
settled in a country and gained the love of its people, 
Would never abandon it." 

We find Archbishop Benson, in 1890, speaking at the 
S.P.G. annual meeting thus : 

" We sometimes wish we could have but one minute s glimpse 
of the men who were the makers of England and the makers of 
Europe. ... It impresses me that Bishop Smythies has a 
part in the history of his own times. It will impress posterity 
more when they look back upon the unsupported Englishman 
who told the statesmen of his time that move he The Bishop as 
would not. It was easy to make himself and his astatesman - 
missionaries safe, but what should he do to the sheep that he had 
brought out of the wilderness ? " 

Next we find the Bishop interviewed by a representative 
of the Pall Mail Gazette as to his views of the European 
international relations in Africa ; and then, as ever, he 



[i 892 

spoke warmly of the kindness of the Germans to the 
missionaries. 
interview at Lastly, we hear of him at Berlin, holding a 



P rivatc conference with the Chancellor of the 
Oct. 27. German Empire, who was most anxious to 
discover to what party he belonged, and was quite satisfied 
on hearing he belonged " to that large organization which 
we call the Church of England." In no sense did the 
Bishop ask for protection. Lord Salisbury had secured 
that for all citizens of the British Empire. At a reception 
in the evening he was presented to the Emperor and 
Empress, to the King of the Belgians, and Duke of Con- 
naught. The Emperor said to him : " The Mohammedan 
religion is a very simple one, and takes great hold on those 
who profess it. Surely, in the face of it, there is great 
necessity for Christian missionaries to act unitedly." The 
same idea was expressed by the Bishop in his farewell 
sermon, when he said that if we persist in regarding, e.g., a 
Roman Catholic missionary as just the same as a heathen, 
it is impossible to avoid feuds in the face of the heathen ; 
but if we consider that the truth we mutually hold is far 
more important than the fringe of differences which 
separate us, all difficulty would vanish. 

This seems the right place to remark that by the final 
adjustment of " Spheres of Influence " the Universities 
Mission stations are all left in the German Protectorate, 
except those on the island of Zanzibar, the islands of 
Likoma and Chisumulu, and Kota-Kota, and the stations 
at the southern end of Nyasa, which are British ; and 
Chitesi s, and most of our East Nyasa Stations and 
Unangu, which are Portuguese. 

Of the work of the next year and a half we have 



1 894] TIVO CHIEF PASTORS. 317 



spoken before, and now the great Bishop was to be taken 
away from the work to which he seemed so necessary. 
Returning from that last Easter at Manila, the 

In Zanzibar. 

Bishop tried, as usual, to work hard at classes, 
addresses, and Swahili revisions ; but weariness became 
invincible. He had to give up taking a retreat and a quiet 
day, but on Sunday, April 8, he celebrated at Kiungani, 
and preached there and at the Cathedral English Kven- 
song. 

Two days later he delivered his latest address. 

Last days, 

It was to the Nurses Guild. On the I4th he 
broke down with fever, and the next day was carried into 
Mkunazini Hospital, where Miss Breay and her nurses had 
the privilege of ministering to him for three weeks, through 
clays of utter weariness and nights of sleeplessness. Grate 
ful and courteous for every little attention, he had a great 
fear of being impatient ; but the utmost he said was, "If 
only God of His great mercy will grant me some rest." 
His nurses believed that he never failed to say his daily 
Office. But he grew worse rather than better, and it 
was arranged that he should start on May 4, by the 
Erench mail, accompanied by the Rev. Duncan Travers 
and Nurse Brewerton. 

lust before starting, he sent for two of his 

V i -* r i Farewells. 

Kiungam boys, Daudi Machina and Yohanna 
Abdallah, to say farewell. The former describes the scene : 

" The last words that he said were, I am going to England to 
get well, but I hope God will grant me to return quickly ; and 
when he had finished these words we knelt down, and he laid his 
hands upon us for the last time, and blessed us, and said, God 
bless you, my children, in all your work ; and we thanked him ; 
and when he had finished, I closed the door, and we went hack to 



3i8 iirsroRY or THE 



v MISSION. [1894 




I ,*Bj; 

L-... .",.-;.:> 



NURSE BRKWKRTOX, WITH HOSPITAL SKRVAXTS. 

Four of whom were liberated in one day on the ground of abandonment 
when ill by owners. 



Kiungani. This was the last time that I saw him on earth, but 
that blessing that he left us, and those last words of his, I can 



1 894] TWO CHIEF PASTORS. 319 

never forget all my life, for they were as a very great gift beyond 
all price." 

Both these young men are now deacons. 

The Bishop was carried down to the French packet, and 
felt exhausted by the farewells on board, but none thought 
the end was near. On Sunday, the 6th, the little English 
party said matins and evensong together, the Bishop being 
just able to give the absolution his last earthly ministry. 
They moved him to a deck cabin for more air, but that 
night the watchers gave up hope, and at 6.30 in 

Death of the 

the mornincr Mr. 1 ravers made ready for the Bishop, 

May 7. 

last Communion. The Bishop was half uncon 
scious, but at the words, "Bishop, the Blessed Sacrament," 
he looked up with a sweet smile. Three hours later his 
spirit passed to that rest for which he had so earnestly 
prayed. 

The same evening his body was committed to Funeral 

at Sea 
the deep, Mr. Travers reading the English Burial 

Office. The French sailors who bore him to the stern had 
placed a Union Jack over him. 

It was a lovely evening, and the ship was held on and off 
on a calm sea. The sun had just set, and the new moon 
hung in the west, setting slowly ; and at the words, " we 
therefore commit his body to the deep, to be turned into 
corruption, looking for the resurrection of the body, when 
the sea shall give up her dead," the sailors lowered their 
burden into that greatest and purest of all cemeteries, 
where he rests somewhere among the coral rocks of the 
Indian Ocean ; holier to us for the sacred charge it has 
received, as the martyred Patteson hallows the waters of 
the Pacific. The spot was half-way between Zanzibar and 
Aden, 500 miles south of Guardafui, 



320 7/7.9 TO RY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1894 



The character of such a man should only 
Bishop be sketched by those who knew and watched 
him, and what follows is in the words of such 
watchers. 

"I set first that which first impressed all who saw him the 
quiet, unassuming nobleness of the Bishop s presence. His voice 
fulfilled the promise of his presence. It took the ear at once, 
and held it by its delicate quality of genial friendliness, its frank 
ness, its fulness, which seemed to envelop you as a pleasant air." 

"The mere thought of him still more the sight was an in 
spiration. Whenever I picture his grand personality, the word 
apostolic always comes to my mind." 

"It is rumoured that his strength of character, and undeviating, 
uncompromising singleness of purpose, made itself felt at times in 
some severity to those who worked under him." 

" And he used to tell us our faults too, straight, and it didn t 
hurt us from him." 

" He quite won my heart, when he first came out, by his fatherly 
kindness, his unvarying courtesy, his simplicity, and utter absence 
of self-importance, though he was every inch a Bishop." 

" A man of God and a man of men, one has well said 
of him." 

Bishop Maples Turning now to Chauncy Maples, we notice 
earlier work. ^ rst j^s g reat powers of heart and intellect. 

He could not write a description of a mission station in an 
ordinary way. In his hand it becomes a polished essay, 
full of brightness, with allusions to all manner of in 
terests. 

Wherever he was, he easily learnt the language, and his 
linguistic work in Makua, Yao, and Chinyanja is very 
valuable. While at Masasi we have graphic descriptions 
of the village and notes on Makua customs. His series 
of " Newala Papers " would make a graceful book. With 



7 WO CHIEF PASTOKS. 



321 



the religious 
a view as 
boundless- 



something more than a superficial acquaintance, he 
sketches the flora, animals, and birds of Newala ; the 
school, the village schoolmaster, " Our Christian village," 
the villagers, and " Witchcraft in Xewala." All these are 
painted with the practised manner of one who might have 
have made literature his vocation. 

Here is a delicious bit on the view from his Xewala 
home. 

Those who have found by a glad experience what wealth to 

feeling is brought by such 
this, in which the idea of 
ness is pre-eminently that 
calls up in the mind and 
the imagination, 
will realize what 
a n i m m e n s e 
gain and what a 
real possession 
we have thus 
secured in set 
tling on the Ne 
wala hills. Certainly we, whose lot it is to live almost alone 
. . . are not unmindful that this lasting joy is given by God 
Himself, to be to us an especial boon and solace." 

His method of directing others was to work with tJicm. 
Thus when superintending printing, building, or cookery 
he would lend a hand and do the work with skill. 

He was well read in theology, and had a great aptitude 
for natural science and for music. 

Canon Scott Holland, speaking after his death, de 
scribed Chauncy Maples at Oxford as one of those delight 
ful young fellows, who may remain much the same to the 
end ; but accepted responsibility, and grace responded to, 

Y 




322 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1886-94 



made him what he was. He said he remembered driving 
with Bishop Maples father to a meeting of the Royal 
Geographical Society, where the son was to read a paper. 

"I remember his father, with all the candour of a father, 
expressing his surprise at all the powers that were coming out in 
his son, at which the world was astonished. We never thought 
there was this in Chauncy, he said." 

He had worked at Likoma in conjunction with Mr. John 
son ever since 1886, with the title of Archdeacon ; and 
when, soon after Bishop Smythies death, Bishop Hornby 









JJL iLUING AT LIKOMA. 

was compelled to resign, the two dioceses were vacant to 
gether. But Bishop Hornby had brought back word who 
must be bishop on Lake Nyasa. 

" There was only one man in all the earth of whom it could 
be said to be right that he should be put as Bishop and lord 
over that heroic friend of his, Johnson, and that man was 
Chauncy Maples." 



Offered the 



tnc ^ cr > at oncc ma( Jc to him by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, would have been 
(Aug.) declined, had not his lifelong friend, Mr. John 
son, persuaded him to take advice before deciding, and 



1886-94] 



TWO CHIEF PASTORS. 



323 



he arrived iti England in the spring of 1895 The first 
and in the April number of Central Africa, it L ik?maSecond 
was announced that he had accepted the office, of Nyasaiand). 
with the title Bishop of Likoma. 







B1S1101 IIOKMiY AND ARCHDEACON MAPLKS AT LIKOMA. 



At the anniversary he preached on Philippians iii. 13, 
14, and it is curious to notice how " pressing towards the 
mark " pressing forward seemed the dominant idea of 
his life. 

Bishop Maples received consecration on St, consecration 
Peter s Day a memorable occasion, for with ^zlnznT 
him were consecrated Canon Awdry as Suffra- an j U ne k 29? a 



324 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1895 



gan Bishop of Southampton ; the Rev. William Moore 
Richardson fur Zanzibar ; Bishop Dart for New West 
minster ; and Bishop Anderson for Riverina. As a few 
months later Bishop Awclry exchanged into the new 
diocese of Osaka, Japan, all five were ultimately mission 
ary Bishops. This last great function of Bishop Maples 
life was a grand and soul-stirring one, from the moment 
when to the soft, exquisite singing of St. Paul s Cathedral 
choir, that stately procession moved up the nave, with the 
cross of Canterbury and the staff of London gleaming 
over all. 

The sermon by the Rev. Canon Jacob, so soon to be 
come Bishop of Newcastle, was grandly suggestive on the 
words, " Heir of all things." 

" And to-day the Universities Mission to Central Africa pre 
sents for consecration, as the heirs of the saintly, statesmanlike 
Charles Alan Smythies, of that great linguist, philosopher, and 
missionary, Edward Steere, and of that true-hearted, faithful, 
pioneer servant of God, Mackenzie, whose bones lie near the 
Zambesi river, not one Bishop but two, to develop a work which 
has now enlisted the services of 82 Europeans and 109 African 
workers. Heirs, my brethren, of such men as these, you will 
yet remember that you represent the Heir of all things. To one 
of you the difficulties and blessings are known, and you bring to 
Likoma and Nyasaland the experience of a trained missionary." 

Among those who assisted the Archbishop in the laying 
on of hands were the Bishop of St. Alban s (Chairman of 
the Universities Mission), with the Bishops of London, 
Peterborough, Guildford, Southwark, Stepney, Thetford, 
and Bishop Hornby. Before the Central African Bishops 
left the Cathedral they bestowed their benediction on a 
little. band of workers who presented themselves for it. 



TH 7 CHIEF PASTORS, 



325 



The farewell to England did not tarry. It Farewe iiser- 
was spoken at St. John s, Red Lion Square, ^.Juiyn. 
when Bishop Maples asked his friends to pray that ho 
might have the gift of patience, adding simply that irrita 
bility was a great snare to dwellers in Africa. 

And so he started on his last journey, intend- The last 
ing to go overland by the Rovuma route. At J urne y- 
Zanzibar he picked up Mr. Joseph Williams, and, being 




LOATS ON THE KiVKK blllKK. 

unable to get porters on account of native quarrels, he 
decided to go via the Zambesi, thus retracing the steps of 
the first Bishop, though entering it by the Chindc mouth. 
Here, curbing his intense desire to " press forward," he 
tarried several days, some fifteen or sixteen English resi 
dents wishing for services. 

There he spent the 9th Sunday after Trinity, 

. , c ^ r T- i- i Sunday at 

receiving a memorial from the lew Englishmen, 

. . 
promising to do all in their power to support a 



Aug. 11. 



326 HISTORY OP THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1895 

clergyman, if he would send them one, which he promised 
to do at the first opportunity, so as to minister not only to 
them, but to the crews of gunboats cruising in those waters, 
and to travellers passing backwards and fonvards on the 
river route. 

The river journey to Chiromo, at the junction of the 

Shire and Ruo was trying, and here the Bishop preferred 

to walk to Blantyre, the Scotch Mission Station, through 

the fine coffee plantations. Here he spent three 

Biantyre, days, including Sunday, when he celebrated 
early, in the house of the " African Lakes Cor 
poration." And afterwards, at the request of Mr. Hethcr- 
wick, the Scotch minister, he took morning service in his 
church. Conversation turning on the deaths of some 
Anglo-Africans, the Bishop said to his companion, " Well, 
Williams, we have been in Africa nearly twenty years ; we 
cannot expect to live very much longer out here." 

Thence he went on to Mount Zomba to see the Com 
missioner, with whom he had a long talk, and here he 
heard much about Kota Kota, a new station he had started 
on the lakes western bank, where he meant to go at once. 
On the 28th he again embarked on board the 

johnstone, Livingstone at Matope, and by September I had 
reached Fort Johnston, just where the Shire 
leaves Nyasa. Here he received letters saying how every 
body was waiting to have his advice before progressing 
with their work, and most anxious he felt to be once more 
among his flock, deeming it fortunate that these letters 
came by the Sherriff, the little steel Mission sailing boat. 

"We arrived here at 4.30 p.m., and by an extraordinary piece 
of good luck, only four hours afterwards, in came the Sherrijf 
from Likoma, with letters dated thence on August 26th. The 



1895] 



TWO CPIIEF PASTORS. 



327 



boat has made a good passage, and now we shall be able to start 
away to-morrow evening ; and I daresay I shall be at Kota Kota 
in four or five days time, and thence on to Likoma by about the 
icth or 1 2th of the month." 




SAILING BOAT. 



So he signed his death warrant ! 

On Monday he embarked in the Sherriff, 

J 

with his packages, including the sacred vessels 
which had been so useful on the journey. The 



Sails in 



Sept. 2. 



328 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1895 



English gunboats were lying in the bay, and they saluted 
each other the SJierriff sailing to Nkopi, where she took 
The storm on in foocl - After supper the Bishop said prayers, 
the Lake. an( j hcn a storm began to blow so severely 
that, after passing Monkey Bay, Ibrahim, native skipper of 
the SJierriff, said they must run for shelter to the cast 
coast. But Kota Kota was on the west, and the Bishop 
said, "Go on." lie thought of Mr. Sim wanting him there, 
and others waiting at Likoma. 1 1.30 passed Mr. Williams 
was asleep in a grass hut in the stern sheets ; the Bishop, 
in his black cassock, was still up, and directing the sailors 
to look out for rocks. The mainsail was reefed, and they 
were sailing under the fore and mizzen. Suddenly the 
little boat "broached to," and, the waves rushing over 
her, all were in the water. " Where is the Bishop ? " 
called out the boys. Then Ibrahim and Isaiah, faithful 
to the last, pushed two boxes together, and put him on, 
pushing him as they swam. lie was a good swimmer, 
but his cassock hindered him. At last a great wave 
coming over them, and the boxes beginning to fill, he 
said quietly to the " boys," u You must not die for me ; if 
you are spared, tell Mr. Johnson that I am dead." Just 
that ! in the supreme moment, Christ-like, 
Bishop Maples, there is a thought for his fellow-sufferers, and 
a message to the faithful friend and fellow- 
worker. " Then the water choked him, and he sank," 
said Ibrahim, who waited near the spot a long time, but 
saw him no more. In two hours the natives managed 
to reach an island four miles off. It was some days before 
they reached Rifu a fort manned by Sikhs and made 
their report to Commissioner Johnston. He sent them 
on to Kota Kota, where rumours of the terrible tidings of 



18951 



7 WO CHIEF PAS70KS. 



329 



two white men drowned in the lake had reached Mr. Sim. 
He significantly wrote, " The Bishop and Mr. Williams 
are coming overland" hoping against hope that it was not 
these two. But on the I3th Ibrahim and the crew reached 
Kota Kota, and reported to Mr. Commissioner Swann, who 
mourned as for a brother, and sent to tell Mr. Sim, and 
helped him to send out search parties, with the TheBishop > s 
result that one under William Kanyopolca found 




(From a Photograph by Mr. R. ]l~c <l>, 1896.) 

the Bishop s body on the rocks in Leopard s Bay, near 
where he sank. It was known by a bit of the cassock still 
on it, but, after a fortnight in the water, the face was un 
recognisable. 

A white flag with a red cross was laid over their precious 
burden, and so they reached Kota Kota on St. Matthew s 
Day. It was absolutely impossible to send the 

r . The Funeral 

body any further, so it was at once buried on at Kota Kota, 
the spot where the chancel for a future church 



33 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1895 

\yas marked out. This grave became, as Mr. Sim said, a 
guarantee for the permanency of Kota Kota as a station. 
So passed away almost the senior clerical member of the 
Mission, and with him the senior layman. 
Joseph A Joseph Williams had been drawn to the 
wniiams. ]\/[j ss j on j^y t ] ie influence of Bishop Maples, when 
at Liverpool. They made their first voyage to Africa 
together, and together they went on their last journey, 
having worked a good deal in the same stations. He was 
not a great reader, yet he spoke three native languages. 

" How effective, too, was that slave stick, well known for some 
months to the porters and station-master of our neighbouring 
station (it has been said that he once lectured on it on York plat 
form, while waiting for a train), or that bit of bark cloth, or the 
chief s dress, which he showed you so often how to fasten 
without buttons or pins, or the printed Swahili Prayer-book ! 
How real everything seemed to us as he showed them, and talked 
of them ! " 

It is interesting to know that the box of sacrecl vessels 
was brought ashore, uninjured, by one of the crew. 

In speaking of the great powers of mind of 
Maples Bishop Maples, something has been said of his 

Character. . 

character. \ et we must add the testimony of 
Mr. Vaughan-Kirby, the lion-hunter. 

" I am proud to think that I can claim more than a mere passing 
acquaintance with one whose name is, and ever will be, associated 
with so much noble work in that Dark Continent. A genial, 
kindly-hearted, Christian gentleman, broad, liberal-minded to a 
degree, and of steadfast purpose, he was the very beau ideal of a 
missionary. I shall not readily forget his earnest, simple, straight 
forward address at Chinde as he was on his way home for conse 
cration." 



1895] TIJ r O CHIEF PASTORS. 33! 



Another who knew him well says : 

"The central point around which all other gifts and graces 
revolved was zeal for God. This zeal, in the early days of his 
life, may have, on occasion, outrun discretion. But as his 
experience increased, it shone with a steady light, which assuredly 
was also a beacon to his fellow-workers. . . . To the earnest 
ness and eagerness of his nature, impatience would .naturally be 
allied. But this fault must, to a great extent, have been con 
quered. We arc told he would sit for hours on the ground, 
cross-legged like a native chief, listening to a difficult case, before 
he finally delivered his opinion. Thoroughness was another 
strong point with him. He could not bear scamped work ; he 
gave his best, and he expected others to do the same." 

But even before the fatal upset of the SJicrriff, another of 
the Likoma party had entered into rest. George William 
Atlay was son of Bishop Atlay of Hereford. Rev George 
Educated at Marlborough and St. John s Col- wuiikm Atiay. 
legc, Cambridge, he decided, in his final year at the 
University, on joining the Central African Mission, feeling 
specially drawn to Nyasalancl, by its Archdeacon, who 
preached the sermon when he was ordained at Hereford ; 
his father rejoicing much at this offering of his son. 

He went out in 1891 with the Archdeacon, and worked 
at Likoma, where his labours were much blessed ; and at 
Easter, icS95, he baptized twenty-five men and thirty-four 
women, his communicants numbering more than one hun 
dred. 

On St. Bartholomew s Eve the school broke up as usual 
for a week s holiday, and Mr. Atlay, with an Englishman s 
love of sport, much needing a rest and change, went 
out with some of his boys to hunt on the mainland. On 
his way to the boat he met Miss Palmer, and said good- 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



1895 



bye, drawing her attention to his little white kitten, which 
he was taking with him in his coat pocket. 

And so he went out, as Mr. Johnson said, " to hunt rest, 

and please God, he found it." For the Angoni were on 

the warpath. The Angoni are part of the same 

thtwar- n nation as the Magwangwara, and dwell on both 

sides of the lake. At this time they were under 




three chiefs : (i) Songela s men, who had nothing to do 
with this war ; (2) Mlamilo s, this chief is friendly, and 
claims suzerainty over our lakeside stations on the east of 
Nyasa ; (3) those under Zinchaya, who had a standing 
grudge against all Europeans, for the strong anti-slave trade 



1895] TWO CHIEF PASTORS. 333 

measures of both English and Germans. It was these last 
who were on the war-path on the Eastern shores, just where 
Mr. Atlay had settled his little camp. He and two boys, 
Wilfrid and Edward, were taking a siesta after lunch on 
the 26th, in the grass hut, when a party of Angoni rushed 
past, scattering the boys, who all fled except James Kempe- 
kete, who awoke the sleepers, and only fled on being 
attacked with a club. Wil 
frid and Edward were at 
once seized, but they 

watched the end, and as, ^ 

owing to Mlamilo s influ 
ence, they afterwards re 
turned free, we know what 
followed. 

On being awakened, Mr. 
Atlay arose, and faced the 
Angoni, holding in his hand 
his Winchester repeating 
rifle, loaded in all. ten 
chambers. There stood the 
savages, brandishing their 
clubs. In his hand were 
ample means of defence, 

and in one instant he .knew " some one had blundered." 
They were mistaking him for a political agent, and 
taunting him with having taken away their power in 
the Lake villages. It seems doubtful if he could speak 
their language, but in that one instant he made up his 
mind he would not save his life at the price of shooting 
down his murderers. " As a sheep before her shearers," he 
seems to have said nothing, while they pushed him about 




334 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1895 



and hit him in the side with a club. That it was not the 

dazed patience of a stunned man we know, for the boys 

saw him cover his face in prayer, and heard him 

Death of 

Mr.Atiay, say " Amen. By this time he had staggered 
down to the brook amid the palm trees, and 
there they speared him, holding him under water with a 
pointed bamboo. 

Here a few days later Mr. Johnson found all that was 

left of his brother, and beside him the loaded gun, the 

silent witness of the voluntary sacrifice when the good 

shepherd laid down his life for the sheep he could not save. 

Mr Atiay s The body was taken to Likoma, and laid in the 

Funeral. c hurch while a grave was dug. At midnight 
all was ready, and Mr. Johnson committed his body to the 
grave by the light of a very brilliant and nearly full moon, 
little thinking that his friend and Bishop lay unburied 
beneath the waves in Leopard Bay. 

An outburst of sympathy with the Mission in these 
sorrowful losses was poured forth from all quarters, from 
the Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop of Salisbury 
downwards. The former wrote : 



Archbishop 
Benson on 



" It seems almost incredible that Bishop Maples 
should have been taken away by our Lord from his 
th Losses. Sa hopeful, healthful work, and just sent out into the 

middle of the Lake to consecrate it by his death. 
"But in that XalXa^ di/e /x-ou, which /careo-K^ei/, I suppose, on 
to the Lake, as of old, I have no doubt that He was walking on 
the water, and said, It is I, be not afraid, to His disciple. 

"These sharp-shootings into the midst of our woik are most 
hard to understand, as it is for Him alone ; but still we should 
not have the treasure in earthen vessels if they were not sure to 
break from time to time. 

" I knew the Bishop of Hereford so intimately and affection- 



1895] TWO CHIEF PASTORS. 335 

ately from the time when I was at Cambridge, much his junior, 
and he was so thankful and happy in his son George s ordination 
to the work, that I feel the boy s martyrdom and speedy following 
of his father into the atwi/ 6 /xe AAoui/ to be almost close at one s 
side. 

" We may say Alas ! for our work ! But it is impossible to 
say Alas ! for Christ s work. " 



CHAPTER XVII. 

A PARTING VIEW OF TIIK MISSION. 



TIIK year 1894 stirred many hearts in the Mission 
cause, when Archbishop Benson summoned a con- 
The confer- ^ crcnce on Missions. It lasted five days. Man) 
Missions -subjects were discussed ; but to the Univer- 
May29. s jties Mission the most interesting paper was 
that in which the Rev. H. W. Woodward maintained 
boldly that a common life of sacrifice is more fitted for the 
Church s soldiers in their pioneer warfare, where " no man 
that warreth entangleth himself with the affairs of this 
life," than the family life of consecration, which might 
suit better the more settled fields of pastoral labour. He 
ended by urging strongly such training for the work as 
was just becoming possible through the Society of the 
Sacred Mission. 

This Order has now sent out seven lay workers to the 
area of the Universities Mission, all excellently trained. 

Industrial work ainonjjf irirls has already been 

The 

industrial mentioned, and it now remains to tell of Mr. 

Herbert Lister s gallant attempt at systematic 

training for the boys. From the very beginning at Mago- 

mero, it was always intended that this should take a high 

336 



1894] 



A PARTING IVEir OF THE MISSION. 



33; 



place among the Mission work. Yet in 1893 the result was 
not satisfactory. The efforts were wanting in continuity ; 
and carpenter s work for use up country (even in our 
Mission buildings) was actually being imported ready made 
from India. 




KEY. A. (J. B. GLOSSOP AND NYASA ]:OYS AT KIUNGAM. 

The want of success was partly owing to the For merwant 
nature of African boys, who have much less ofsuccess - 
staying power than English ones, and who are not good 
at originating. But until now industrial work had been 
a sort of punishment for unruly boys. The ideal steadily 
held before a boy at Kiungani was to be a teacher, or 
even a priest This was the primary object of the College s 

z 



33$ HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1894 



existence, and the most pressing need for Africa. But 
when the boys who were too stupid or too naughty to be 
teachers were sent to do industrial work, naturally the 
industrial training had not a fair chance. 

Gradually Kiungani has assumed the position of a 
training and theological college, the boys have ceased 
to be chiefly freed slaves (indeed, lately no more such boys 
have been taken), but are mostly picked boys from up- 
country schools. Magila, out of its six hundred boys, 
perhaps sends forty to Kiungani, Ncwala twenty, and 
Nyasa sixteen. These picked boys are most likely to 
become teachers. 

But there still remain the children of the freed married 
slaves at Mbweni, and of the Christian families in Zanzibar, 
and such of Miss Mills little boys as will not be likely to 
make teachers. 

Apprentice- These had for some time been apprenticed to 
ships. tradesmen (fundis) in the town for three years, 
at a premium of twenty rupees ; but the fundis, having 
received the money, taught the boys little. However, 
that has now been changed. First Mr. Bishop, and then 
Mr. Lister, early in 1893, took the boys in hand, living with 
them in a house under the wing of Mkunazini, entering 
into their joys and sorrows, and sending them out by da} 7 
to their trades, under Hindi, Banyan, and Swahili masters ; 
and so much are they sought after that, far from paying 
a premium, they are allowed to serve one year with 
out wages, another for one-third of a man s wages, and 
the third year two-thirds ; and thus earn their wedding 
outfits, and a little for tools. There are now seventy of 
these boys, learning to be blacksmiths, tinsmiths, silver 
smiths, masons, carpenters, cooks, washermen, brass- 



1894] A PARTING riE IV OF 7 IIR MISSION. 339 

workers, bookbinders, and clock and watch cleaners. If a 
boy has to make a silver ornament, you give him its weight 
in rupees, and he manufactures it. One of these boys 
made a serviceable and pretty cross and chain for a lady, 
of the alloyed silver of the coinage. Besides those in the 
city, a few boys are doing well in the English Navy. 

They are encouraged to govern themselves, and make 
their own rules with the consent of the European in 
charge. 

If the primary need of Africa is a native priesthood, the 
next must be the building up of a model laity men able 
to take their place in life, as devout children of the Church. 
It is all the more necessary for these to set an example of 
Christian family life, as even in the case of a married 
European, his children could not be brought up in Africa 
or they must be shut in from heathen surroundings. 

This work, therefore, is one of great hope for the future, 
needing only for its growth a firm and loving director. 
Some of these boys serve in the cathedral choir and some 
at the altar, and the greatest possible punishment is to 
take a boy out of the choir. 

The old laundry at Kiungani is now removed 
into the town, the staff increased, and more ie an? ry 

. i i j_ ^ -ri i ,1 printing press 

outside washing taken. Iney even wash the removed to 

, ,, rr r <(. i Mkunazini. 

nurses collars and cuffs, and no fault can be 

found with them. The printing establishment has followed 

the laundry into town, where it will be still more useful. 

In due time marriages are arranged for these boys 
with Miss Thackeray s girls. 

"In former days, when an Industrial boy went Their 
to court a girl at Mbweni, the girls said, Go away, Marria s es - 
you have been up to some tricks, or you would not be an 



34 77/.S"/ (MT O/ 1 77/7? UNIVERSITIES MISSION, [1894 



industrial ; but now the boys may have their pick of sweet- 
hearts/ 

When they many, they generally settle down in a little 
house in the Christian quarter, near the cathedral. 

Is not this such work as was done by the monks of the 
Middle Aws, when the workers in stone and wood, in 




metal and gems, were taught in their schools and gathered 
into Guilds? and if there was no printing office, was there 
not the Scriptorium with its careful copyists and painters ? 
And shall any say that the work is secular, or be dis 
heartened because some of the boys look on the Indus 
trial Home as the goal of their desires? Whatever can 
be done for God s sake is God s work. 



8 9 4] 



A PARTING VIEW OF THE MISSION. 



341 



On the mainland, too, industrial work has 

Industrial 

one forward. A Likoma boy holds the post of work on the 

mainland. 

telegraphist at Blantyre, having learnt the work 
from a Sikh in a few weeks, and he is now himself teach 
ing others. Sir Harry Johnston, H.M. Commissioner in 
the British Central Africa Protectorate, reports officially 
several Mission boys printing in the Government Press at 
Zomba, who, from untutored savages, had in a few months 
become " skilled printers." He has also employed car 
penters and masons from our Mission stations. 




(Life size,) 

"They are equally keen and apt in learning their military drill, 
in acquiring a knowledge of brickmaking, masonry work, car 
pentering, and even of clerical work and accounts. Our mission 
undoubtedly is to raise the negro of Central Africa into a civilized 
nationality." 

It will be remembered that as Bishop 

The Locust 

Smythies journeyed to the coast from his last Famine begins, 
J May, 1894. 

visit to Magila, he noted a good many locusts. 
These insects had never before done harm in this part of 
Africa within the memory of man ; but now they came, that 
mighty army, darkening the face of earth and heaven, and 



HISTORY Or THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1894-6 



by May, 1894, had eaten up all the growing crops in the 
Bonde district. After a time the scourge became general, 
spreading even to South Africa ; but nowhere was such 
utter distress and desolation caused as in the Usambara 
group of stations. For a whole year everything was eaten 
by locusts, for another the crops suffered a good deal, while 
even in May, 1896, we read that though some crops were 
got in, whole fields were still devastated. 1 It is very 
unusual for them thus persistently to lay waste the same 
Mission country year after year. The Mission bought 

chanties. n cc ^ -^ O wn people, and none of them 
actually died of starvation, though they suffered much. 
But there were starving multitudes around them, and to 
these, as far as possible, rice was sold very cheaply. And, 
as usual, hearts were warmed, and good done in the end, 
though at the time people were so occupied in keeping 
body and soul together that instruction languished. 

Good out ^ Mku/.i the Rev. Godfrey Dale could not 
tcvlL help asking a Mohammedan, who came to buy, 
why the rich Arabs, " who know what true religion is, do 
not send you up rice ? " " Ah," he replied, "you have pity, 
but they have no pity." A touching story is told of a poor 
woman who had made a previous vow to offer a rupee for 
God s service, when her child could run alone and call her 
u mother," coming now, when she had not even food, with 
a rupee some one had given her, to fulfil her vow and give 
thanks. 

Additions to As a consolation for this trial, we find that 

the Native . , . , 

Ministry, these two years sa\v as many natives ordained 

1 Thanks have since been returned for the plentiful harvest, and 
cessation of the locust plague. 



1894-6] 



PARTING VIEW OF THE MISSION. 



343 



as in all the thirty-three previous years. At the time of 

Bishop Smythies death the Mission had five native 

clergy the Revs. James Salfey, Cecil Majaliwa, Petro 

Limo, John Swedi, and Denys Seyiti. Five more were 

added in these two years the Revs. Samuel Sehoza, 

Yohanna Abdallah, Cypriani Chitenje, Daudi Machina, 

and Hugh S. Mtoka. But as Mr. Salfey has gone to work 




MKUZI SCHOOL. 



in South Africa, the number of our native clergy was 
reduced to nine. 

Of these we have seen that our old friend Y ohanna 
Yohanna Abdallah, ordained by the kindness of oriSlf, 
Bishop Tucker (East Equatorial Africa) early in Aug>l 1894> * 
August, 1894, proceeded to join Dr. Hine at Unangu, 
being Bishop Smythies legacy to that station. 



;J44 HISTORY 0/< THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1895 
An unusual interest attaches to the ordination 

Samuel , -, . , ,. r 

sehoza ot bamuel benoza, an old Mission pupil from 

Ordained at r . 

lona, Umba, the town of retro L-imo. He had been 
educated at Magila, Kiungani, and Dorchester 
Missionary College, and now on St. Bartholomew s Day, 
icSQ4, in the Isle of lona, the cradle of so much of the 
Christianity of Scotland and of England, there knelt the 
young African to receive deacon s orders at the hands 
of the Bishop of Nyasaland, the Bishop of the diocese 
(Argyll and the Isles) assisting. lie was presented by the 
Rev. 1 1. W. Woodward, and thus there stood together 
an African Bishop, Priest, and Deacon, where so often 
more than thirteen centuries before the royal and saintly 
Columba and his monks came and went. Samuel Sehoza 
has worked since in the Magila district, chiefly at 
Misozwe, and has lately been advanced by Bishop 
Richardson to the Priesthood. 

The Right To Bishop Rich- 
Rev. W. M. 
Richardson, arclsoil we must HOW 

Bishop of 

Zanzibar, turn. 1 he Kev. 

William Moore Richardson, 
Vicar of Ponteland, in the Dio 
cese of Newcastle, is an Oxford 
graduate who had successively 
held the posts of Curate of 
Christ Church, Wolverhampton, 
Chaplain of All Saints Con 
valescent Home, Eastbourne, 

r -,,.. . 

second master ot Bloxnam, 
Curate of Dorchester (Oxon), and Vicar of Wolvercote. 
He accepted the Diocese of Zanzibar, saying he could at 
least be a stepping-stone. Spending little time in fare- 




PARTING VIEW OF THE MISSION. 



wells, he hurried out to his diocese, and came in sight of 
Christ Church tower on August 3Oth. If he had Thenew 
few farewells, he had hundreds of greetings, for ??zM? 
the Archdeacon of Zanzibar and the Rev. J. P. ^s- 301 *- 
Farler, who was paying a visit to old scenes, came on 
board with the English Consul. Christ Church bells were 
chiming for joy, and all the Mission seemed to be swarm- 




ZANZIBAR (FROM KIUNGANI). 

ing on the beach. Suddenly a voice in the dusk said 
that the Bishop would go straight to the Cathedral before 
entering any house. The choir was scattered here and 
there, but by desperate efforts they were collected, and 
then the Bishop walked to the Cathedral, followed by hun 
dreds of people from Mbweni, Kiungani, etc. Solemn 






ARCHDEACON -JON^S-BATEM AN, WITH NATIVE DEACONS. 

Cypriani Chitcnje. Hugh Swinton Mtoka. Daudi Machina. 

34 6 



A PARTING VIEW OF THE MISSION. 



\i 



Evensong followed, and Martin Rinkart s hymn, " Now 
thank we all our God," was sung before the Magnificat ; 
and the service ended with a Tc Dcum ; and well it might, 
for a son of consolation had been granted to Africa, to 
make up for those who were gone. 

And now to see the Mission with new eyes, as the Bishop 
saw it. 

So diligent were his Swahili studies that in ordination 
three weeks he was able to take the service in ^SSSSX** 
Swahili, when he ordained Daudi Machina and Sept 22nd< 
Cypriani Chitenje, free men from the Rovuma, who have 




THE HOSPITAL AND CATHEDRAL. 



worked ever since in their native country; Hugh Mtoka, 
rescued in Bishop Steere s days from a slave caravan, and 
who works in the same country; and Mr. William Bishop, 
for eleven years a devoted lay worker, who has since gone 
to Newala. 

These Swahili studies of the Bishop s were Mr Madan s 
much simplified by Mr. Madan s Swahili-Eng- Dictionar y- 
lish Dictionary, a work involving much research and 



[1895 

labour, which was welcomed by Church and State ; great 
care having been taken to give a Swahili equivalent for 
each sense of an English word. 

The houseless ^ ^ c ^ rst thing that struck the Bishop in 
Bishop. t j lc C1 - t y O f / an/ ib ar waSj that he is houseless. 

Homeless he is not, having rooms at Mbweni and Kiun- 




gani, but now that old Mkunazini House is pulled down, 
he has no house in which to show hospitality. 

A state visit was paid to the Sultan, who entertained 
them, among other refreshments, with ginger ale from 
Belfast. When the Bishop said he was a little old to come 
to Africa for the first time, the Sultan replied : " Not at 



1 895] A PARTING VTEIV OF THE MJSSfON. 349 

all," and consoled him by the example of a holy man in 
Arabia who lived to be 140 ! 

Close to his Cathedral the Bishop found the 

. The Hospital. 

Hospital under Miss Breay doing good work 
among Europeans and natives. The staff of nurses, di 
minished by deaths, was partly recruited by training native 
nurses ; but this experiment proved not altogether satis 
factory, because, though their clever fingers made surgical 
work easy, they much disliked the more disagreeable duties. 
It has been proposed to turn the Hospital into a clergy 
house, and to rebuild the Hospital on the pleasant sea- 
frontage. 

With the departure of the industrial element, 
Kiungani falls into its natural place as School 
and Theological College. The numbers remain at about 
IOO, the Guild including about a third of that number. 
Many names there are who have helped the Principal to 
give Kiungani its high position, but especially must be 
mentioned Mr. Walter King, an old choir boy of St. Paul s 
Cathedral, who for twelve years has worked there, in 
addition to his duties of organist of the Cathedral, and 
treasurer ; Mr. Madan, student of Christ Church, Oxford ; 
Mr. William J. II. Chambers ; Rev. Godfrey Dale ; Mr. 
E. H. T. Prior ; and Mr. A. Hitchborn. 

At Mbweni, the Girls School, from which 

Mbweni. 

twenty-six of the Mission teachers have already 
come, numbers over 100 ; and as very few European 
ladies come out to teach in up-country schools, this work 
is almost as important as Kiungani. 

Let us find place here for a stirring incident A slave canoe 
in their history. In 1894, the Mbweni Christian ^[^ by 
villagers themselves captured a slave canoe. Christians - 



35 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1895-6 



Four poor children, a girl of eight, and three boys older, had 
been seized on the mainland by six men, and brought to an 
uninhabited island, where they left them till nightfall, when 
it would be safe to bring them ashore ; with them was left 
bound one man, who had acted the part of Reuben to 
Joseph and refused to help the rest. They then went off 
to a fishing village, leaving one man in charge of the boat. 




: SATURDAY ALLOWANCE OF SOAP AT MBWENI. 



The captive, breaking his bonds, managed to reach Mbweni, 
where the excited natives kindled a fire on the beach, and 
made the signal agreed on for bringing the children ashore. 
Their gaoler, thus deceived, brought them over, and the 
Mbweni people one armed with a sword, another with 
the bone of a sword-fish, easily rescued them. The girl 
was sent to the school, the boys were adopted on the 



1895-6] A PARTING VIEW OF THE MISSION. 351 

Shamba, their respective parents running a race as to which 
child should get fat soonest ! 

At Kilimani we leave Miss Mills among her 

Kilimani. 

little ones, happy in knowing that some of her 
early pupils are now serving at the altars of their native 
churches. Her seventeen years of work have left their 
traces on her as well as on her work. May she long be 
spared to rule over her family of house-boys and day- 
scholars. 

"The bright schoolroom," writes a visitor, "with its tiled roof, 
teak ceiling, and forty or fifty scholars in blue or pink kisibaus, 
was a good object lesson, and with astonishment one learnt that 
these little fellows do all the work of the house." 

On St. John Baptist s Da}-, they kept the first anniver 
sary of their coming to Kilimani. Old pupils came from 
Kiungani and Mkunazini, including the Rev. Denys Seyiti 
from Kichelwe, and 114 sat down to dinner. Afterwards 
the thirty mothers of the day-boys came to tea, and were 
waited on by their sons, a great improvement on the native 
custom of women waiting on men. 

Mbweni has a habit of getting too thickly 

i i i r 1- Kichelwe. 

populated, and, very wisely, a few families 
crossed to the excellent port of Dar es Salaam, and settled 
at Kichelwe in the Zaramo country. More joined them, 
and presently they asked for a clergyman. Dcnys Seyiti 
having just been ordained deacon by Bishop Foundin 
Smythies, on Midlent Sunday, 1893, was sent of K Si^e, at 
there in April, and he and his flock are devoted A P ri1 1893 
to each other. They have built a wooden Church entirely 
at their own cost with only grass mats as seats and also 
a Parsonage. 



Mr. Farlcr, who visited Kichchvc about two years after 
wards, says : 

"I found that Denys is not only the pastor, but the father 
of the little community; his word is law, and he is implicitly 
obeyed." 

Some of the Uzaramo and some of the coast people 
have been attracted to this bright little village, and all 
attend Denys instruction. They support themselves chiefly 
bv rearing fowls, vegetables and fruit, which they sell to 
the German authorities. When Bishop Richardson paid 
his first visit there (January 13, 1896), he confirmed 
seventy candidates, and there had been 100 baptisms in 
the previous year. 

The Bishop s first mainland visit, however, 

The Bishop s 

first visit to W as to the Rovuma district. I he last wish of 

Rovuma 

District, Bishop Smythics for this part of the work was 

October, 1895. 

to plant a station at Mtarika s, about half-way 
from Masasi to the Lake, completing, however slightly, the 
chain of stations from the Indian Ocean to Nyasa. He 
even took two of Mtarika s sons to school at Xewala. All 
had seemed ready, and in June, 1895, the- Rev. R. F. 
Acland-IIood was to have started, but the Yao slave- 
raiding expedition in this district, which drove Bishop 
Maples to take the Zambesi route, hindered this also. 

The general work had, however, progressed, and Bishop 
Richardson, passing through the deserted Chitangali, 
reached Xewala October 5, where he was welcomed by 
the Revs. T. C. Simpson and R. F. Acland-Hood. 

Here he found our old friend Matola very ill. For 
many years he had been a catechumen, and acted in a 
truly Christian spirit ; yet he delayed baptism chiefly on 



1895] A PARTING VIE IV OF THE MISSION. 



account of his wives ; and now the time had come when 
all his power and all his possessions must be left behind. 
Early in 1895 he left Newala and went for change of air 
to another village, three days off, on account of an ulcer 
in his leg. Continuing very ill, he earnestly besought Mr. 
Acland-Hood to baptize him, believing his ill- Baptismof 
ness to be a Divine punishment for wilfully Matola - 
remaining a heathen. Still he wavered about putting away 
his additional wives, but in August sent a message to Mr. 
Hood that he would do so, and he was carried to Mkoo, 
a village fifteen miles from Newala, to be nearer his teachers. 
Mr. Simpson met him here, and Matola signed a promise 
to provide for his other wives, and remain faithful to one. 
This was read publicly, and Mr. Simpson then baptized 
him by the name Yohanna. He was moved to Newala, and 
the clergy were constantly with him in his pain, and weak 
ness, and penitence. He just lived till the Bishop s visit, 
and was conscious while the Bishop spoke to him. Yohanna 
Matola died October 14, and was buried with 

Death of 

Christian rites next day. Mr. Acland-Hood Matola, 

October 14. 

writes of him : 

" He had great gifts, and if these had been devoted to our 
Lord, he would have been a really great man. His influence for 
good in the country would have been considerable. But we 
cannot be sufficiently thankful that at the last he was led to desire 
baptism most urgently, and that he died a Christian penitent. 
Requiescat in face" 

His successor, young Matola, though at first disposed 
to be rude, is now friendly to the Mission, and seems open 
to Christian instruction. 

After visiting the Rev. Cypriani Chitenje at Miwa, and 
the Rev. Daudi Machina at Mkoo, the Bishop went on 

A A 



354 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. 



to new Masasi, where lie held two Confirmations. The 

Magwangwara were known to be in the ncigh- 

at Masasi, bourhood, and as the Bishop left the church 

October 13. . 

after the second C onnrmation, lie found them 
armed with bows and shields in the baraza. Mr. Porter 
and Air. Carnon were there, and placed a chair for the 
Bishop. Their thoughts may have gone back to 1882, 




IH YING FIREWOOD AT MASASI. 

but the brave warriors were true to their treaty with 
Bishop Maples and Mr. Porter, and " their arrows were 
blunt" against Masasi. The}- only danced a war-dance, 
received beads and cloth, and departed. Mwiti, now the 
residence of Rev. Cecil Majaliwa and most of his Chitangali 
flock, received the next visit, and after that the Bishop 
turned towards Lindi. 

But the Bishop s gentle spirit had been as much grieved 



1895-6] A PARTING VIE IV OF THE MISS 10 A\ 355 

at the state of old Masasi as Archdeacon Jones-Bateman 
was the year before, and before leaving the country he 
made one hopeful effort, to which the lapsed Hope for old 
Christians are responding. Masasi. 

This district has lost the services of the Rev. R. F. 
Acland-Hood, who has had to give up returning to 
Xewala, and also of the Rev. John Hainsworth, who died 
while in England, April 13, 1896, after ten years work, 
mostly at Newala. 

A charming; account of Xewala came from 

Rev. J. Farter a 

the Rev. J. P. Farler, after his visit in 1896. Nel^ia 
He speaks of the object lesson which is taught January, is9G - 
by the orchards of fruit planted there by Bishop Maples and 
Mr. Porter mulberries, oranges, limes, and custard apples 
are bearing fruit, and conducing to health. So, too, the 
spiritual fruit planted by them has ripened. The congre 
gations increase continually, and a Church meeting was 
held which unanimously decided to build a larger and 
better church at no cost to the Mission, only waiting till 
the weakness caused by famine had passed to go down 
to the coast for cement. After Matola s death his people 
migrated to Mkoo, but they have decided to return to 
Newala after harvest. 

A picture of the Rev. Daudi Machina s menage Rev Daudi 
reminds one of an ascetic Eastern hermit : Machina. 

"The whole of his furniture consists of one chair, one small 
table, one lamp, one native bedstead, one blanket and mat, two 
plates, one wash-basin, a box for books, and that is all. The 
kitchen contains one cooking-pot, one water-jar, and three stones 
on which to set the pot. He lives on native food, and wears 
a white cassock and black cincture. May Kiungani send forth 
many more like unto him." 



356 HISTORY OF THE wn*ERsiTiES> MISSION. [1895 

The Usambara country next welcomed its Bishop. 

After spending Christmas in Zanzibar, he crossed to Tanga, 

where a novelty awaited him in the shape of a railway to 

Mhcsa, a place four miles from Magila. Mr. 

rh vStto PS Woodward met him at Tanga, and the journey, 

which always took two days, was accomplished 

in as man)- hours, passing the limestone quarries of Buhuri, 

the park-like scenery of IVmgwc, and taking refreshments 

at Xgomane. This line may ultimately reach Mount 

Kilimanjaro, and open up Masailand. 

Effects of ^ 1C l^ s h () P came to a district desolated by 
the famine. ] ()CUS t famine. Its former Archdeacon, Mr. 
Farler, had visited it eight months before, full of hope of 
meeting his old converts ; but arriving in the very worst of 
the famine, his heart was wrung by their distress. Many 
villages lay waste without inhabitant. In others the people 
looked like skeletons, weak and weary, looking for any 
thing left by the locusts, with which the sky was still dark 
ened, while the ground was covered with young ones just 
out of the egg. There were here and there deaths from 
starvation, and much illness, while parents sold some of 
their children into captivity to buy food for the rest. 

" I have visited," says Mr. Farler, "many villages in the after 
noons, and where of old the women were busy and happy, 
pounding their corn in the mortars for the evening meal, they 
are now bringing home bundles of weeds off which they pick the 
leaves, and prepare to cook them ; looking up, when one greets 
them, with a sad smile, saying, Kande ya mbuzi ( Only goats 
food, sir ). It makes one s heart bleed." 

But good came out of evil. The parents who were so 
willing to sell their children were also willing to send them 



A PARTING VIEW OF THE MISSION. 



357 



to the Mission, where 
they knew they would be 
fed ; and one hundred 
boys were thus added to 
Magila and fifty to Mkuzi. 
Mr. Woodward says that 
though a good many of 
these went home when 
the famine was over, 
a certain number will 
probably return again. 

Besides this, the Mis 
sion found work for 
about 200 women in 
making a road to the 
top of a hill close to 
Magila (1,500 feet above 
it). Here the Mission 
has land, and here is to 
s t a n d a s a n a t o r i u m , 
where, in cooler, purer air, 
members of the Mission 
may find rest and health. 
The women worked 
gladly, receiving in re 
turn food for their house 
holds. 

Here Dr. 

T PV \\T-A< flninrr DeatnofDr. 
n s Ley, Juno 18. 

medical work 

of great value. He had 

set before himself a de- 




DK. HERBERT LEY. 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1895 



finite object the health of the Europeans and the medical 
relief of the Africans, and from the attempt to accomplish 
that object he did not swerve. His death from fever was 
hastened through his previously having been bitten by a 
snake. 

Another loss w r as that of the Rev. George Du 

Death of Rev. 



G A 11 !?! ? 1 * 7 -^ ou l a y> a y un S> bright, eager worker. He had 
left a happy and honoured home for his Master s 
work in Africa, and, after two years, died of fever, on his 
birthday, 1895. 

Mr. Woodward, on his return from England, 

Native Con- c 

ference, took charge of Magila and soon after as- 

Aug. 28. 

sembled a small conference, entirely of native 
Christians, to discuss native customs. No European was 
present. It was nearly unanimous in condemning galo and 
other evil or superstitious rites. Petro Limo presided. 

The saddest loss the Mission knew in i8qc 

Death of Miss 

Bartiett, before the Nyasa disasters was the death of 

April 10. 

Miss Josephine Bartiett, " dear Miss Bartiett" 
as they all called her, the senior member of the Mission, 
which she served for twenty years, chiefly at Kiungani, 
where she did all a lady could for the happiness of the 
household of men and boys ; being housekeeper, super 
intendent of washing, cooking, and stores, nurse, and often 
doctor of the college, and sympathizer in general to all 
the Mission. She was in the confidence of all, from the 
Bishop downwards, both in Bishop Steere s and in Bishop 
Smythies days. She died very quietly of fever in Zanzibar 
Hospital, and is buried at Ziwani. 

" Her quiet grace of manner/ wrote Bishop Maples, " her 
sweet simplicity, her easy unselfishness will not soon be forgotten 
when we thank God for her life and example, and thank Him too 
that He has given her what we all know she looked forward to 



1896] 



A PARTING riEW OF THE MISSION. 



359 



when her life s work should be done, a quiet resting-place in our 
African burial ground for her mortal remains, and a call to 
Paradise for her gentle spirit." 

When Bishop Richardson was in the Usambara 
country in January, 1896, he reached Magila, 
amid great rejoicings, and was as much charmed 
with its situation as all its visitors are. lie went on to 



Bishop 



Jan 20 




KOLOGWK CHURCH. 

Kologwe, where he stayed three weeks, and consecrated 
the church. This is only the second consecrated church 
in the diocese, Holy Cross, Magila, being the other. But 
now the stone church of St. Mary the Virgin, 

i / i i 1 r Consecration 

plain (as yet), but good and solid, with plenty of of st. Mary 

r . . the Virgin, 

space for paintings or mosaics, guiltless of aisles, Koiogwe 
arches or apse, stands on the hillside at Kologwe, 



360 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



[1896 



set apart for ever tor the worship of God. A new school 
stands near, only of wattle and daub, but such wattle 
and such daub every pole carefully fixed, and a lofty 
roof crowning all. The bridge which ruined the water- 
charmers has been replaced by a better one. 

Amid all this outward prosperity, a real and 

Confirmation . . . . 

atKoiogwe, true work is being carried on, and on Oumqua- 

Feb. 16. 

gesima Sunday the Bishop confirmed tvventy- 




KOI.O(JWK BOYS WITH REV. ] . R. II. CHAMBERS AND MR. LISTER. 

three men and boys. Since then Mr. Chambers has had 
some more baptisms, and there are now forty Christians in 
Kologwe, while a sub-station has been opened at Kwa Sigi. 
It will be remembered that Henry Nasibu had left the 
work at Kologwe ; and he had taken service in the Ger^ 
man coffee plantations at Derema, tempted partly by 
higher wages. A good account can now be given of him. 



1895-6] A PARTING VIE IV OF THE MISSION. 361 

He refused to work on Sunday, and on that day he assem 
bles the Christian workmen, and has service with them. 
On greater festivals he makes his communion at Magila. 
A parting look at Nyasaland must now be 

J Nyasaland. 

taken. Sir Harry Johnston in his latest report 

speaks most hopefully of the development of this country, 

which doubled its exports in 1895. 

The attack made in December, 1895, by a 
gallant little party of English and Sikhs, on 



Miosi s stronghold in North Xyasa, when 
Major Edwards stormed and took it, hanging Mlosi, was 
the culminating point of a four months campaign against 
slave-dealers around the Lake, At this time, 1,184 slaves 
were liberated. 

It was of this little band of Englishmen that Mr. Johnson 
wrote the famous words : 

" Do people realize that most of the officers who have rushed 
up the Yao hills, under Yao fire, have come here on a holiday 
instead of going to England" 

He added that they made light of inconvenience and 
illness. 

" Major Edwards realized that, fever or no fever, there are 
times when there can be no talk of leaving your men. 
Would that our invalid clergy felt it their only cure to go to the 
front." 

This decided action, taken by the British Government, 
not against " natives of the country fighting for their inde 
pendence, but aliens of Arab, Yao, or Zulu race, who were 
contesting with us the supremacy over the natives of 
Nyasaland," resulted in such complete dispersion of the 
slave-dealers, that in January, 1896, Sir H. Johnston wrote 
to Lord Salisbury : 



362 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES^ MISSION. [1896 

"There does not exist a single independent avowedly slave- 
dealing chief within the British Central Africa Protectorate." 

So we may look for quieter days for mission 
steamer work ; but, alas ! at this time the Charles Janson 

wanted. . . r J . . r 

shows signs ot retiring from active service, ana a 
new steamer must be sent out. 




THE "CHARLES JAXSON " IIAUI.EO UP AT I.1KOMA FOR REPAIRS (1895). 

Arthur T nc m s t station taken up by our Church on 

FrascrSim. 



the town of Jumbe, where the Rev. A. F. Sim was placed 
in charge. 1 



1 See Life and Letters of Arthur Fniser Sim, published by 
the Universities Mission. 



1 894] 



A PARTING VIE IV OF THE MISSION . 



363 



I 



To him the call to Africa had come in Calledto 
no indistinct tones, and he gave up his well- Africa (1894)> 
beloved work in England, saying to one who asked if after 
all the Africans \vere worth the sacrifice : " HE is worth 
it all!" 

Soon a piece of land was bought, and with William 
Kanyopolea, as his assistant, they built a house : 

"My house is mud, with a straw roof; its door is so low I 
have almost to crawl in. I and my teacher William, and a small 

boy live in it. It is our 

church, too. We have 
prayers morning and even 
ing, and on Sundays I cele 
brate Holy Communion in 
it. The verandah will be 
my school at first." 

In the month of No 
vember Jumbe, the chief 
of Kota Kota, was de 
posed by Mr. Nichol, the 
Administration Agent, as dangerous, and sent to Zomba. 

The next event of interest was Archdeacon Maples 
visit on his way to England, when they talked all night of 
plans never to be realized by either ; and so in the star 
light, at the boat s side before daybreak, they parted to 
meet no more here on earth. 

Meantime, he and William were working at a 

The New 

new house, into which he moved in February, 

and by April had ninety boys and ten girls in 

his school in the baraza. At night the men came to class, 

saying after a Scripture lesson : " Now our eyes are 

opened." But the loneliness of a new station was ap- 




364 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES^ MISSION. [1895 

parent when, at Easter, there could only be three com 
municants. 

" The mud altar was covered with a white frontal, which the 
ladies at Likoma had made us. On Easter Monday and Tues 
day we had games long jump, wide jump, egg-and-spoon race, 
with limes for eggs." 

In May Mr. Swarm took Mr. Nichol s place, 

A Slave . J 

vmage and, like every one who knew Arthur Sim, 
began to love him ; and we soon find them to- 



crether, starting a freed-slavc village on the Mission land. 

o o O 

His first and apparently only adult baptism 
murderer Bap- at Kota Kota strongly recalls that of the 
U y soldier baptized and confirmed under sentence 
of death in Winchester gaol i^ years before. A man had 
killed a Makua soldier, and being sentenced to death by 
the commissioner, was daily instructed by Mr. Sim, until 
he had grasped the Christian creed and commandments. 



1 895] A PARTING VIEW OF THE MISSION. 365 

" I cannot take him so far without giving him the full privileges 
of the Church on earth. At daybreak this morning, in the 
presence of three Christian boys, I baptized him, giving him the 
name of Jacobo, this being St. James Day. He died painlessly 
at 7 a.m., and now I have buried him, the first Christian grave in 
our little God s acre. Is it not a strange first-fruit of one s stay 
here a penitent murderer? I need not say how awful and 
solemn the days of preparation have been ; I think he was brave 
at the last, and seemed much comforted that he had friends 
about him, and, as we assured him, a Friend above." 

Mr. Philipps, a young layman, came to help him, and he 
had hopes of a larger band on the Bishop s return. The 
merest trifles were pleasures to his bright nature : 

" Mr. Swann sent me the first cabbage to-day from his garden, 
and a bunch of radishes which my cook at once began to boil. 
Try a boiled radish, do ! " 

The threefold blow of the deaths of the Bishop, Mr. 
Williams, and Mr. Atlay, have been given, and soon after 
he wrote his last letter (Oct. 10 to 13), ending : 

"It is rather like a battlefield out here. However safe one 
feels oneself, there are those one cares for and looks up to falling 
all round us." 

And on that battlefield his last fight was Dea thof 
beginning. Five days later he was attacked Rev sim F 
by fever, and passed away very early on Octo 
ber 29. 

The Rev. James Wimbush took up the post at Kota 
Kota, and hopeful letters come from thence. Mr. Philipps 
has been called to repeat Mr. Sim s action, and to prepare 
for death the notorious Saidi Mwazungu, the murderer 
of Dr. Boyce and Mr, McEwan, Leading him to repent- 



366 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1895-6 

ance, Mr. Philipps baptized him just before his execution, 
to which he walked calmly, saying, " God make everything 
right." 

During the greater part of 1895 Mr. Johnson 

Work of 

Rev. w. P. had to take his journeys round the Lake on 

Johnson. ... -11" 

foot, visiting the village stations, sixteen in 
number, and strengthening the hands of native teachers. 
The diaries Janson was laid up most of this time. Yet, in 
spite of his increased exertions, never had there been so 
much work from his pen ready for printing. Translations 
of Genesis, Leviticus, Ruth, Proverbs, the Minor Prophets, 
parts of Joshua and Isaiah, besides nearly all the New 
Testament in Chinyanja. 

Mr. Johnson has also been fixing sites for 
Mtonia. . 

new stations. Most important ot these is 

Mtonia, a Yao town of about 10,000 inhabitants, and the 
cradle of their race. Archdeacon Maples had visited it 
once from Unangu. It seems one of the healthiest sites 
in Central Africa, the houses lying more than 5,000 feet 
above the sea level some as much as 7,000. Unangu and 
Mtonia can just look at each other on a fine day across 
forty-five miles of country. Though Bishop Mine and 
Yohanna Abdallah both desire it, nothing has as yet been 
done here. 

The deacon Yohanna Abdallah remains in 

Unangu. 

charge at Unangu ; and he seems to be manag 
ing Kalanje, the difficult chief who, being in Portuguese 
territory, retains his slave dhow. Only two years ago a 
woman, on some accusation of witchcraft, was burnt to 
death, and Kalanje had not interfered, yet now he comes 
to hear Abdallah preach. 

Here, then, \ye leave Nyasaland with Mr. Johnson. 



1896] 



A PARTING VIEW OF THE MISSION. 



367 



There he still is, sailing or tramping round his Lake like 
one of those mediaeval missionaries in the times when 

"around individuals penetrated with Christian zeal and self-denial 
centred, not merely the life but the very existence of the churches 
of Europe. Take away these men, blot out their influence, and 
how materially would events have varied, how much the entire 
history of the Middle Ages would have been altered." 

Dr. Mine was not long to be 
left on his " solitary double- 
domed mountain." Since the |9HK*9liiS 
separation of the See from the 
province of South Africa, the 
Archbishop of Canterbury 1 has 
the power of appointment, and 
Archbishop Benson exercised 
this power by appointing Dr. 
Mine to succeed Bishop Maples. 

John Edward I line John Edward 
had, as a boy, been Hine 
present at Dr. Livingstone s 
funeral in Westminster Abbey. 
A man s future place in the 
world is more often fixed by an 
impression in boyhood than 
people think, and so it was here, 
man, but was afterwards thoroughly trained for Holy 
Orders, graduating at Oxford, and receiving theological 
instruction at the Scholar Cancellarii, Lincoln. 

In 1888 he joined the Mission, and reached Zanzibar, 
January 30, next year, and he has worked in Zanzibar, 




KKV. \V. ] . JOHNSON . 
oni a photograph taken at Likouia, 
1894.) 

He became a medical 



and at Likoma and Unangu. 



ee Appendix III. 



3 68 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



[1896 



consecrated ^ e was consecrat cd to the See of Likoma 
B Likoma f on St. liter s Day, at St. Matthew s, Bethnal 
June 29. Green, the first Bishop of Hokkaido being con 
secrated with him. The Archbishop was assisted by the 
Bishops of St. Albans, Exeter, Rochester, Rockhampton, Ma- 
shonaland, and by Bishop Hornby, who thus for the second 
time helped to consecrate a successor to his diocese, within 
four years of his own consecration. Canon Crowfoot, Vice- 
Principal of the Scholae 
Cancel larii, Lincoln, 
preached on the words, 
"Jesus saith unto him, 
Simon, son of Jonas, lovest 
thou Me?" All hearts 
were very full of that day 
the year before. " The 
dead are present with us," 
said one. 

The Nyasaland pas 
toral staff is a parable 
of this effort. Some time 
The Nyasaland ago a large 

Pastoral Staff. elephant tusk 

was given to Archdeacon 
Maples by those wild 
Magwangwara over whom his heart and many another had 
yearned. He determined that this gift of the Magwa 
ngwara yet heathen should become the pastoral staff of 
Nyasaland. When Bishop Mackenzie set his face northward 
from the Shire, he had gone forth with his staff in one 
hand and his gun in the other. That wooden staff, always 
treasured, was now much injured by time ; and here was 




1896] 



A PARTING VIE IV OF THE MISSION. 



369 



something well-nigh 



imperishable to take its place or 
rather to enshrine the primal staff. 
It was ready by the anniversary, May 
21, 1 896, and was shown to the 
friends assembled. Surely no diocese 
has ever had a crozier so beautiful, 
precious, and rich in memories. It 
was with a thrill that one saw the 
bit of the old staff made visible 
through silver-gilt lattice work. At the 
spring of the crook are the figures of the 
Evangelists, and of SS. Peter and Paul, 
under silver canopy work. Many memories 
will that staff hand down, perhaps none 
grander than that of the day when he went 
forth to face the Magwangwara in their 
wrath fur the sake of his flock. " A thou 
sand shall fly at the rebuke of one " might 
well be its motto. 

If the memory of Bishop Mackenzie must 
ever be enshrined within the history of 
latter days, another name remains linked 
with his. 

Horace Waller, the noble-minded lay 
superintendent then (the parish priest since), 
who stuck through life so persistently to 
his task of raising the African, and of 
fighting the slave-trade, had worked well 



n 



the London committee of the 



Deathoftho 



Mission, at the Board of the Anti- 
Slavery Society, and in his quiet 
Parsonage at Twywell, at any plan that made for the good 

B B 




37 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. [1896 

of Africa. He too has passed to his reward, dying in 
February, 1896. 

Since then Zanzibar has known another 

Death of 

sultan Hamid change of Sultan. Hamid bin Thwain. after 

and usurpation 

of seyidKhaiid,a three years reign, died under circumstances 

August 25. J 

that suggest foul play. Immediately Seyid 
Khalid Barghash, who had tried to usurp the throne in 
1893, showed that he was prepared for the event, barricaded 

the palace, 

^] and de- 

.^ x clared his 

.L-.f ^^JK^S^" intention 

^ : of reign ing 

or dying 

^jUft?* *4 there. The 
next day 
| .Admiral 
; R a w son, 
U3* 5 with the 

ijSSi St. George 

SULTAN S PALACE. from tllC 

(J- roiu a sketch l>y Miss Cameron.) Cape, ai~- 

rived, and ga\"e the Sultan an ultimatum of hauling down 
his flag, or having the palace bombarded. The Euro 
pean residents were ordered on board the British ships. 
At an early hour the palace was shelled, and was soon 
in flames. The usurper, however, came off his high 
horse, and neither reigned nor perished ; he took a third 
The sultan s coursc > and simply fled. His more peaceable 
bombarded ^derly cousin, Hamid, was proclaimed Sultan 
August 27. O f Zanzibar. 

All the English people both the authorities and the 



1896] A PARTING VIE IV OF THE MISSION. 371 



Mission staff behaved splendidly in this hour of danger, 
and the movements were as orderly as if all had been 
foreseen. On Tuesday the Mission festival was kept at 
Mbweni, when news arrived about 4 p.m. that all Europeans 
should go on board the ships. That night some were sent 
off, but Miss Thackeray, Misses R. and M. Berkeley, and 
the girls were taken to the schoolroom, and Miss Mills and 
her boys joined them there. Mr. Farler and Mr. Griffin 
remained in charge.. The next clay they were fetched off 
in a despatch boat, Miss Thackeray packing in all her 
married teachers and the shamba children. They were 
most kindly received on board the British India mail 
steamer. The Kiungani boys were taken to the British 
Consulate at 6 a.m. on Thursday morning, Mr. Firminger 
following up with his flock of men, women, and children 
the whole Mkunazini contingent being subsequently in 
creased by the folk from the Mbweni shamba. At the 
hospital Bishop Tucker, who was there as a patient, was 
carried on board the India mail, and the sick being all 
cared for, the nurses were sent into safety. Mr. II. Faulk 
ner and Mr. Sanderson remained with the soldiers to guard 
Mkunazini house and the cathedral, and Mr. Farler went 
from post to post. At 5.45 a.m. the church bell had rung 
for the daily Eucharist, and none were disobedient to its 
call. Mr. Firminger says : " I think nearly every Christian 
was present." 

Then after the storming of the palace, members of the 
Mission staff went to render such help to the surgeons, in 
the care of the wounded, as was possible. The scene at 
the custom-house, where the poor creatures were brought, 
is said to have been one of indescribable horror. The 
Mission hospital was soon full, and leave for Nurse 



372 III STORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES^ 



MISSION. 



[1896 



Brcwcrton to return to her post was obtained. By Friday 

all was quiet, and every one returned home. It was indeed 

thankworthy that not one of the staff suffered, and that a 

seat on the hospital roof was the only property destroyed. 

our outlook ^t this point, ceasing to look back, we look 

in Africa. f onvarc ] to coming years. What will the dawn 

of another century see in Central Africa ? " Lines of light " 

have already been drawn across her map. Will they 




broaden into tracts of brightness till there is no part left 
dark even in Darkest Africa? 

For the fields arc "white already to harvest." Nation 
after nation is stretching out its hands to us. Everywhere 
the Bishop of Zanzibar says he sees expansion, and not 
retrenchment. Mr. Johnson writes of station after station 
to be occupied in the near future if England s Church ig 



1896] 



A PARTING VIEW OF THE MISSION. 



to do her own work, and not leave it to others. As Canon 
Crowfoot said at Bishop Hine s consecration : 

"Who will venture to predict what future may be in store for 
the tribes now living on the shores of Lake Nyasa ? We seem to 
stand upon the confines of a land of promise. Great possibilities 




GROUP OF ZANZIBAR LABOURERS. 



stretch in front great opportunities, if workers only will press 
forward to take them up." 

There is the situation. Zanzibar cannot hold herself 
back. She must cross over to Pemba, that island of sorrow, 
in whose clove fields we know that the horrors of the slave 
trade are not over, and which we have not touched. 



374 ///.S 7 OA r OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. [1896 



" Ah, let us go to Pemba," said a rescued slave-boy, " and 
ransom my mother, lest she die before she hears of the 
Cross." Well may we take up his words " Let us go to 
Pemba, lest these, our brothers and sisters by creation, die 
without hearing of their crucified Lord. And not only to 
Pemba. Let Boncle missions go forward into Usambara 
and Zigualand, and pause not till they reach the Masai. 
From Rovuma let us reach Makualand. Let Unangu no 
longer be the solitary Yao station, and let Xyasa spread 
far and wide among the A tonga and Angoni on her coasts, 
till at last the brave and wayward Magwangwara bow down 
as obedient sons of the See of Likoma, whose staff they 
have all unconsciously provided. 

Put force we not our labourers to reap the unripe corn 
by expecting immense results at once. Not like Jonah s 
gourd that came up in a night and perished in a night is 
the slow, steady ripening of the Church s harvest. For the 
task is not only to overthrow strongholds of iniquity : that 
were comparatively easy. It is the slower, harder work 
of lifting up. To raise these many nations out of the 
unimaginable horrors of their past, raising them to a place 
among the kingdoms of Christianity as a free and holy 
people, will require all our strength, our courage, and our 
endurance. 



\?c therefore tbe 3Lorfc of tbe 
harvest, tbat Ibc senfc fortb labourers into 
Ibis barvest" 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
SLAVERY. 

By LIEUT. C. S. SMITH, 
ILB.M. Consul at Bilbao, late Vice-Consul at Zanzibar. 

A HUNDRED years ago Europe allowed slavery in 
her colonies, and submitted to the enslavement of 
Christians in countries as near to her door as Algiers. In 
spite of many engagements to the contrary, the Barbary 
States still held Christian captives in slaver} . Even in 
Scotland the institution still survived, for colliers and 
salters had not yet attained complete freedom. No law 
against the traffic in negro slaves, or their transport by 
sea, had yet been put in force by an} Christian State. 
To-day the laws of no Christian State allow slavery except 
in certain recently acquired districts in Africa. Salee 
rovers have ceased from piracy, and the African Medi 
terranean States no longer dare to hold Christian slaves. 
Slave trade by sea only survives as a petty smuggling. 
By the establishment of European rule slave raiding has 
been made impossible in large parts of Africa. And, 
though the tribes still prey on each other over great areas, 
the reign of law steadily spreads, and as it spreads im 
poses peace. Before the present century began there 
were objectors to slaver}", but they were few. After it 
ends there will still be slaves, and no doubt slave raiding, 
but Christendom has done with the institution. This great 

375 



37^ HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 

change in the opinion, law, and habit of Christendom 
must be assigned to the nineteenth century. Perhaps the 
twentieth century will witness a similar change in Islam. 

Slavery existed as an institution in all four quarters of 
the world. It seems to have been widespread as the race 
of man, and little less ancient. From the taming of 
animals it is an easy step to the taming of human beings. 
A man s desire for a worker who shall be absolutely sub 
ject to his will needs no explanation ; it is shown in classes 
as far apart as sweaters and schoolboys. A secondary 
reason for the practice is that it affords a ready means of 
removing obnoxious persons out of the tribe. There is no 
need to suppose that the idea of selling kinsmen was first 
invented by Joseph s brothers. On the contrary, the 
readiness with which Joseph s sale to the Ishmaelites 
appears to have been agreed to on all hands tends to 
show that it was no new thing. When ordered by the 
recognised authorities of the community, it differs nothing 
in principle from the slavery which our judges allot to 
criminals under the name of penal servitude. 

But I must turn to the special subject of African Slavery 
It appears that from time immemorial l slaves have been 
taken from Central Africa to the Mediterranean States, to 
Egypt and Asia. It was about the year 14/0 that Chris 
tian nations began to export black slaves 2 by sea. Portu 
guese ships were then exploring the West Coast of Africa, 
and a Portuguese company began to carry slaves to 
Lisbon. In 1492 America was discovered. The West 
India Islands were occupied, the aborigines died out 
before the white man, and the need for labour brought 

1 Mr. Scott Keltic, Partition of Africa, p. 81. ~ Ibid., p. 38. 



SLAVEKl. 377 



about a rapid development of the slave trade. By 1508 
Spaniards were taking part in the trade. By 1537 the 
yearly import of slaves into Lisbon, the emporium for the 
West Indies, 1 had risen to between 10,000 and 12,000 
slaves per annum. 

Slavery was not, even at this date, accepted by all 
persons as being right. In 1 540 the Emperor Charles V. 
tried to stop it by orders that all slaves in the American 
Isles should be made free. They were manumitted, but 
slavery soon resumed its sway. About the same time 
Cortes wrote in his will : 

"There have been and are many doubts and opinions as to 
whether slaves can be held with good conscience or no, and until 
now it has not been determined. ... I command Don 
Martin my son and heir, and those who may succeed him, that 
in order to ascertain this they should take all necessary steps so 
as to discharge my conscience and their own." 

Prescott, 2 writing in 1843, says : 

" The state of opinion in respect to the great question of 
slavery in the sixteenth century at the commencement of the 
system bears some resemblance to that which exists in our time, 
when we may hope it is approaching its conclusion. Las Casas 
and the Dominicans of the former age, the abolitionists of their 
day, thundered out their uncompromising invectives against the 
system on the broad ground of natural equity and the rights of 
man. The great mass of proprietors troubled their heads little 
about the question of right, but were satisfied with the expediency 
of the institution." 

In 1562 Englishmen joined in the traffic. :J Sir J. Haw 
kins fitted out three ships, and took three hundred negro 



1 Partition of Africa, p. 61. 2 Conquest of Mexico, book vii., chap. v. 
3 Partition of Africa, p. 64. 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



slaves from Guinea to Hispaniola. This was the first of 
many expeditions. By the beginning of the seventeenth 
century slaves l had come to be regarded as the staple 
commodity of the African soil, and the desire amongst 
European powers for the monopoly of the slave market 
caused a great rivalry for the possession of West African 
colonies. The disgraceful war of 1665, which ended 
with the appearance of the Dutch fleet at Gravesend, was 
caused by an English squadron expelling the Dutch from 
their settlements on the West Coast. 

During the eighteenth century the foreign slave trade 
was at its height. 

" It would be difficult to estimate the number of Africans 
deported from the Continent from the time of the first European 
connection with it ; but during the eighteenth century alone it 
was probably not less than 6,000,000. . . . Take it all in all, 
the profit from the slave trade during the seventeenth and eigh 
teenth centuries was equal to that arising from gold, ivory, gum, 
and all other products combined." 

Until near the end of the eighteenth century most people 
had thought negro slavery a very proper institution. The 
institution was recognised in the Bible, and of course Ham 
had to work out his curse. The pious John Newton, the 
author of u Mow sweet the name of Jesus sounds," was a 
slave trader before his ordination, 1 3 and it was common 
amongst religious people to look on the maintenance of 
slaver} as an open question. The following extract l from 

1 Partition of Africa, p. 66. - Ibid.) p. Si. 

:; "Afterwards he gravely, though composedly, condemned the 
practice Stephens Ecclesiastical Biographies: The "Evangeli 
cal " Succession. 

4 Dated 1817. Vide Hertslet s Commercial Treaties^ vol. iii. p. 374. 



SLAVERY. 379 



a Spanish decree, prohibiting the slave trade, shows what 
many felt at this period : 

" The importation of black slaves into America was among the 
earliest measures directed by my august predecessors for the 
development and prosperity of these vast dominions within a 
short period of their discovery. . . . This plan, which did 
not originate the slavery already practised by the barbarous 
nations of Africa, but only availed itself of it with a view to 
save their prisoners from death, and to alleviate their sad state, 
so far from being prejudicial to the negroes of Africa when trans 
ferred to America, afforded them, not only the incomparable 
benefit of being instructed in the knowledge of the true God, and 
of the only religion through which that Supreme Being is desirous 
that His creatures should adore Him, but also all the advantages 
attending a state of civilization, without however subjecting them 
in their slavery to hardships more intolerable than those they 
had endured when free in their own country/ 

However, towards the end of the century public opinion 
in England was rapidly taking up a strong position against 
the slave trade. 1 In 17/2, in spite of previous authorita 
tive opinions in the contrary direction, Lord Mansfield 
decided, in the case of the negro Somersett, whose master, 
Mr. Charles Stewart, sought to take him from England to 
Jamaica, that 

"The state of slavery is of such a nature that it is incapable of 
being introduced on any reasons, natural or political, but only by 
positive law. . . . It is so odious that nothing can be suffered 
to support it but positive law. Whatever inconveniences, there 
fore, may follow from the decision, I cannot say that this case is 
allowed or approved by the law of England, and therefore the 
black must be discharged." 



1 Partition of Africa, p. 83. 



380 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. 



African slavery was thus decided to be illegal in England ; 
but if the slave returned to the place of his slavery, there 
was nothing to prevent his reversion to the slave status. 

"In 1787,* Clarkson, Wilberforce, and others formed them 
selves into an association to secure the abolition of the slave 
trade. In 1788 a Bill was passed in the British Parliament to 
regulate it. At this time the annual export of slaves from Africa 
amounted to 200,000." 

In 1793 the association just mentioned established a 
colon) for freed slaves at Sierra Leone, manning it with 
negroes collected from Jamaica, London, and Nova Scotia, 
and a considerable number of white people. The original 
colonists were not happily chosen ; the results were dis 
appointing.- 

The first edicts forbidding slave trade were issued on 
the same day in 1/92 by Denmark and Nonvay. The 
trade was prohibited to their subjects after the beginning 
of 1803. In 1794 an Act f the United States was passed 
forbidding slave trade to any foreign country. In 1807 
an Act of the British Parliament made the trade illegal 
for British subjects, and a law of the United States 
forbad the import of slaves into the Union. Between 
1807 an d 1^15 most of the other Christian Powers 
assumed a similar attitude, and on February 8, 1815, at 
the Congress of Vienna, the Plenipotentiaries of Great 
Britain, France, Sweden, Russia, Portugal, Prussia, Spain, 
and Austria declared, " in the names of their Sovereigns, 



1 Partition of Africa, p. 83. 

2 Zachary, the father of Lord Macaulay, was one of the first 
Governors. For interesting details, see Sir George Trevelyan s Life 
of Lord Macaulay, chap. i. 



SLAVERY. 381 



their wish of putting an end to a scourge which has 
so long desolated Africa, degraded Europe, and afflicted 
humanity." But it was left to each Power to choose 
for itself the time and method for causing its subjects to 
abandon the practice. 

During the next seven years, seven of the eight Powers 
which signed the declaration of Vienna 

" passed 1 laws having for their object entirely to prevent the 
subjects of their several States from engaging in this traffic. One 
only, Portugal, still permitted it in its own territories and factories 
south of the Equator, but had prohibited the trade by its subjects 
north of the Equator ; and all the maritime Powers of Europe 
and the United States of America, as well as the South American 
Governments, with the exception of Brazil, had equally by law 
prohibited their subjects and citizens from carrying it on." 

But unfortunately the enactment of a law or the ratifica 
tion of a treaty in the capital does not necessarily involve 
obedience in the corners of the world, least of all from 
such persons as are likely to turn their hands to slave 
trading. The progress made in suppression was slow, and 
in consequence the British Government caused the Duke 
of Wellington to bring the subject forward at the Con- 
gress of Verona in 1822. 

The Duke of Wellington declared to the Congress that 
the traffic in slaves was being carried on to a greater 
extent than ever before : that he could prove that in 
seven months of 1821, 38,000 slaves had been shipped 
from the African coast, and that between July, 1820, and 
October, 1821, not less than 352 vessels (of which each 
would carry 500 to 600 slaves) had entered the ports and 

1 Memorandum of Duke of Wellington presented to Congress of 
Verona, 1822, (Slave Trade Parliamentary Print, May, 1823.) 



382 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



rivers of Africa. He added that the trade was generally 
carried on under the flag of France. France was the 
only great Maritime Power of Furope which had not con 
cluded a Treaty with Great Britain for giving to certain of 
the ships of war of each contracting party a limited power 
of search and capture of ships belonging to the other sus 
pected of slave trade. lie proposed that the Plenipo 
tentiaries should adopt Declarations exhorting the Mari 
time Powers to proclaim slave trading to be piracy, 
withdrawing the protection of the flag from any persons, 
not natives of their respective States, using it to cover 
slave trading, and refusing admission into their dominions 
of the produce of Portugal and Brazil, where alone the 
laws allowed the slave trade ; and lastly, that the other 
Powers should join with Great Britain in entreating the 
King of France to adopt some of those measures for put 
ting down the slave trade which had been found effectual 
by other countries. The British proposals were not agree 
able to France. The Congress therefore adopted a resolu 
tion which pledged no Power to more than inquiry. 

In 1831 the French Government agreed to a Treaty 
with Great Britain, conferring a mutual right of search. 
In 1833 < in ^ ct f the British Parliament abolished 
slavery throughout the British colonies, and assigned 
,20,000,000 for compensation to slave owners. It came 
into force August I, 1834. The slaves were to pass to 
freedom through seven years l of apprenticeship, but this 

1 The Government proposal was that all slaves should serve a 
twelve years apprenticeship to their owners. Macaulay, who was a 
member of the Government, opposed this, going so far as to put his 
resignation in the hands of the Prime Minister. He said : " In free 
countries the master has a choice of labourers, and the labourer has 



SLAVERY. 383 



was found unsatisfactory both to master and slave, and 
a subsequent Act of Abolition conferred complete and 
immediate freedom. In 1841 Austria, France, Great 
Britain, Prussia, and Russia concluded a Treaty granting 
the right of search under stipulated conditions to each 
other s vessels of war, engaging to prohibit the slave 
trade to their subjects, and to declare it piracy, thus 
making general the laws already in force in Great Britain. 
But the United States Minister in Paris succeeded ~ in 
rousing French public opinion on the subject, and in 
convincing the French Government that the concession 
of a mutual right of search would be dangerous to 



a choice of masters ; but in slavery it is always necessary to give 
despotic power to the master. This bill leaves it to the magistrate to 
keep peace between master and slave. Every time that the slave 
takes twenty minutes to do that which the master thinks he should do 
in fifteen, recourse must be had to the magistrate. Society would day 
and night be in a constant state of litigation, and all differences and 
difficulties must be solved by judicial interference." " The magistrate 
would be accountable to the Colonial Office, and the Colonial Office to 
the House of Commons, in which every lash which was inflicted under 
magisterial authority would be told and counted. My apprehension 
is that the result of continuing for twelve years this dead slavery - 
this state of society destitute of any vital principle will be that the 
whole negro population will sink into weak and drawling inefficacy, 
and will be much less fit for liberty at the end of the period than at 
the commencement. My hope is that the system will die a natural 
death ; that the experience of a few months will so establish its utter 
inefficiency as to induce the planters to abandon it, and to substitute 
for it a state of freedom." Four years of the provisional system 
brought all parties to acquiesce in the premature termination of a 
state of things which denied to the negro the blessings of freedom, 
and to the planter the profits of slavery. From Sir G. Trevclyan s 
Life of Lord Macaiilay, chap. v. 

2 Lawrence, Visitation and Search, p. 44. 



384 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



the liberty of the seas. In consequence the Treaty was 
not ratified by France. In 1842 the United States en 
gaged with Great Britain to maintain a naval force of at 
least 80 guns on the African coast. In 1845 the Treaty of 
1831 between Great Britain and France was superseded by 
a fresh Convention, by which both countries agreed to keep 
a squadron of at least twenty-six cruisers on the West 
Coast of Africa. These were to blockade in concert 
some 3,000 miles of coast. The mutual right of search 
ceased. After verification of the colours, no vessel of 
war might interfere further with a merchant ship belong 
ing to the other nation. The Convention was to have 
been in force for ten years, but in 1849 it was modified, 
and thenceforward France was no longer bound to keep 
more than twelve cruisers on the coast. 

Admiral Sir Walter IIunt-Grubbc, who served on the 
West Coast from 1845 to 1848, has told me that our 
squadron mostly consisted of brigs heavily sparred and 
canvassed. The slave trade to Brazil and Cuba was then 
actively carried on. From the former place slavers came 
in great numbers, they often sailed three in company, 
being content if only one got off clear. Generally speak 
ing, they flew Brazilian colours or none. Fvery other ves 
sel, or two out of three of those encountered, were slavers. 
Our boats were detached always, the length of cruise 
being governed by the quantity of provisions that could 
be stowed. They always cruised in couples and close in 
shore, while the brigs worked the offing. 

By the year 1858 the Brazilian Government had suc 
ceeded in stopping the import of slaves into their country. 
In Cuba the Spanish authorities were not in earnest, and 
under the flag of the United States some 30,000 slaves 



SLA VER Y. 385 



were yearly imported. The published reports show con 
stant complaints that the United States did not maintain 
the stipulated squadron on the African coast, and that 
their laws were inadequate. If the flag was rightly 
assumed, and the ship s papers in order, no British 
cruiser might seize a guilty vessel. Again, if no slaves 
were on board, though all the equipment showed that 
the ship was on a slave-trade venture, not even a ship 
of war of the United States might detain her. How 
ever, in 1862, the United States agreed to a mutual 
right of search. In December, 1865, the constitution of 
the United States was amended, so that slavery ceased 
to exist. The Cuban authorities were brought to enforce 
the laws against the import of slaves, and in a very short 
time the transatlantic slave trade ceased. By degrees the 
different States of the new world decreed the abolition of 
the status of slavery. 

In 1885 the duty of putting an end to the slave trade in 
Africa found mention in the Act of Berlin, and in 1889-90 
the Representatives of seventeen States 1 met in Conference, 
thoroughly discussed this and kindred subjects. Their 
conclusions were embodied in the Brussels Act. As this 
Treaty contains one hundred Articles, it is impossible to 
do more than briefly summarize it here. It opens with a 
declaration that the most effectual means for counteracting 
the slave trade in the interior of Africa are the following : - 

" i. Progressive organization of the administrative, judicial, 
religious and military services in the African territories placed 
under the Sovereignty or Protectorate of civilized nations. 

1 Great Britain, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, 
Congo Free State, United States, France, Italy, Netherlands, Persia^ 
Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Turkey and Zanzibar. 

C C 



386 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 

" 2. The gradual establishment in the interior, by the Powers 
to which the territories are subject, of strongly occupied stations. 

" 3. The construction of roads, and in particular of railways, 
giving easy access to inland waters, and with the object of super 
seding the present means of transport by men. 

" 4. Establishment of steamboats on the inland navigable waters 
and on the lakes, supported by fortified posts established on the 
banks. 

"5. Establishment of telegraphic lines. 

" 6. Organization of expeditions and flying columns. 

" 7. Restriction of the importation of firearms and ammunition." 

Chapter I. of the Act deals with the measures to be 
taken in the places of origin. It is promised that the penal 
laws of each country shall be made to include all kinds of 
slave dealing and slave trade, and that on the continent 
any fugitive slave claiming protection shall receive it. It 
deals with the conditions under which arms and ammuni 
tion may be introduced. 

Chapter II. treats of caravan routes, and the land 
transport of slaves. The Powers undertake to establish 
posts at convenient places, to watch that slaves brought 
from the interior shall not be sold or shipped from the 
coast, and to protect freed slaves, especially children. 

Chapter III. speaks of the repression of the sea-borne 
slave trade. The provisions of existing Treaties granting 
reciprocal right of visit, search, and capture are restricted 
to vessels under 500 tons, and to a defined area which 
includes the East Coast of Africa from Quilimane north- 
Wards, and the coasts of Arabia, Persia, and Belochistan. 
Any slave who may have taken refuge on board a ship 
of war of any signatory Power is to be immediately and 
definitively liberated, any slave detained against his wish 
in a native vessel may claim his liberty. 



SLAVERY. 387 



Chapter IV. relates to countries to which slaves are 
sent, whose institutions recognise domestic slavery. It is 
promised that slave traffic shall be prohibited and watched 
for, that fugitive slaves reaching the frontiers of such 
countries shall be considered free, and that Liberation 
Offices shall be established. 

Chapter V. chiefly deals with the International Maritime 
Office to be established at Zanzibar, and the protection 
of liberated slaves. 

Chapter VI. lays down rules for the traffic in spirituous 
liquors. 

The Act of Brussels was ratified by all the Powers that 
signed it, with the exception of France, which provision 
ally reserved, for an ulterior understanding, the clauses 
relating to visit, search, detention, and trial of suspected 
vessels. 

The space allotted for this chapter does not allow of any 
account of slavery in the North African Mohammedan 
States. It is important however to observe that on 
November 21, 1895, a Convention was signed by Great 
Britain and Egypt, of which Article V. stipulates that 
" every slave on Egyptian territory is entitled to his full 
and complete freedom." 

It will be allowed that the history outlined above clearly 
shows the leading part taken by Great Britain in the 
movement of Christendom against slavery and the slave 
trade. Although neither public opinion in England, nor 
the policy founded on it by successive Governments, has 
been, always equally steady and decided, yet on the whole 
during this century the repression of slavery and the slave 
trade has constantly been aimed at, and neither pains nor 
money has been spared, A naval force has always been 



3SS HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 

maintained in slave-trade waters. Its brilliant exploits 
have been many, and some have been recorded, but they 
who know the nature of the service will allow that these 
are surpassed in merit by the unrecorded patient perform 
ance of dull duty in boat work, under the depressing influ 
ences of bad climate, poor food, and monotonous loneliness. 
Diplomatic influence has constantly been employed ; its 
activity may be gauged by a glance at the Index to 
Hertslct s Treaties, where it will be seen that the mere 
enumeration of the slave-trade Treaties and laws in which 
Great Britain is interested (exclusive of those with African 
chiefs) fills thirty pages. As regards money, besides the 
constant charge for the slave-trade squadron, and the 
20,000,000 voted in 1833 to compensate holders of slaves 
in British Colonies, 600,000 was given in 1815 to Portu 
gal, and 400,000 in 1818 to Spain, as compensation for 
abolishing the slave trade. 

EAST AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE. 

For many centuries the East Coast of Africa appears to 
have been a source for the supply of slaves. Sir Bartle 
Frere said, before a House of Commons Committee, that 

" Before any authentic Greek history it is quite clear that there 
Was a very considerable trade on this coast." 

Sir R, Burton l says : 

"The Zanzibar slave depot is so situated that its market was 
limited only to the extent of Western Asia. From Ras Hafun 
to the Kilimani River was gathered the supply for the Red Sea, 
for the Persian Gulf, for the Peninsula of Hindustan, and for the 
extensive regions of the East." 

1 Zanzibar, vol. i., p. 458. 



SLAVERY. 389 



In the early years of this century very little was known 
of the East Coast of Africa. In 1811, Captain Smee was 
sent to investigate in the H. E. I. C. S. Ternate. He re 
ported that till then the English had had very little com 
munication with Zanzibar, though the French frequently 
went there from the Mauritius for slaves and Mocha coffee. 
Previous to his arrival only one English vessel had touched 
at the island since Admiral Rlankett s visit in 1799. Blan 
ket* heard that no British ships had been there within the 
memory of the oldest person then living. The infrequent 
communication would largely account for the delay which 
took place before any Treaty was made with the rulers of 
Muskat, to which, until 1862, the Zanzibar coast belonged. 

The following is Captain Smee s description of the 
Zanzibar slave market. It continued unchanged until 
1873, when it was closed. As long as the barter of slaves 
takes place, so long must the incidents described by 
Captain Smee continue. I do not know that they are 
less odious for taking place in private. 

" The show commences about four o clock in the afternoon. 
The slaves, set off to the best advantage by having their skins 
cleaned and burnished with cocoa-nut oil, their faces painted with 
red and white stripes, which is here esteemed elegance, and the 
hands, noses, ears, and feet ornamented with a profusion of 
bracelets of gold and silver and jewels, are ranged in a line, 
commencing with the youngest and increasing to the rear accord 
ing to their size and age. At the head of this file, which is 
composed of all sizes and ages from six to sixty, walks the person 
who owns them ; behind and at each side two or three of his 
domestic slaves, armed with swords and spears, serve as a guard. 
Thus ordered, the procession begins and passes through the 
market place and principal streets, the owner holding forth in a 
kind of song the good qualities of his slaves and the high prices 



39 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION, 



that have been offered for them. When any of them strike a 
spectator s fancy, the line immediately stops, and a process of 
examination ensues, which, for minuteness, is unequalled in any 
cattle market in Europe. The intending purchaser, having ascer 
tained there is no defect in the faculties of speech, hearing, etc., 
that there is no disease present, and that the slave does not snore 
in sleeping, which is counted a very great fault, next proceeds to 
examine the person : the mouth and teeth are first inspected, and 
afterwards every part of the body in succession." . . . "The 
slave is then made to run or walk a little way to show that there 
is no defect about the feet ; and after which, if the price be agreed 
to, they are stripped of their finery and delivered over to their 
future master. I have frequently counted between twenty and 
thirty of these files in the market, some of which contained about 
thirty. Women with children new born hanging at their breasts, 
and others so old they can scarcely walk, are sometimes seen 
dragged about in this manner. I observed they had in general 
a very dejected look; some groups appeared so ill-fed that their 
bones seemed as if ready to penetrate the skin." 

The first steps taken by Great Britain against the slave 
trade on the East Coast were in 1822, when an engagement 
was obtained from the Imam of Muskat, by which he 
promised to prohibit and prevent the sale of slaves to any 
Christian nation, and to allow H.B.M. ships to seize all 
Arab vessels loaded with slaves found to the east of a line 
drawn from Cape Delgado to Diu Head, passing 60 
miles east of Socotra Island. In 1839 this treaty was 
confirmed, and on the ground that " the selling of males 
and females, who are free, is contrary to the Mohammedan 
religion," the sale of Somalis was made piracy. In 1843 
the following measure, known as Act No. V. of 1843, was 
passed by the Indian Government. It has had the effect 
of bringing slavery to an end in the countries where it is 
law. I "ive it /// extenso : 



SLAVERY. 391 



" An Act for declaring and amending the law regarding the con 
dition of slavery within the territories of the East India 
Company. 

" i. It is hereby enacted and declared that no public office 
shall, in execution of any decree or order of Court, or for the 
enforcement of any demand of rent or revenue, sell or cause to 
be sold any person, or the right to the compulsory labour or 
service of any person, on the ground that such person is in a 
state of slavery. 

" 2, And it is hereby declared and enacted that no right arising 
out of an alleged property in the person and services of another 
as a slave shall be enforced by any Civil or Criminal Court 
or Magistrate within the territories of the East India Company. 

" 3. And it is hereby declared and enacted that no person 
who may have acquired property by his own industry, or by the 
exercise of any art, calling, or profession, or by inheritance, assign 
ment, gift, or bequest, shall be dispossessed of such property, or 
prevented from taking possession thereof, on the ground that 
such person, or that the person from whom the property may 
have been derived, was a slave. 

"4. And it is hereby enacted that any act which would be 
a penal offence if done to a free man, shall be equally an offence 
if done to any person on the pretext of his being in a condition 
of slavery." 

In 1845 it was agreed with Muskat that the export of 
slaves from the African dominions, or from Africa into the 
Asiatic possessions of the Imam, should be prohibited 
under the severest penalties. British ships of war might 
seize any vessels carrying on slave trade under the Muskat 
flag except those transporting slaves from one port to 
another of the African dominions, which were described as 
between Lamu and Kilwa. In 1850 the Imam authorized 
our vessels to destroy buildings used for slave trade and 



392 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISS 70 W, 

to seize slavers in his creeks or ports. In 1862 Zanzibar 
and Muskat were separated, and the Sultan Majid was 
confirmed as ruler of the Zanzibar Dominions. 

Up to this time but little had been effected towards the 
suppression of the slave trade in East Africa. Slaves 
could still be lawfully transported by sea from one part 
of the Zanzibar Dominions to another. During the months 
of December and January piratical Arabs used to arrive 
from the north. The authorities were quite unable to 
control their proceedings ; in Zanzibar and in Kilwa these 
Arabs would make up a cargo by purchase and theft, and 
when the fair south wind began to blow about the month of 
May, they would be off with a full cargo to Arabia. The 
men-of-war on the station were few, they neither had inter 
preters nor boats specially adapted for cruising, and com 
munication was slow and uncertain. With a clear start as 
far north as Lamu, it was hard if the slave traders could 
not keep clear of the cruisers. The pressure of the British 
Government was unceasing, and in 1863 the Sultan Majid 
decreed that no slaves should be embarked save under 
permit from Zanzibar, which was only to be given to natives 
of the Dominions, and for the transit to Zanzibar. In 1864 
he forbad the leasing of houses to northern Arabs, and the 
transport of slaves by sea between January I and May i. 
Be it remarked that the latter restriction, even if observed, 
gave but slight inconvenience to slave traders, for they 
still had time to make all arrangements before the south 
monsoon blew with too great force. 

In 1870 a Committee of the House of Commons ex 
amined the whole question. At this time the shipment of 
slaves amounted to 25,000 yearly; of these, the greater 
part found their way to Arabia, Persia, Egypt, and Somali- 



SLAVERY. 393 



land. The contraband traffic to Zanzibar and Pemba did 
not fall short of 12,000 annually. In 1873 the late Sir 
Bartle Frere was sent on a special mission to Zanzibar, 
but effected nothing. After his departure Seyid Barghash, 
who was then Sultan, yielded to the representations of 
Dr. (now Sir John) Kirk, the British Political Agent, and 
on June 5, 1873, ratified the Treaty of the same date 
renouncing the transport of slaves by sea, and closing all 
public slave markets in his dominions. The most im 
portant part of the Treaty follows : 

" From this date the export of slaves from the coast of the 
mainland of Africa, whether destined for transport from one 
part of the Sultan s dominions to another, or for conveyance 
to foreign parts, shall entirely cease. And His Highness the 
Sultan binds himself, to the best of his ability, to make an 
effectual arrangement throughout his dominions to prevent and 
abolish the same. And any vessel engaged in the transport 
or conveyance of slaves after this date shall be liable to seizure 
and condemnation by all such naval or other officers or agents 
and such Courts as may be authorized for that purpose on the 
part of Her Majesty." 

In other Articles it was promised that all public slave 
markets should be closed, and that freed slaves should be 
protected. 1 A few months later the Sultan s decrees were 
emphasized by the establishment at Zanzibar of H.M.S. 
London, an old line of battle ship well equipped with boats 
suitable for detached service in watching the coasts of the 



1 In 1875 a supplementary treaty was signed explaining that vessels 
were not to be condemned on account of the presence on board of 
" domestic slaves in attendance on or in discharge of the legitimate 
business of their masters, or of slaves bona fide employed in the navi 
gation of the vessel." 



394 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION, 



Sultan s dominions, more especially of the Island of 
Pemba, which, on account of its clove plantations, has long 
been an insatiable importer of slaves. 

In 1876, always under Dr. Kirk s influence, Seyid 
Barghash issued decrees prohibiting the fitting out of slave 
caravans, and the bringing of slaves to the coast or trans 
porting them by land, and freeing all slaves held in the 
ports of Merka, Magaclosha, Kismayu, Brava, and Warshekr, 

Seyid Barghash was a man of good sense. By no means 
a pliant ruler, he had in slave-trade matters largely 
followed the advice of Great Britain as represented by 
Sir J. Kirk, so much so that our Government found it 
advisable to help him to train and equip a small force of 
soldiers, giving him a present of arms, and lending the 
services of Lieutenant Mathews, R.N. 1 Having at com 
mand the services of a trained force superior to anything 
that could be raised against him, and having amassed a 
considerable sum of ready money, Barghash was able to 
improve on his position as primus inter pares, the leader 
of several great Arabs who would resent too much inter 
ference, -and to become something very near to an absolute 
ruler. By 1883 he had made himself a name that was 
feared. He had shown his power by sending a force to 
Pemba to arrest the murderers of Captain Brownrigg 2 of 
H.M.S. London. The soldiers arc said to have got out 
of hand, and to have committed excesses, but they 
arrested the murderers, notwithstanding efforts made to 

1 This officer has for nearly twenty years faithfully served succes 
sive sultans. By his services to them and to the British Government, 
he has become General Sir Lloyd Mathews, K.C.M.G., and is Prime 
Minister of Zanzibar. 

- Vide infra, p. 417. 



SLA VER Y. 395 



prevent them. Few Arabs would afterwards have ventured 
on any open resistance to His Highness, the more so that 
they knew that the Sultan s policy was also ours. 

In 1883 the export slave trade to the north had ceased. 
On the mainland slaves were still brought to the coast, 
but secretly. The slave trade to the islands had dwindled 
to a petty smuggling. This happy result must be chiefly 
attributed to the well-directed efforts of the Sultan. The 
zeal of the Navy could not alone have achieved it, for 
though the presence of a naval force was most useful, 
indeed indispensable, yet those who ought to know esti 
mate that its efforts did not stop more than one slave 
in twenty on the seas. Its value lay in showing what was 
behind Barghash. 

The time had come to make a fresh departure. The 
London, which was rotten, was sold and broken up, and 
three vice-consuls were stationed on the coast in order to 
stop the slave trade by throwing light on dark places, and 
by assisting the further development of lawful commerce, 
then almost entirely in the hands of British Indians. 
Slavery itself seemed very near its end. Lord Granville, 
then Foreign Secretary, had adopted the view that aboli 
tion would be equitable and fair because the number of 
slaves introduced before the signature of the Treaty of 
1873, and still surviving, was insignificant compared to the 
total number held in slavery, and Sir J. Kirk had warned 
the Sultan that the British Government claimed the right 
to require the liberation of all slaves illegally in slavery. 

But great political events interfered. Germany began 
to seek for colonies in Africa, and until the continent had 
been partitioned little could be clone towards the abolition 
of slavery. It is unnecessary to trace in order all the 



HISTORY OF 7 HE UNIVERSITIES MISSION, 



political changes that have taken place. As regards East 
Africa, it is enough to say that the southern part of the 
Zanzibar mainland dominions stretching inland to Lakes 
Nyasa and Tanganyika has become German, the northern 
part has passed under an Italian Protectorate, and the rest 
under the British Protectorate. However, these years of 
excitement were not entirely barren even from the point of 
view adopted for this chapter. Any delay that may have 
been caused in reaching the goal of our slave-trade policy 
in Zanzibar has been more than made good by the exten 
sion of our influence in the Nyasa region, where Sir H. 
Johnston has for some years been steadily introducing 
good order, and subduing slave-trading chiefs. Also our 
officers have made their presence felt by the slave-trading 
states to the north-west of Uganda. We should hardly 
have undertaken the care of these regions had it not 
been for the emulation roused by German action. 

In Zanzibar itself progress was made, for in September, 
1889, Sir G. Portal obtained from the Sultan Khalifa a 
decree freeing all slaves introduced into the Dominions 
after November I, 1889, and all children born of slave 
parents after January I, 1890. On August I, 1890, at Sir 
C. Euan Smith s instigation, the following was decreed : 

" In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. 

" The following Decree is published by us, Seyyid Ali-bin-Said, 
Sultan of Zanzibar, and is to be made known to, and to be obeyed 
by, all our subjects within our Dominions from this date. 

" i. We hereby confirm all former Decrees and Ordinances 
made by our predecessors against slavery and the slave trade, 
and declare that, whether such Decrees have hitherto been put in 
force or not, they shall for the future be binding on ourselves and 
on our subjects. 



SLAVERY. 397 



"2. We declare that, subject to the conditions stated below, 
all slaves lawfully possessed on this date by our subjects shall 
remain with their owners as at present. Their status shall be 
unchanged. 

" 3. We absolutely prohibit from this date all exchange, sale, 
or purchase of slaves, domestic or otherwise. There shall be no 
more traffic whatever in slaves of any description. Any houses 
heretofore kept for traffic in domestic slaves by slave-brokers shall 
be for ever closed, and any person found acting as a broker for 
the exchange or sale of slaves shall be liable, under our orders, 
to severe punishment, and to be deported from our Dominions. 
Any Arab or other of our subjects hereafter found exchanging, 
purchasing, obtaining, or selling domestic or other slaves shall 
be liable, under our orders, to severe punishment, to deportation, 
and the forfeiture of all his slaves. Any house in which traffic 
Of any kind in any description of slave may take place shall be 
forfeited. 

"4. Slaves may be inherited at the death of their owner only 
by the lawful children of the deceased. If the owner leaves no 
such children, his slaves shall, ipso facto, become free on the 
death of their owner. 

"5. Any Arab or other of our subjects who shall habitually ill- 
treat his slaves, or shall be found in the possession of raw slaves, 
shall be liable, under our orders, to severe punishment, and, in 
flagrant cases of cruelty, to the forfeiture of all his slaves. 

" 6. Such of our subjects as may marry persons subject to 
British jurisdiction, as well as the issue of all such marriages, 
are hereby disabled from holding slaves, and all slaves of such of 
our subjects as are already so married are now declared to be 
free. 

" 7. All our subjects who, once slaves, have been freed by 
British authority, or who have long since been freed by persons 
subject to British jurisdiction, are hereby disabled from holding 
slaves, and all slaves of such persons are now declared to be 
free* 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



" All slaves who. after the date of this Decree, may lawfully 
obtain their freedom, are for ever disqualified from holding slaves 
under pain of severe punishment. 

"8. Every slave shall be entitled, as a right, at any time hence 
forth to purchase his freedom at a just and reasonable tariff to be 
fixed by ourselves and our Arab subjects. The purchase money 
on our order shall be paid by the slave to his owner before a 
Cadi, who shall at once furnish the slave with a paper of freedom, 
and such freed slaves shall receive our special protection against 
ill-treatment. This protection shall also be specially extended to 
all slaves who may gain their freedom under any of the provisions 
of this Decree. 

" 9. From the date of this Decree every slave shall have the 
same rights as any of our other subjects who are not slaves to 
bring and prosecute any complaints or claims before our Cadis. 

" Given under our hand and seal this 151!! day of El Haj, 1307 
(ist August, A.D. 1890), at Zanzibar. 

"(Signed) ALI-IHN-SAID, 

" Sultan of Zanzibar." 
(Seal.) 

As may be imagined, the publication of this Decree 
simultaneously with the announcement of the British Pro 
tectorate produced great excitement in Zanzibar, so much 
so that on August 20 the Sultan issued the following 
proclamation : 

{Translation.} 
" From Seyyid Ali-bin-Said-bin-Sultan. 

"Be it known to all men our subjects with reference to what I 
wrote on the i5th El Haj (ist August, 1890), and put up in the 
Custom-house : 

" If any slave runs away from his master, or does anything 
wrong, punish him as before. If any slave does great wrong, 
kills any one, or steals, send him to the Liwali, who will punish 
him : you will see it and be pleased^ 



SLA VER y. 399 



" If any slave brings money to the Cadi to purchase his free 
dom, his master shall not be forced to take the money. 

"(Signed) SEYYID ALI-BIN-SAID. 
"Zanzibar, 3 Moharrem, 1308 
(August 20, 1890)." 

The measures taken by the Imperial British East African 
Company on the mainland coast must not pass unnoticed. 
It will be remembered that in the latter part of 1888 the 
stretch of coast just conceded to the German Company 
rose in rebellion. The natives on the British coast 
stayed quiet, but there was ground for anxiety lest they 
too should rise. The slave owners of Mombasa and the 
neighbourhood were seriously irritated by the action of 
certain missionaries who had given asylum to fugitive slaves 
in their stations some ten or fifteen miles from the town. 
The slaves declined to return to their masters, the masters 
were resolved to recover their slaves, the missionaries per 
sisted in giving asylum. Mr. George Mackenzie, the Ad 
ministrator, settled this dangerous difficulty. He persuaded 
the owners to look on their fugitives as lost property, and 
to execute papers of freedom in consideration of a compen 
sation of 25 dollars for each slave. About 850 slaves were 
thus manumitted by their owners, 1 who received some 
3,500 in compensation. The Company paid 1,300. 
The rest was made good from other sources. There were 
besides at the mission stations some 500 fugitives whose 
masters belonged to interior tribes, and did not appear. 
These obtained their freedom by the subsequent pro 
clamation of May i, 1890. 

On nearly similar lines Mr. Mackenzie arranged for the 

1 January, 1889. 



400 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 

manumission of some 3,000 or 4,000 slaves, fugitives from 
their masters, who for mutual protection had formed a 
settlement at Fulladoyo, not far from Mombasa. In 
February, 1890, the Arab owners on the coast consented 
that any runaway should be allowed to redeem himself for 
15 dollars. To help in raising the money the Company 
offered employment as caravan porters. Not many of the 
Fulladoyo runaways availed themselves of this oppor 
tunity. But the principles of a low price of redemption 
and of protection to the runaways were established. 

On May i, 1890, Mr. Mackenzie induced a public 
assembly of all the chief people in Mombasa to agree 
to a proclamation in which all tribes living for three 
hundred miles inland of the British coast-line were de 
scribed as free and incapable of slavery. The proclam 
ation was in general terms and bore a retrospective 
construction. It need hardly be observed that during 
the Company s administration of the mainland coast 
every Company s officer did his best to stop slave trading. 

To return to the Islands. In March, 1893, the Sultan 
Hamcd-bin-Thwain acceded to the throne of Zanzibar, 
and undertook to observe all engagements, and carry out 
all decrees issued by his predecessors. The status of 
slavery in the Islands will soon be a thing of the past, for 
both the late and the present Governments have pledged 
themselves to deal with the matter at the earliest moment. 

SUPPLY OK SLAVES. 

It is perhaps realized by few that the Washenzi (per 
sons belonging to an inland tribe) pass their life in con 
stant dread of attack. In parts they fear to have too great 
a harvest lest they should attract the attention of preda- 



SLAVERY, 



401 



tory neighbours ; they prefer to go hungry part of the 
year. 

Wars are of constant occurrence amongst the inland 
tribes, and slaves are made, but there is no greater 
stimulus and encouragement to bloodshed and man-steal 
ing than the arrival of a Swahili slave-trading caravan 
from the coast. Equipped with trade goods (that is 
calico, beads, powder, coloured handkerchiefs, wire, tur 
bans, and such like), and armed with guns, sometimes 




A CAPTIVE IN SLAVE YOKE. 
(.Waiting for the Caravan to be made u/>.) 

the venture of one man, sometimes the combined venture 
of several, the caravan arrives at a native village. Slaves 
and ivory are bought up, and further raids are encouraged 
and assisted. Whatever may be thought of the institution 
of slavery, presumably no one would defend that of slave 
raiding. A sleeping village is stealthily surrounded and 
suddenly attacked, the thatched roofs are set in flames, 
the frightened people fired on as they come out of their 
poor huts, the men shot down without mercy, and the 

D D 



402 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. 



women and children seized and carried off. Those who 
escape the slavers fall prey to a lion or a leopard, or die 
of wounds and starvation, and their village becomes jungle. 
Such is the process which has been going on for many 
years. Where the reign of law has been established, it 
has to cease, as, for example, in British Central Africa, 
where Sir H. Johnston, with his Sikh contingent, has 
lately destroyed the power of the slave-trading chiefs, but 
of course there are still large areas where these things are 
not interfered with. I give the following from Captain 
Lugard s Rise of our East African Empire, to show what 
has been clone even recently. A small party of slave 
traders settled in Mpata by permission of the Wankonde, 
a peaceable, agricultural people, rich in cattle. The slavers 
gradually made their villages strong. Living among the 
Wankonde is another tribe, the Wahenga. With these 
the slavers began to intrigue, promising them the land 
if they would help to seize the Wankonde. In unholy 
alliance they attacked village after village, shooting down 
the men, and packing off the women and children to pay 
for fresh supplies of guns and powder. 

" At length these barbarities culminated in an act of singular 
brutality. The Wankonde who had fled were decoyed by pro 
mises of peace and friendship to a place near an arm of the 
lake called the Kambwe Lagoon. The banks of this bog were 
fringed with dense reeds, now dry in the hot weather ; its shallow 
water swarmed with crocodiles. The wretched Wankonde were 
treacherously attacked, and volley after volley was fired into the 
dense crowds of men, women, and children who had fled to con 
ceal themselves in the reeds. To these the slavers set fire, and 
gave the wretched people the option of rushing into the bog to 
be devoured by the crocodiles, or of being roasted alive, or of 
coming out to be shot down wholesale, or captured and enslaved, 



SLAVERY. 403 



while their assailants climbed the trees to watch the butchery, 
and fire with more advantage on the terrified masses among the 
reeds " (p. 52). 

Besides being obtained by raids and by purchase from 
native chiefs, some slaves are kidnapped. A woman goes 
out to draw water, and never returns. A child wanders 
out of sight of its parents, and is snapped up. Or again, 
a man may offend against the tribal code, and be sold by 
the community. 

When the caravan has provided itself with slaves and 
ivory, the coashvard march begins. I shall not attempt 
to determine whether the process of securing the slaves 
or of conducting them to the coast is the most cruel. 
Thanks to the establishment of British and German 
authority on the coast, it is no longer possible for large 
caravans to come down without being discovered. It 
seems well, however, to give an account of the ways of 
a slave caravan, because one may be permitted to doubt 
whether the supply will ever be quite stopped before the 
institution of slavery has ceased to exist. Besides, travel 
ling in a slave caravan is an experience known to most of 
the slaves now in slavery, and has had its effect on many 
persons now under the care of the Universities Mission. 
The manners and customs of slave caravans are not open 
to European inspection. The account which follows was 
taken from some sepoys discharged in the interior by Dr. 
Livingstone. They reached Zanzibar in 1867, when their 
story was taken down at the British Agency : 

"We left Mataka with a slave caravan of about nine hundred 
persons. The slaves were yoked together in line with forked 
sticks, their hands bound ; women and children were simply 
bound, We set out at daylight, and pitched camp about three 



44 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



in the afternoon. The slaves were compelled to sleep in rows, 
head to head, under a central bar, to which the ends of their 
forked sticks were lashed ; or they were arranged in groups of 
from five to ten in such a manner that their sticks could all be 
brought together in the middle of the group and lashed. They 
had to sleep on their backs, their wrists bound before them, 
helpless, and unable to move even to satisfy the needs of nature. 
"They were fed once a day with boiled jowarree and water. 




SHOWING HOW SLAVES ARE YOKED. 

They were cheap : an adult cost two yards of common cotton 
cloth, a child one yard. They were urged, pressed on the march 
like cattle ; beaten about the face and head. We witnessed 
many murders, many deaths ; and the path was strewn with the 
bodies of those who had been killed. When we passed up with 
Dr. Livingstone, the road stunk with the way-side corpses ; it was 
so again when we passed down. Every day we came upon the 
plead, anol certainly we witnessed not less than a hundred deaths, 



SLAVERY. 405 



Men were either killed by the club, the dagger, or strangled. I, 
with my own eyes, says one, saw six (at different times) men 
choked to death. The victims were forced to sit leaning against 
a tree, a strip of bark or a thong was looped round the throat and 
stem of the tree, pulled taut from behind, and the slave strangled. 
I saw not less than fifteen slaves clubbed to death by heavy blows 
between the eyes. Children were put to death in this way. I 
have seen a porter in mercy carry a sick slave, but some who 
were so thin and worn that they could not walk, and whose death 
was certain, were tossed aside into the bush. Others, who had 
been so mercilessly beaten that but little life remained in them, 
were unyoked, and with a kick and an oath thrown aside to take 
their chances in the wilderness. An infant, not long born, was 
torn from its mother s breast and pitched screaming into the 
bush. She was dragged relentlessly along. These things were 
done by the servants of the Arab owners, but always by the 
Arab s order. 

"The large and valuable tusks were not carried by the slaves, 
they were borne along by the porters or the servants of the Arabs ; 
the small tusks, so light that they could be carried in one hand, 
were carried by a few, not all, of the slaves." 

SLAVE TRADE BY SEA. 

In former days the slaves could, on arrival at the coast, 
be openly shipped and taken to Zanzibar or elsewhere. 
For many years, however, the bringing of slaves to the 
coast and their transport by sea has been illegal, and the 
slaves have had to be hidden in houses and plantations 
near to the coast, until the means of taking them across the 
water have been prepared. There has also, I imagine, been 
a considerable increase of cultivation near the coast, and 
therefore an increased demand for slaves on the littoral. 
Of late years slaves intended for shipment have been 
largely marched by stolen ways along the coast until 



406 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



opposite to Zanzibar Island, and then smuggled by ones 
and twos across the narrow channel in small dhows and 
canoes. Such a traffic is impossible to suppress if the 
inducement to it is high, and the inhabitants are, on the 
whole, in its favour. The method followed in earlier times, 
and perhaps, when opportunity offers, even now, was to 
charter a dhow, put in a few big stones for ballast, lay 




A CARGO OF RESCUED SLAVES. 
(J^ roi/i a photograph taken at Zanzibar.) 

down sticks tied together so as to form a rough mat, and 
then cram in slaves men, women, and children a scanty 
allowance of food and water, which failed entirely in case 
of any delay, and then to sail for the destination. A slave 
dhow is only partly decked, so that fresh air comes down 
to some extent, but even with that the inside of a slave 
dhow is a bad place, Many of the slaves are diseased 



SLAVERY. 407 



after the privations of the march, and all are dirty. They 
are crowded and pressed together, and cannot get out of 
where they are even for a moment. As an example of 
how they are packed, the writer may instance a dhow 
39 feet 6 inches long, taken by himself. In her were 
99 slaves and about 20 slave owners and dhow s crew. 

The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, to which alone 
slaves have been taken in any numbers during the last 
fifteen years, are each in area about the size of Bedford 
shire. The nearest part of Zanzibar is about seventeen 
miles, the nearest part of Pemba about twenty-seven miles, 
from the mainland. The channel that divides Zanzibar 
and Pemba is some twenty-four miles across. Nowadays 
the obstacles in the way of the slave trader are much more 
serious than they used to be. The watch along the coast 
has been improved by European supervision, so it is much 
more difficult than it was to successfully smuggle slaves. 
To show how severe the blockading service entrusted to 
the navy used to be the writer may observe that he 
belonged to H.M.S. London one year and nine months. Of 
that time he passed some fifty-two weeks on detached 
service in boats. He sailed (or steamed) some 7,200 
miles, and of 513 dhows sighted he boarded about 420* 
and made seven, prizes. He took, in all, some 190 slaves. 
The following account, extracted from the Times of 
January 5, 1882, gives a good idea of the methods by 
which the London for about ten years maintained with her 
boats a steady blockade against the sea-borne slave trade. 

" There are many distinct classes of native craft, any of which 
may be used for the slave traffic, but all are by Europeans indis 
criminately called by the one name, * dhow. The most common 
sort, properly called betela, are, as a rule, from 35 feet to 



408 HISTORY 01< THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION. 



45 feet long, and, perhaps, 10 feet greatest beam. They are built 
of wood, and are roughly but strongly put together. The fore 
and after ends are decked over, and over the centre of the dhow, 
as a protection for the cargo, a roof is built with a framework of 
sticks, and poles, and a thatch of plaited cocoa-nut leaves. These 
dhows have generally one mast, which rakes very much forward. 
The crew of the above-described dhow would consist of a captain, 
three or four sailors, and two boys. The captain is generally a 




A CROUP OF ARAK SLAVK DKALEKS. 
(/ ror/i a photograph taken at Zanzibar.} 

fair seaman and a good pilot that is to say, is well acquainted 
with the peculiarities of the coast about which he trades. The 
crew consists of natives of Zanzibar and the coast, and sometimes 
is partly composed of slaves. 

"There are four ways in which the watch kept by our boats and 
by the soldiers of the Sultan is evaded, and by which slaves are 
brought into Zanzibar and Pemba : i, A great number of slaves 
are shipped in a dhow as its cargo, 2, A cargo of slaves is 



SLAVERY. 409 



shipped in a dhow flying a French flag. 3. The slaves are shipped 
singly or in pairs in small dhows and canoes. 4. The slaves are 
made to pass themselves off while they are afloat as free. I will 
briefly describe these methods in the order in which they are 
mentioned. 

"(i) When slaves are to be sent across in this manner, either 
from a coast port to Zanzibar or Pemba, or from Zanzibar to 
Pemba, a dhow is chartered, sometimes as much as $12 per slave 
being paid as passage money. The dhow is prepared for the 
reception of the slaves by having sand or sticks laid down in her 
hold. No extra provision or water is considered necessary. The 
slaves are shipped at night, accompanied either by their owners 
in person or by their agents. These people are generally well 
armed, but for them to make any use of their weapons against 
our boats is the rarest occurrence. After the slaves are on board 
the dhow leaves as soon as possible. If the land to which they 
are bound is sighted by day, they generally lower their sail and 
wait till it is dark, when they again hoist their sail and run in till 
quite close to the land, when, as a rule, they again lower their 
sail, which makes them nearly invisible. They then quietly 
paddle in to the shore, run the dhow s bow on the beach, and 
land the slaves with the dealers who have come in charge of the 
cargo. If they have landed on the main island of Zanzibar or 
Pemba, their trouble is nearly over, for our men have not the 
right to search for slaves in these places. The slaves can be 
taken at once to their destination, or, if the Sultan s soldiers are 
in the neighbourhood, they can be hidden in the bush, and taken 
to their journey s end as opportunity offers. But if they have 
landed on one of the above-described off-lying islands, they are 
still in danger from our boats, as the crews are allowed to search 
these islands and seize any newly landed slaves that they find. 
In this case the crew clean the inside of the dhow thoroughly, 
so that no trace of her last employment may be left. They very 
often cut wood in order to gain the appearance of a trading dhow. 
The next morning the dhow sails into her port, and is very likely 



4io 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



examined on the way by the man-of-war s boat whose watch she 
had the previous night evaded. The safe arrival of the cargo is 
then made known to the consignee, who charters canoes, which 
the next night go to the island and bring over the slaves who 
have been all day hidden in the bush. 

"(2) I will now explain how it is that slaves can be transported 
in dhows flying French colours. There is, unfortunately, no treaty 




SLAVE DHOW FLYING THE FRENCH FLAG. CAPTURED Al RIL, 1893. 

between Great Britain and France to enable our ships of war to 
examine dhows flying French colours with a view to their deten 
tion if they are found to be engaged in the slave trade. The 
utmost that our officers may do is to board them in order to 
examine their papers. If these are found to be correct, their pro 
ceedings can be no further interfered with, and no question may 
be put to any one on board. One vessel under the French flag 
was lately taken by the police of the Sultan in Zanzibar harbour 



SLAVERY. 411 



with ninety-four slaves on board. She was handed over by His 
Highness to the French consul, who has himself detained three 
or four vessels. But this officer being entirely without means at 
his disposal to observe the proceedings of craft at Pemba which 
bear this flag, it is clear that the permission so readily given to 
the Arabs to use these colours decidedly increases the difficulties 
attendant on the suppression of the slave trade. This system 
has, in fact, for some time neutralized our endeavours on the seas. 

" (3) This method is, I think, only practised at night at the 
south end of Zanzibar, where the island is closest to the main 
land. Canoes can cross and come back the same night, and, 
being very small and low, the men in the canoe can see the man- 
of-war s boat long before they are seen. I may here point out, 
without wandering from the subject, what a great advantage the 
slave dhows have in being able to choose their time for coming 
in. They also have only to keep a sharp look-out for the hour 
that they are in danger, while our men must keep their nerves 
stretched the whole six weeks that they are away from the ship. 

(4) By the above-described methods raw slaves can be trans 
ported by sea, but by the method which I will now describe only 
slaves who can talk Swahili can be taken. It is mostly practised 
between Zanzibar and Pemba, especially at the beginning of the 
clove harvest, when slaves are much wanted in Pemba. By a 
mixture of threats and promises the slave is made to repre 
sent himself or herself as a free person, and is very often supplied 
for this purpose with the free papers which have been issued 
by our Consulate to another slave. The owner or an agent 
travels in company with the slave, who, of course, at the end of 
their voyage resumes his former position. 

" Having given an outline account of the means used by the 
dealers to bring the slaves to the market, I will try to describe 
the way in which Her Majesty s ship, London, on her part, en 
deavours to stop this supply. The London is an old two-decker, 
which was in the year 1874 sent out to Zanzibar, where she has 
since remained, and where she fulfils the combined duties of 



412 HISTORY OF THE UNITE RSI TIES MISSION. 

hospital, prison, factory, victualling-yard, depot, and man-of-war. 
She is provided with a large number of boats, which are sent on 
detached service. These boats, five of which are steam, vary in 
length from 42 feet to 26 feet, and carry crews from twelve to six 
men strong, including always a native interpreter. They are 
armed with rifles, pistols, and swords. The larger boats carry, 
in addition, a y-pounder gun. They are victualled from the ship, 
with often as much as forty-two days provisions. Water for such 
a long period cannot be carried, although, by care and economy, 
the water received from the ship can be made to last for drinking 
through the whole time. For other purposes water can be got 
from the shore. The shore water should never be drunk- 
diarrhoea and fever are its possible effects, while the water from 
the ship, being condensed, is quite wholesome. 

"Since the steamboats can only carry a very limited quantity of 
coal, depots are formed on little islands on the cruising-ground, 
from which they can supply themselves as they want it. ... 
The east coast of Pemba, it will be remembered, is nearly inacces 
sible ; the boats are, therefore, kept on the other coasts. The boats 
are under the charge of a lieutenant, who has usually under him 
a sub-lieutenant, and, perhaps, a boatswain. The boats which 
have no officers are, of course, under the charge of their cox 
swains. The officer in charge sends each boat to a particular 
station to keep a constant look-out and to search every dhow 
that can be supposed to be coming from the mainland of Africa. 
The boat goes to her station, and when she is not chasing remains 
anchored. A constant look-out, day and night, is then kept for 
the whole forty-two days, or perhaps more, that the boat is at 
Pemba. The stations of the boats are frequently changed, and 
every now and again the boats have to go in to the watering- 
places to get fresh water, and to enable the men to wash their 
clothes and to buy vegetables if possible. . . . 

" When a dhow is sighted, the boat gets under way to chase her 
at whatever hour it may be, unless it is convenient to go to her 
in the dinghy, which is a small boat for three men, about ten feet 



SLAVERY. 



413 



long, one of which belongs to each big boat. Suppose a dhow 
to be sighted making in for the land at a distance from the boat 
too great to allow of the dinghy being sent to board her, the awn- 




BRITISII MAN-OF-WAR FIRING ON SLAVE DHOW. 

ings are at once furled, the anchor weighed, and sail made. On 
approaching the chase a rifle is fired across her bows to make her 
lower her sail. Supposing the people in the dhow do not hear, 
or do not choose to take any notice of this first shot, it is re- 



414 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION, 



peated until they do, each time pitching the bullet a little closer. 
The dhow s not stopping need not be proof of her being a slaver, 
for a trading dhow does not always like a delay of an hour, and 
if she sees a chance of getting off without being searched she will 
attempt it. Suppose, however, that on this occasion the dhow 
cannot escape and lowers her sail, the boat on coming up to her 
heaves to, and the officer or coxswain goes to the dhow in the 
dinghy with the interpreter and another man, If she is full of 
slaves, which is seldom the case, there is no doubt about what 
should be done ; but if she is full of cargo and passengers, then 
comes trouble. Every person who can be suspected of being a 
slave must be taken apart and cross-examined in order to prevent 
his being smuggled across in the way I have above described 
for in the presence of the owner or agent a slave would be too 
much frightened to confess his condition. After the examination 
of all suspicious-looking persons on board, the cargo has to be 
searched ; that, however, can be very quickly done, as the officer 
can readily judge whether any one is likely to be concealed in it, 
I think that slaves are not often smuggled across in cargo. The 
dhow is finally allowed to depart when the officer is satisfied of 
the honesty of her proceedings, or is convinced that she is, as the 
blockaders express it, no good. In the other case, when the 
dhow is full of slaves, the proceedings are much simpler ; of 
course, I mean when no resistance is offered. The resistance 
which resulted in the sad death of Captain Brownrigg is the first 
which has been made for many years. Arabs usually sulkily 
acquiesce and comfort themselves with fatalistic proverbs, such 
as God is great, Praise be to God. 

"The arms are taken from the slave dealers and Arabs, and 
the slaves are fed and given water. These poor creatures are 
always hungry and generally ill-favoured. The dhow is taken to 
a safe place in Pemba, and put in charge of a prize crew of two 
men, while the slaves and dealers are all taken into the boat for 
passage to Zanzibar. Close packing cannot be helped. The 
writer has on one occasion sailed a distance of eighty miles, in a 



SLAVERY. 



415 



thirty-six foot launch with fifty-four souls. From having light 
winds this took over two days. Since many of the slaves were 
half-starved and all were very dirty, it may be readily supposed 
that he did not regret his arrival. 

" On reaching Zanzibar, the slaves and prisoners are put on 
board the London, and are as soon as possible sent to the Con 
sulate in order that the 
following case may be 
tried : Our Sovereign Lady 
the Queen against the dhow 
or native vessel , her 
tackle, apparel, and furni 
ture, male and female 
slaves, etc. The Consul 
acts as judge, and hears the 
evidence given by the cap 
tors and the defence offered 
by the prisoners. If it is 
proved to his satisfaction 
that the vessel was engaged 
in the slave trade at the 
time of capture, or that she 
had been so engaged in the 
course of the voyage thus 
interrupted, she and the 
slaves are forfeited to the 
Queen, the dhow is burnt, 
and the slaves are freed. 
The prisoners arc sent to 
the Sultan of Zanzibar, who imprisons them for periods the 
length of which depends upon the Consul s recommendation. 
It should be here mentioned that on detention the dhow is 
measured, and upon the tonnage thence obtained a bounty is 
paid to those belonging to the London^ and to the Admiral on 
the East Indian station," 




ALFRED, A RESCUED SLAVE RECEIVED BY 

THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 

(Frc>t a j Iiotograpli by Dr. Palmer.} 



SLAVERY, 417 



At the time when the writer served in H.M.S. London 
(1879-81), there had for some time been no resistance 
offered by slavers. Many hundreds of dhows had been 
searched and many taken without any attempt at defence, 
It was thought that the dangerous days were passed, and it 
was difficult to be always on the alert. It must be con 
fessed that proper precautions were seldom taken by the 
boats crews before boarding dhows. The writer himself 
captured five dhows full of slaves. They were all taken 
in hours of darkness, but on only one of these occasions, 
as far as he remembers, had he caused his crew to have 
their arms ready. Two of the captures were made in a 
little ten-foot dinghy, others in a twenty-eight-foot steam- 
cutter, but he never encountered more than a passive re 
sistance. An impressive warning was in store for boat 
cruisers in the sad death of Charles Brownrigg, the much- 
liked Captain of the London. 

Captain Brownrigg, the senior naval officer at Zanzibar, 
was a man of a very active temperament. From time to 
time he used to go away himself in a boat to inspect the 
boats on detached service, and whilst away he would board 
and examine any dhows he might encounter. On the 
morning of December 3, 1881, he was in the steam pinnace 
Wave, near Kokota (West Coast of Pemba). All told, his 
crew numbered nine Europeans and two natives. A dhow 
undjr French colours was sighted. Captain Brownrigg 
out on uniform, but did not let the boat s crew take their 
arms for fear of giving offence. I take the rest of the 
stcry from the Acting Consul General s despatch : 

"The pinnace came alongside the dhow, whose captain was 
standing on the poop with a roll of papers in his hand, ready to 
exhibit them. 

E E 



418 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION, 



" The vessels were hardly together, and Captain Brownrigg had 
not had time to look at the papers, when the captain of the dhow 
gave an order, and her crew, who had been lying down concealed, 
suddenly rose up, poured a volley into the pinnace, and then 
boarded her. Yates, the coxswain, who was forward, with one 
foot on the dhow, was fired at, but missed ; he struck one Arab 
down with his hook, and then struggled with another until they 
both fell overboard. Little or no resistance was made by the 
sailors ; four were wounded by the volley, and the rest, being 
unarmed and taken completely by surprise, were speedily driven 
overboard. These saved themselves by swimming, though re 
peatedly fired at in the water by the Arabs. One man only, 
named Monckley, was killed at this time, and his body was not 
recovered. Captain Brownrigg, immediately on seeing the hostile 
attitude of the Arabs, had shouted out to the chief stoker, Full 
speed ahead ; but this order, unfortunately, was not obeyed, 
and he was now left alone to stand the brunt and to defend him 
self as he best could against the Arabs, whose whole attention 
was now directed towards him. He had his sword, and had 
seized a rifle, and was standing in the stern-sheets abaft the 
awning or canopy. Three or four Arabs had jumped on the top 
of this canopy, and, having the advantage, were able to slash and 
hack at him freely with their long double-edged Omani swords. 
Captain Brownrigg shot two of the Arabs with his rifle, and then 
laid about him with the butt end, but he was soon blinded by a 
deep cut across his face just below the eyes, and his head and 
limbs were chopped and gashed in every part. The Arabs were 
so securely placed as to be almost beyond his reach, and he was 
consequently at a great disadvantage, despite of which he stood 
his ground for some time, making a most gallant and desperate 
defence quite alone and unaided; and he even succeeded in 
dispatching another Arab by a blow of his telescope before he 
sank down exhausted under his wounds, when he was shot by the 
Arabs through the heart and then through the head, and fell dead 
on the body of his native servant, Tellis, 



SLAVERY, 419 



" Captain Brownrigg was a very broad and powerful man, and 
would, I have no doubt, have been able to hold his own and 
repulse the Arabs, had it been possible for his men to give him 
the least assistance. That he received more than twenty wounds 
before he succumbed testifies to the stubborn and vigorous de 
fence he made against his antagonists. 

" After dispatching Captain Brownrigg, the Arab crew endea 
voured to sink the pinnace, but in this they failed. They then 
unshipped the rudder and attempted to destroy the machinery by 
firing into it. The boat was then rifled of its contents, the arms 
thrown overboard, and the body of a wounded seaman, named 
Aers, so mutilated that he died within two hours. They also 
killed another wounded seaman, named Bishop, who had taken 
refuge in the dinghy. The Arabs having finished their bloody 
work and disposed, as they thought, of all the boat s crew, re 
turned to the dhow, and, having hauled down the French flag, 
sailed on their course to Weti. 

" At this time the only man in the pinnace not actually dead 
or dying was Tellis, Captain Brownrigg s servant, who had been 
wounded early in the affair and had feigned death afterwards. 
He roused himself when the dhow had left and made a signal. 
Yenning, the chief stoker, who was swimming about near, then 
came on board and got up steam. He then steamed to a reef 
on which the other survivors had taken refuge about a mile off, 
and after taking them on board, proceeded to the head depot to 
report to the Lieutenant in charge what had occurred. 

" Captain Brownrigg and the seaman Aers (the bodies of the 
other two men not having been recovered) were buried in the old 
English cemetery outside the town of Zanzibar on Monday morn 
ing, the 5th instant, with due honours and in the most public 
manner. Captain Brownrigg was greatly esteemed and respected 
in Zanzibar, and the regret felt for his sad death is deep and 
general. 

" That such a daring and unprovoked attack should have been 
rpade on an English man-of-war s boat by the Arab crew of a 



420 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



dhow not superior in numbers, and that it should have been so 
successful, is certainly matter for very great surprise, and the 
causes of it are worthy of serious inquiry and consideration. It 
is impossible to write authoritatively on the subject, until the 
statements of the Arab crew of the dhow, when captured, shall 
have been heard ; but it may be proper for me to state what 
appears to me to have led to this act of aggression. 

"The captain and owner of the dhow is known to have been 
one Hindi bin-Khotum, a supposed French subject, who had 
shortly before been released from prison in Zanzibar, on the 
charge of slave dealing made against him being unproven. His 
dhow was so crowded with slaves that he knew it to be hardly 
possible for them to escape observation, and he knew that, should 
he be taken, he would certainly suffer a prolonged punishment 
for his offence. He was standing on the poop of the dhow as 
he approached the ]}~are, and he could not but have observed 
that the English sailors were entirely unarmed and helpless. It 
is admitted there was not a weapon amongst them. The deep 
feeling of revenge and hatred cherished against us by these 
Arabs at seeing their property in dhows and slaves constantly 
taken from them was aroused within him, and, Arab-like, un 
thinking of consequences, he could not resist taking advantage of 
so unequalled an opportunity. I believe that the attack was 
prompted by quick observation and sudden impulse, and that 
when the captain of the dhow explained his intention to his men 
and gave his orders, they rose at once, poured a volley into the 
pinnace, and rushed on board her. 

"Captain Brownrigg clearly owed the loss of his life to his punc 
tiliousness; out of deference to the French flag he refrained from 
arming his men in order to avoid any demonstration of hostility, 
his intention being firstly to verify her papers and the rightful use 
of the French flag, and then to act as he thought proper. Had 
he been less particular about his attitude in presence of the 
French flag, and had he armed his men, the result would unques 
tionably have been very different. The captain of the dhow, 



SLA VER Y. 



421 



knowing his vessel was so crowded with slaves that it was unlikely 
they would escape observation, and that capture was inevitable, 
thought it best to take the initiative instead of tamely submitting. 



" I have, etc., 

"S. B. MILES." 



It was found on investigation that the dhow had no right 
to French colours. 




ATTACKING A SLAVE DHOW. 

The following is an account of an instance of gallantry 
not inferior to that of Captain Brownrigg, and more happy 
in its results : Lieutenant Fegen, of H.M.S. Turquoise, was 
on detached service at Pemba in the ship s pinnace with a 
crew of ten men all told. At daylight on the 3Oth May, 
1887, the boat was at anchor at Fundu Gap, a narrow pass 
between two islands. A dhow was seen approaching, run 
ning before the wind. Mr. Fegen sent his dinghy to board 



422 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



her, but the dhow did not lower her sail, she steered in 
stead for the pinnace. Mr. Fegen ordered the arms to be 
loaded and weighed anchor. The dhow began to ex 
change shots with the dinghy. The pinnace could not 
gather way in time to avoid the dhow. Mr. Fegen ran 
to the place where the dhow would strike the boat, calling 
on his men. A number of Arabs sprang up from where 
they had been concealed, fired a volley into the boat, and 
attempted to board with their swords. Mr. Fegen shot two 
with his revolver, then drew his cutlass and ran another 
through the body. He received a very severe sword-cut 
on the right arm from another Arab, who was in his turn 
run through by John Pearson, A.B. Mr. Fegen, backed in 
a very spirited manner by his men, two of whom had been 
shot down, continued a desperate hand-to-hand fight, fired 
on by Arabs in the after part of the dhow. The boat got 
clear, picked up the dinghy, and continued firing on the 
dhow with rifles. The dhow broached to and foundered in 
about two fathoms of water. Mr. Fegen anchored his boat 
and proceeded to rescue the slaves, firing on the Arabs on 
the shore to drive them away. Mr. Fegen and four of the 
crew had been wounded. The unhurt men busied them 
selves in rescuing the slaves. They saved fifty-three partly 
by the dinghy, partly by jumping overboard. Medical aid 
for the wounded could not be obtained for about ten days. 
One man, Benjamin Stone, A. 15., died of his wounds. It 
was found that there had been thirteen Arabs in the dhow, 
of which nine were notorious slave dealers. In all there 
were upwards of twenty men armed with Snider rifles and 
swords. 

For his gallant conduct Mr. Fegen was promoted to the 
rank of Commander. He reported highly of the conduct 



SLA VER K 423 



of his boat s crew, especially of Russell, his coxswain, who 
fought gallantly to the end, though wounded early in the 
fight. 

I have said before that resistance was very rare. If I 
mention the case of Lieutenant Cooper, of H.M.S. Griffon, 
who in October, 1888, was mortally wounded in boarding a 
slave clhow, I believe that I shall have exhausted the cases 
since 1879 when serious resistance has been offered. The 
sulky acquiescence in other cases proves that all slave 
traders have long recognised that the traffic was contrary 

o o * 

to the Sultan s foreign engagements and domestic laws, 
and that these would be carried out. Their only hope has 
lain in secrecy. 

SLAVERY IN ZANZIBAR. 

Once settled in his master s house or plantation, a slave 
is not usually baclly treated. Cruel masters, no doubt, 
there are, but the occasional brutalities committed by them 
do not seem in themselves a sufficient reason for abolition. 
No one suggests that paternity should be abolished on 
account of the cruelty of some fathers. There are masters 
who turn out of doors a sick slave if they think he will not 
get well, but, generally speaking, the slave receives his due 
without difficulty. He is looked on as entitled to keep and 
clothing, on a modest scale, and when he wishes to marry 
his master will help him with the dowry which is paid to 
the woman s master. -A plantation slave is given a house 
and plot of ground and two days a week to cultivate it, 
Slaves employed as fishermen, sailors, boatmen, caravan 
porters, town porters or hamali, domestic servants, artificers, 
and hawkers are entitled also to the necessaries of life, but 
they have to hand over the greater part of their receipts to 



424 



HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



their masters. With regard to female slaves, many find 
their vocation in or about the harems of the rich, others 




UOY CHAINED TO A SI.AVH LOG WEIGHING 37 LHS. 

(Rescued by the Rev. il . A . Firminger, July> 1895.) 

Baptized at Mbweni, Cypiiani Assani. 

work as coolies in coaling ships, as water carriers, or as 
cultivators. They assist in house-building by carrying 



SLAVERY. 425 

lime or by pounding the chunam roofs. I have said that 
slaves are not generally overworked. Exception must be 
made in the case of porters in native-led caravans, and, if 
report be true, occasionally in European caravans. Agri 
cultural slaves in the time of the clove harvest, that is in 
August, September, October, and November, are also 
worked very hard. It is necessary that the clove bud 
should be picked before it opens. At other times, for 
example, when picking such of the fruit (mother of clove), 
as is required, the pressure is probably not severe. No 
work is so thoroughly disliked by slaves as work in clove 
plantations. Whatever may be said about the lightness of 
the task is seen to be beside the point, if it be remembered 
that the slaves are illegally l in slavery. 

If the legal position of a slave be examined, it will be 
seen that by Mohammedan ~ law he has few civil rights. 
Without the sanction of his master he cannot possess nor 
dispose of private property, nor marry, nor sue any person, 
nor engage in trade, nor claim any legal or civil right, nor 
even take an oath in a Court of Justice ; and, lastly, the 
children of a slave couple are slaves. The general result of 
these disabilities is that there is no incitement to a slave to 
be diligent or to clo his best. Under such circumstances 
most men would be content with doing just enough to keep 
clear of blame. Being subject to the irresponsible will of 



1 I refrain from exposing my reasons for thinking that in the 
Islands 95 per cent, of the existing slaves are illegally held. The 
curious may find them on pp. 7-10 of The Blue Book of Africa, No. 7 
of 1896, which can be got from any bookseller for 6d. 

2 Mohammedan law permits slavery and regulates it. I am not 
aware that it enjoins it. To a Mohammedan the institution seems 
natural and necessary. 



426 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



the master, a girl cannot be virtuous, 1 nor a man manly, 
and there is always the original injustice of having been 
enslaved, an act of violence that must continue to be per 
petrated over and over again as long as slavery lasts. The 
sterility of slave couples is a serious symptom of the unwhole 
some state of slave society. Those who have considered 
the subject attribute it largely to unchastity. Also, no 
doubt, the fact that a slave woman s child (except for the 
decree of 1889) is a slave, unless the master owns it as his, 
discourages from the troubles of motherhood. The sterility 
of slave couples stands in marked contrast to the fruitful- 
ness of the same tribes in liberty on the mainland, and of 
similar Christian 2 couples. 



1 This is a matter which cannot be treated at length, but may not 
be passed by. To a girl brought up in slavery chastity is impossible 
even before her childhood ends. I do not know that it is esteemed 
as a virtue by the mainland tribes, but it is impracticable for a woman 
enslaved by force for the simple reason that her body is not her own. 
The evil recoils on its authors, for it is in the close company of women 
with this baneful past (and present) that the rising generation of 
slave owners, both girls and boys, spends its early years. (See also 
Life of Bishop Stecre, p. 316.) 

- To show what may be expected under better conditions, I quote 
from a letter received from Miss Ruth Berkeley. " Miss Thackeray 
and I both think that native Christians have a very large proportion 
of children compared to slaves, but we are not able to judge as to 
whether they would have families equal to English ones, as our chil 
dren have most of them been married for only a few years. We have 
several families of four under seven years old, but the mothers in many 
cases are very young and so do not take proper care of the children, so 
that many die of improper feeding or of chill. There is no doubt that 
when they do not marry quite so young, many more children will be 
reared than are now. We have one family of eight under sixteen 
years of age. One thing is remarkable, and that is that almost with 
out exception the Christian women have some children, while it is very 



SLAVERY. 427 



Slavery, as it now exists in the islands, fails of its 
principal object. It does not insure a sufficiency of labour. 
Its effect is rather to hinder the supply, for its continued 
existence makes free men fear to come from the main 
land to seek for work. The deterrent effect of the con 
tinued existence of slavery was visible during the late 
locust famine. In Zanzibar and Pemba there was plenty 
of food but a lack of labour. Sixty miles away there was 
plenty of labour but no food. But the labour does not 
seem to have gone to the food. The present system denies 
to the negro the blessings of freedom, and to the planter 
the profits of slavery, and it will probably be better for 
every one when it is out of the way. It is feared by many 
that if slavery is abolished labour will fail, and that no 
black man will work unless he must. The writer has had 
black men working under his eye as servants, as sailors, 
as caravan porters and as cultivators. He does not think 
them incorrigibly lazy, and considers that they are more 
amenable to discipline [ than white men under similar 
circumstances. The following is quoted from a paper in 
the Geographical Journal for April, 1896, written by Mr. 
Sharpe, now acting in Sir H. Johnston s place as Com 
missioner in the Nyasa district. It shows that negroes of 



common for the slave women to have none at all." Freedom alone 
cannot be so efficient as freedom plus Christianity, but one may hope 
a good deal from it. 

1 The discipline of sailors, of soldiers, of school-boys, is well under 
stood to be an art that has to be learnt. A man who confesses to 
failure is generally supposed to have the fault on his own side. It is 
not so with black men. A European, who has never before been in a 
position of authority, goes into the interior and quarrels with his 
porters. It is invariably the fault of the porters. 



428 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



races similar to those in servitude in Zanzibar are able and 
willing to work. 

"With respect to this question of a supply of unskilled labour 
within tropical Africa, it has been stated that, judging from the 
experience of explorers and others who have spent many years of 
their lives in Africa, the negro will never be brought to work 
regularly except with a system of forced labour or under the 
pressure of slavery. This is in complete opposition to actual 
experience in the Shire highlands. This district offers an object- 
lesson to all who doubt the native African s capacity for work. 
The settlement is now some twenty years old, and has passed far 
beyond the experimental stage. If there is one question which 
has been proved thereby, it is that we need have little fear, in 
Central African Settlements, of a scarcity of unskilled labour, and 
also that we can depend, in course of time, on a certain amount 
of moderately skilled labour. Our experience has been that 
there are three stages of the labour question : in the first instance, 
when undertakings requiring unskilled labour are commenced, 
there is a scarcity until the natives have gained confidence in the 
new settlers, then there is a great flocking in of local people. 
After a time many of the immediately local men begin to learn 
skilled work, such as carpentry, timber sawing, brick burning and 
moulding, bricklaying, overseering, bullock-driving, etc. They 
soon perceive that such occupations involve less irksome toil, 
have some interest, and command much higher wages than mere 
unskilled labour; meanwhile the news that calico and other 
valuables are to be earned has spread, and every year natives 
come in from more distant districts to obtain unskilled work. 
These people agree to work for a fixed term of six months, at the 
termination of which they return to their own homes, simply 
because they want to make use of the goods they have earned 
and to till their land. It has been found at Blantyre that the 
same men return again and again in succeeding years. Wives 
and families have to be supported and looked after in Africa just 
as much as in our own country, and also the negro is, in his own 



SLA VEK Y. 429 



way, as eager about returning to visit his home as we are. Having 
by his half-year s work earned enough calico to clothe himself and 
his family, and to purchase what articles he may require, he sets 
to work to clear and plant his own food garden, without which 
his people would starve ; probably in the following year he will 
come again to Blantyre or elsewhere for work. So far from there 
being any scarcity of labour in these regions, during the year 
1894, in spite of the large increase of planting operations, more 
labourers came into Blantyre from Lake Nyasa than could be 
well utilized. The supposition that natives living immediately 
round the European settlements decline all work is an incorrect 
one. It is quite true that there are few such who can be relied 
on to do the field work of raw hands. . . . The labour 
supply in the Shire highlands has grown gradually with the 
demand. If there had been a sudden very large demand re 
quired at once, it would have been difficult to supply it. Thus 
it is possible that in railway construction in Africa some intro 
duced labour might at the commencement be needed. 

" With regard to the native. In districts around or near to 
our settlements, in place of constant warfare and slave raids he 
has peace and an appeal to justice; he lives in better houses than 
he did; he clothes himself in calico, prints, and in some cases 
European manufactured garments, instead of bark cloth and 
skins ; he has formed permanent settlements round our stations, 
and is relying more on settled occupations ; and he has also 
taken, as I have said, to skilled and regular work. 

" Large numbers of children attend the Mission schools, and a 
considerable portion of the rising generation in the neighbourhood 
of the Missions are able to read and write. Native agriculture 
has increased, and some of the more ambitious have, in the 
Blantyre and Zomba districts, gone in for the cultivation of coffee 
and wheat. 

"Native boys have taken readily to telegraph work, and I 
might mention that, at the time of my departure from Blantyre, 



430 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 



the telegraph office there was in sole charge of an African, who 
had been taught his work by one of our Sikh telegraph operators ; 
and I have little doubt that, as the African trans-continental line 
is carried on, it will be found that most of the operating will be 
done by Africans under European inspection. We have also a 
staff of native heliograph workers. 

"Natives are quick to follow a lead when they see it brings 
them profit. And although we cannot expect that Africans who 
have had little intercourse with Europeans will quickly settle 
down to quiet, regular occupations, it is a different matter in 
districts like the Shire highlands, where for years past they have 
watched Europeans at work, and have begun to understand the 
idea of laying out work for a future large return. I know that 
many believe the African incapable of this. I thought so myself 
at one time ; but it must be remembered that at Blantyre there 
is a generation growing up who have known the white man from 
their earliest youth -who do not look on him as anything new. 

" Quite a number of Blantyre natives now have accounts at the 
local bank, and, having once grasped the idea that they can pur 
chase future benefits by accumulating present savings, have taken 
one of the first steps towards permanent civilization. The African 
is not a fool in such matters ; he is able to look after his own 
interests, and is not so easily imposed on as is sometimes sup 
posed." 

A further testimony on this point comes from Mr, 
O Sullivan, 1 H.B.M. Vice-Consul in Pemba. This gentle 
man apprehends a scarcity of labour if slavery be abolished, 
and recommends what is practically a Vagrancy Act. He 
goes on to say : 

" It would be necessary, of course, to protect and watch over 
the freed slaves, for in very many instances, doubtless, their 
former masters would endeavour, by terrorizing over them, to 



Africa No. 7 of 1 896, p. 46. 



SLAVERY, 431 



reduce them to a state of practical slavery, in which their con 
dition would be well-nigh as bad as before their liberation. 

" There is little doubt that after a while the freed slaves, finding 
that they must remain in the island, and failing to obtain other 
work, would settle down to agricultural labour, especially when it 
became clear to them that they would receive fair remuneration 
for their toil. Moreover, the mainland blacks, and especially 
those along the coast, would probably be willing enough to come 
and work in Pemba if they were assured that there was no danger 
of their being enslaved. 

"Seychelles offers an encouraging example in connection with 
this question of abolishing slavery, for it has passed successfully 
through a crisis analogous to that which may be expected to 
occur in Pemba if the slaves in that island are liberated. The 
population of Seychelles, apart from the European element, is 
composed of freed slaves and of their descendants, yet no diffi 
culty is now experienced in getting those people to work as agri 
cultural labourers. 

"During a visit which I recently paid to Seychelles I had the 
opportunity of visiting the chief plantations in the Archipelago. 
I observed for myself how thoroughly and well the general work 
of cultivation is carried out. The planters told me that the negro 
labourers are in every way satisfactory, and that they are quite 
competent, under supervision, to look after crops such as vanilla, 
coffee, and cacao, which require especial care, and to prepare the 
different products for the market. The labourers receive, on an 
average, ten rupees per month each for six days work per week. 

" The superiority of the free labour in Seychelles as compared 
with the slave labour in Pemba is very striking. I should say 
that the Seychelles negro is fully three times more efficient, from 
an agricultural point of view, than is the Pemba negro under 
existing conditions, and the chief reason of the difference is un 
doubtedly that the former is a free man, who receives adequate 
remuneration for his work, whereas the latter is a slave, who 
receives no remuneration of any kind for his enforced labour, and 
whose only stimulus is fear of the stick." 



432 HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 

Opinions such as the foregoing are most encouraging, 
but it should not be forgotten that on the other side are 
found responsible officials who prophesy that the result 
of emancipation would be indolence and apathy, and who 
quote instances where labour has been offered but refused 
by natives. The view of the writer is that the positive 
evidence of cases where natives have worked should be 
given much more weight than the negative evidence of 
cases where natives have refused work. In the latter cases 
the story is never quite complete. It is not said whether 
the persons to whom employment was offered had work of 
their own elsewhere which they had to attend to, or whether 
the employer was over harsh in his methods, or whether the 
pa}- was sufficient. In short, we never hear the natives 
reasons. All that is proved by the cases where natives 
have not accepted employment, is that if all slaves are 
emancipated the}- will not always work at the time and 
terms most pleasing to the employers. On the other hand, 
the positive evidence in cases where natives have worked 
are so many instances in which what is supposed to be 
impossible has been shown to be practicable. 

When the history of the abolition of slavery and the 
slave trade comes to be written as a whole, it will be seen 
that the remedies hitherto used fall into three categories : 
external force, encouragement of commerce, development 
of the power of law. Without the last it may be doubted 
whether permanently satisfactory results can be obtained. 
The development of commerce cannot be dispensed with, 
for without trade a strong administration cannot be main 
tained. The present danger appears to be lest a fear of 
hurting the commerce, originally fostered as an antidote 
to the slave trade, should lead to the retention of slavery. 



APPENDICES. 



HOME ORGANIZATION, 

r I S HE Home Committee have played such a very important part in 
the Mission, that a sketch of their position and work must be 
given. 

Position of They have never, in any sense, arrogated to themselves 
Home the power of ruling the Mission or cramping the action of 
the Bishops and Missionaries. But they have more or 
less vigorously provided the sinews of war, and organized the work in 
England, acting as a " Providence" to the Mission, from the first 
year, when they reported .1,610 js. 4^. in donations, and ,176 $s. 6d. 
of yearly income, to 1895, when there was a grand total of ,24,621 
which is declared to be insufficient for our needs. 

The first Cambridge Committee had for its moving 
Formation of spirit the Rev. William Monk, curate of St. Andrew s- the- 
Committee. Less, who inaugurated the Cambridge Committee. That 
Committee called on Oxford to co-operate in the work, 
and named the Mission "The Oxford and Cambridge Mission to Cen 
tral Africa, 1 thus paying a delicate compliment to the Sister Univer 
sity, and showing the generous spirit of Cambridge. Later on, the 
Universities of Durham and Dublin having joined in the scheme, it 
was for awhile called by the cumbrous name of all four Universities 
a title which has happily merged in " Universities Mission to Cen 
tral Africa." The University of Dublin ceased to co-operate in the 
Mission after the first few years. 

Less picturesque, but not less self-denying than the 

Its Work, work of those on active duty in the Mission field, have 

been the patient, drudging, arduous labours of the Home 

Committee, which are a veritable " tarrying by the stuff/ such as 

King David considered as worthy of reward as the warfare of their 

fellows. 

The Committee has had for successive chairmen, the Bishop of 

433 F F 



434 APPENDICES. 



Oxford (Wilberforce), the Bishop of London (Jackson), the Bishop of 
Carlisle (Goodwin), and the Bishop of St. Alban s (Testing) ; and as 
secretaries the Rev. W. Monk, the Rev. G. H. Smyttan, the Rev. 
Forbes Capel, the Rev. Cecil Deecles, the Rev. R. M. Heanley, the 
Rev. \V. H. Penney, and the Rev. Duncan Travers. 

The Constitution of the Committee has varied slightly at different 
times, but in 1895 was fixed as follows : 

The object of the Universities 1 Mission is tJie establishment and 
maintenance of stations in Central Africa, whtcJi may serve as centres 
of Christianity and civilization, for the promotion of true Religion, and 
the ultimate extinction of the slave trade. In order to accomplish these 
designs, the plan of the I\fission is to maintain in Central Africa, 
under tJie government of Bishops, both bodies of clergy and lay lielpers, 
including medical men and artificers, European or African, capable 
of conducting the work of building and husbandry. 

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE HOME ORGANIZATION OF THE 
UNIVERSITIES MISSION TO CENTRAL AFRICA. 

Constitution i. There shall be a local Committee at each University 

of Home i * T i ^ i ^ 

organization, taking part in the Mission, and a General Committee, all 

the Members of such Committees being in communion 
with the Church of England. The General Committee shall meet in 
London, and shall be constituted as follows : 

(a) A Chairman, who shall also be President of the General 
Meeting of Subscribers, which shall be held in London in the 
month of May or June of every year. 

(b) A Vice-Chairman, who shall take the Chair at the Meet 
ings of the Committee in the absence of the Chairman. 

(c) A certain number of Vice-Presidents, one of whom shall 
preside at the General Meeting in the absence of the President, 
viz. : 

(1) All Archbishops and Bishops in communion with the 
Church of England, who shall signify their willingness to 
serve on the Committee. 

(2) Six or more Subscribers chosen at a General Meet 
ing. 

(cf) The Chairman, Treasurers, and Secretaries of the Com 
mittee at each University taking part in the Mission. 



APPENDICES. 435 



(V) Fifteen Members chosen at the General Meeting. 

(/) The Treasurers and Secretaries. 

(g] One Commissary to be appointed by each of the Bishops 
of the Mission. 

At the General Meeting those elected Members of the Com 
mittee shall retire, who have not attended three Meetings of the 
Committee during the year ending December 3ist then last past, 
but they shall be eligible for re-election. 

Meetings of any Sub-Committee, or attendances at the office 
on behalf of the Secretary, shall for this purpose count as Meet 
ings of the Committee. 

(//) The Clergy of the Mission when in England, who shall 
have the right to attend and vote at Meetings of the Committee 
after the conclusion of the Treasurers business and any special 
business. 

(7) Such Lay Members of the Mission when in England as 
may be invited by the Chairman to attend and vote at Meetings 
of the Committee after the conclusion of the Treasurers busi 
ness and any special business. 

2. The General Committee shall manage the affairs of the Mission 
in England, and shall make annual grants of money to each Bishop 
at its discretion for the service of the Mission in Africa. 

3. The General Committee shall meet not less than six times in the 
year. 

4. The General Committee shall appoint a Medical Board, and no 
Missionary shall be sent out from England who has not appeared 
before the Board. 

5. No Missionary shall be sent out from England who has not been 
approved by the Bishop under whom he is to serve, or, in his absence, 
by a Board consisting of one clergyman nominated by the Chairman 
of the General Committee for the time being, and two clergymen 
nominated by the Bishop for the purpose. 

6. Three Treasurers shall be appointed at the General Meeting, who 
shall manage the financial affairs of the Mission in England under 
the direction of the General Committee. 

7. In the event of any vacancy occurring amongst the elected Mem 
bers of the General Committee, or amongst the Treasurers, the 
General Committee shall have the power of filling up the vacancy 
until the next General Meeting of Subscribers. 



436 APPENDICES. 



8. The Secretaries of the General Committee shall be appointed 
by the General Committee. 

9. The accounts of each Local Committee shall be made up to the 
3 ist December in each year, and the balances up to that date shall be 
forthwith paid to the credit of the Treasurers in London. 

May, 1895. 

Whatever funds were raised in England and received by the Com 
mittee have always been placed in the hands of the Bishop or 
Bishops, who, at their own discretion, have used them for the various 
works in their dioceses. 

The direction of the work in Africa was from the first 

G iS S Afric 1 a n " vested in the Jiishop and such English priests as he 

may have with him in Africa/ This is so far modified 

that, now there is a native ministry, native priests have equal rights 

with others. 

The missionaries themselves have (especially since Bishop Steere s 
consecration) worked without salary, except the merest necessities of 
life, at a common value and in a common home, and a small sum to 
tJiose who need it for clothes and pocket money. This is undoubtedly 
the secret of the large number of first-rate men and women in all 
classes who have been drawn to the work. They first gave them 
selves for no earthly reward, and then offered their work. In the 
Central House at Mkunazini for many years the men and women 
workers had a common table, the clergy and laity mingling alike, 
with the Bishop only as superior. This has now been in part altered. 
Primitive simplicity does not always last, and in future there will 
probably be always a clergy house and a home at present in the 
hospital for women workers, the laymen living either in the Indus 
trial Home or scattered among the stations as required. 



The following paper shows under what conditions workers join the 
Mission staff ; 

The Universities Mission will gladly welcome offers 
Conditions ... , , , i 

under which of assistance from any who can give their whole hearts 

W $r t i<s work. 

The Mission has for its object the conversion to Chris 
tianity of the African tribes amongst whom its Missionaries work, 
and their advancement in civilization by means of education, and 



APPENDICES. 437 



by instructing them in such kinds of work as are suited to the 
climate of their country. 

The Mission also invites well-qualified men to offer themselves for 
work amongst the large population of Arabs and Indians settled in 
Zanzibar and East Africa. 

Thus there are wanted clergy, medical men, certificated school 
teachers, or ex-pupil teachers, ladies both qualified nurses or experi 
enced teachers teachers of handicrafts, especially engineers, masons, 
carpenters, and printers. 

The ladies who offer must be over thirty years of age. 

Experience has taught that, generally, those only are valuable to 
the Mission who have learnt some trade, or who have been trained in 
some department of knowledge which will be useful in Africa. 

Owing to the heavy cost of passage and the unsuitability of the 
climate, it is unadvisable to accept married men, except under the 
approval of the Bishops ; and it is understood that any one who 
enters into a marriage engagement in Africa shall at least for the 
time cease to be a member of the Mission. 

The Bishops are quite unable to offer any inducement in the way 
of salary or periodical holiday, ultimate pension, or temporal advan 
tage of any kind ; it is necessary that those who join the Mission 
should do so with the single desire to live for, and willingness, if it be 
so, to die in, their work, because it is Christ s. 

Those who join as laymen must be willing to do lay work, and 
must not expect to be admitted to Holy Orders unless they show 
special fitness for the office, of which their Bishop must be the iudge ; 
and Bishop Smythies recently wrote: "/ wish it to be distinctly 
understood that no htyinan who could not be ordained at Jiome must 
come out here expecting ordination} 1 

The Bishops are only able to offer to their fellow-workers who may 
need the help : 

I. A free passage to Africa. 

II. Board, lodging, and necessaries during their stay in Africa. 

III. Outfit allowance, ,25 ; ^3 to ^5 journey money, and ^5 on 
arrival at Zanzibar ; then from the end of first year after landing, an 
allowance of 20 annually for clothes and small personal expenses. 
These allowances are to meet actual and current needs, and it is not 
intended that they shall accumulate. 

IV. A passage home, should health require it, at the end of three 
or five years work, or at any time at which it may become necessary 



43$ APPENDICES. 

to return through ill-health ; but this must not be understood to mean 
that every one is to return to England for rest after three years work. 

V. Special arrangements to meet special circumstances may be 
made by the Committee on the recommendation of the Bishops or 
their Commissaries. 

The climate of Central Africa necessitates the fullest inquiry into 
the health of all candidates for service in the Mission. With this 
object the following regulations will be observed : 

1. Candidates must fill up a paper of questions about their present 
and past state of health, as a preliminary to passing the Medical 
Board appointed to examine all candidates. 

2. They must also provide themselves with medical certificates ot 
their previous health and constitution. 

3. They will further be expected to supply the names and addresses 
of two friends, to whom application may be made, in confidence, as 
to their usual apparent health, and their fitness for service in the 
Mission, 



II. 



METHODS OF MISSION WORK. 

THE methods by which the work is carried on will be found scat 
tered here and there through the history ; but to the student of 
mission work it may be useful to put down some definite information 
in one place. 

The methods are of four kinds : 

I. Those adopted in England for supporting the work. 

II. The Home training of missionaries. 

III. Methods adopted in Africa for carrying on the work. 

IV. The training of the native ministry. 

I. SUPPORT OF THE WORK IN ENGLAND. 

Foremost of all we put the Prayer Union. In 1867 
Union Bishop Tozer sanctioned a form of service which had 



k een drawn up for the use of two Parochial Associations, 
and the Bishop of Oxford became President of the 

" Central African Mission Union," of which the Rev. W. L. B. Cator 

was the Secretary. The members pledged themselves to 

(r) Frequent prayer on behalf of the Mission, and special remem 

brance of it at Holy Communion on Christmas Day and Whit- 

Sun day. 

(2) The frequent use of the prescribed form. 

(3) The payment of a yearly subscription of from a penny to halt 
a crown. 

This Union still continues under the name of " The Universities* 
Mission Prayer Union: Its rule now prescribes the collect of the 
Mission to be used daily. The remembrance at Holy Communion 
includes St. Bartholomew s Day. The Union numbers about 1,000 
members. 

439 



44 APPENDICES. 



A further development is the Guild of St. Boniface, 

St. G Bonifa f oe. tne members of which only promise to pray for the 

Mission, but there is no daily collect ; and they either 

give to or work for the Mission. It is chiefly recruited from the 

western districts of England. 

A quarterly leaflet of special intercessions is also inserted in Central 
Africa for optional use. 

It is much to be hoped that this by far the most important method 
of mission work will be made more and more a reality by all friends 
of the Mission, remembering how those so far away depend upon our 
prayers. It will be enough to call to remembrance the fact that from 
the first Day of Intercession for Foreign Missions the Universities 
Mission has never been at such a low ebb for workers again, and that 
within a twelvemonth the Zanzibar slave market was closed, and its 
site bought and given for the church, to prove the overwhelming im 
portance of this method of work. 

The A further method of exciting interest was the starting 

Children s of the " Children s Fund," apart from the General Fund. 
By this individuals, or parishes, or mission associations, 
paying j per annum, become the patrons of a child, whose sup 
port in one of the Mission Schools they entirely provide. This idea 
is built on the great principle of individuality. Great as is the grace 
of giving to God for the use of Missions throughout the world, or in a 
particular country or district, with no stipulation how or where the 
money goes, yet many persons, especially children, can better grasp 
the idea of one individual to be benefitted, soul and body, by their 
gift. In this case we regard the money as given equally to God, but 
for the benefit of one. And He Who has said, "All souls are Mine," 
and Who cares for each as if there were none other to claim His love, 
will surely nay, has assuredly blessed these efforts on behalf of the 
separate lambs of His fold. Some idea of the extent of its work may 
be gathered from the fact that in 1895 as much as 3,779 was collected 
for this purpose, under the management of Miss Randolph, the Secre 
tary of the Fund. 

A subsidiary branch of this part of the work is the 

T League al Coral league, established by Miss Clara Herring in 
1890, which now numbers 7,000 workers. The name pro 
claims its root idea. It is for those who can do a very little. As each 
coral insect, if it built for itself alone and apart from others, would 
leave a comparatively useless work, to be swept away hither and 



APPENDICES. 441 



thither like the sand of the sea, so each worker s mite, applied 
separately, would be of little value ; but built together with the work 
of thousands of others, a firm and enduring home for beings other 
than themselves is raised from the waves, a likeness of the substantial 
work done by the Coral League, which now supports sixty children in 
the Mission. 

In addition to these there are other special efforts 
made in aid of the work, notably the Hospital or Drug 

Ladies Fund, which raises about 400 annually for supplying 
Association. vv . J 

medicines and sick comforts to the Mission stations ; 

and the Ladies Association, for maintaining such women teachers 
as are without patrons, and for providing school and needlework 
materials for the girls. 

II. THE TRAINING OF MISSIONARIES IN ENGLAND. 

This has been felt to be a need in all foreign mission 
work > as our colleges at St. Augustine s, Canterbury, 
Dorchester, Warminster, and others testify ; and from 
all these, good and useful workers have joined the Universities 
Mission Staff. But these colleges train almost entirely with a view 
to Holy Orders, whereas the lay staff (including ladies) outnumbers 
the clerical staff. And lay workers of both sexes do not by nature 
understand foreign mission work any more than the clergy do. In 
other words, special training is even more essential for the laity than 
for the clergy. 

To meet this need the Society of the Sacred Mission 

of the nas been formed. The following account of this new 

Mission departure, which trains laymen without any view to 

Holy Orders (except in certain cases), is from the pen of 

Father Kelly, the Superior : 

" In 1890, before Bishop Corfe left for Corea, being strongly moved by his 
love for young men and his desire to see them engaged in the service of the 
Church, he left one of his priests behind in England to devote himself to the 
work of their training and preparation. The special principles by which the 
attempt was to be distinguished were, at first, men should be received, and 
not only trained, but entirely maintained during the process without charge, 
if they were anxious to give themselves to unpaid work, to live in celibacy, 
and not to seek ordination unless ordered to do so. The principles of the 
Corean Mission were substantially those that had been so long in use in the 
U.M.C. A. ; and the principle upon which men were accepted for the latter 
were to be those of this Home, except that the men should be such as desired 



442 APPENDICES. 



to give themselves not for a time, but for life. The House was started in 
January, 1891, as the Corean Missionary Brotherhood, with three students. 
In the autumn a letter in the Church papers brought an immense number of 
replies ; and although the larger number of these were contented with their 
first inquiry, more remained than could be accepted by Corea alone. A visit 
from Mr. T ravers led to an offer on the part of the U.M.C.A. to maintain six of 
these candidates for two years, the money being offered to the Mission by one 
of its members through the Secretary. In 1892 only three candidates were 
immediately forthcoming ; three more joined at the beginning of 1893. In 
1892 Bishop Smythies paid his first and rather short visit to the House, and 
early in the following year Mr. Russell went out as printer to Magila. 

" Up to this time the house had gone on as a training home only, although 
the members were living under what was practically religious discipline ; but 
in 1893 the step that had long been foreseen was taken. Some of the mem 
bers were anxious that this life should not cease for them when they went out 
to their work. 

" In May a carefully prepared scheme was started. The Bishop of Corea 
had always urged that the work should be in no way limited to his diocese, 
and the general name of " The Society of the Sacred Mission " was taken. 

"The first novitiates began in May. Scarcely had it been started when it 
was evident that this coincided with a strong movement in the same direction in 
the mission field. A longing for a closer bond had been felt by many, and, with 
the consent and encouragement of the Bishop, it seemed desirable that advantage 
should be taken of this new organization. The difficulties of forming a Society 
for a single diocese like Central Africa were too great to be faced. Rev. II. 
Woodward entered into correspondence with the Rev. Mr. Kelly, who had 
been appointed to direct the work from the beginning. The Bishop promised 
that Magila should be the headquarters of the Society in the Zanzibar diocese. 
Rev. II. VV. Woodward s arrival in England was delayed, and in the mean 
while the Bishop s death prevented further development of the scheme. Mr. 
Woodward, however, entered the Society as a novice on arriving in England 
at Easter, 1894, and made his profession in October in the same year. Early 
in 1895 there were six men trained in this house who had gone out, and one 
lias gone out since ; two of these only were members of the Society, it being 
a principle of the work that, provided men accepted the three primary obliga 
tions, they were not bound to join the Society unless they wished to do so." 

III. METHODS OF THE WORK IN AFRICA. 

One of the great features of this Mission has been its 

large employment of Lay help, and of Lay helpers who 

do not look on it as a step to Holy Orders. This has been the case 

ever since Mr. Waller accompanied the first bishop, with the twofold 



APPENDICES. 443 

object of taking the "serving of tables" off the hands of the clergy, 
and of teaching the arts of peace to the natives. 

The work of these Laymen has been very various. Occasionally, 
as, for instance, in the case of Mr. Mercer and Mr. Win. Bishop, it 
has ended i n their preparing for Holy Orders. Sometimes, as in the 
case of Mr. Joseph Williams, their work has been quasi-clerical, as 
when he was left in charge of the station at Chisumulu. At other 
times they have acted as schoolmasters. But much oftener they have 
undertaken the teaching of various arts, such as printing, carpenter 
ing, building, etc. It must not be supposed that the clergy, from the 
Bishop downwards, have been set free from these duties, for, as we 
know, they often have to superintend and even actively assist, in such 
work, but to a large extent the Lay helpers take these duties from 
them. 

We must not forget the medical help given by such men as Dr 
Dickenson, Dn Petrie, Dr. Ley, or Dr. Robinson ; or the invaluable 
linguistic work of Mr. Arthur Madan. It can never be too widely 
made known that the Church needs such men as certificated school 
masters, engineers, and seamen for the navigation of the Mission 
vessels, storekeepers accustomed to keep accounts and order supplies 
carpenters and those skilled in all that is needed for house building, 
printers, etc. 

The storekeeping is a most important work. Without care, an up- 
country Mission Station may be left without some necessary or com 
fort of life for long periods. When packing cases arrive from Europe, 
everything has to be looked through, and then repacked for transit 
up country into parcels not too large to be carried by a porter. All 
this takes time and care, well bestowed, but quite unsuitable for a 
priest, who should be teaching and serving the temple and not 
tables. 

Lady workers have always been too few for the needs 

Workers. ^ ^ ie woi "k- It has been difficult to employ them in 

Stations far inland, where in the hour of peril they must 

be a source of anxiety to those at the head of the Mission. Dr. R. 

W. Cust, till lately on the committee of the C.M. Society, whose 

members have never shrunk from martyrdom, speaking on this point, 

says that ladies, whether as wives or as single women, may in these 

cases be an encumbrance to the missionary. 

" lie is like the captain of a ship, the soldier on a campaign, the explorer 



444 APPENDICES. 

of unknown countries, and should not be weakened in the hour of peril by 
considerations calculated to unnerve him. Women are quite as dauntless, 
quite as full of high enthusiasm, as men ; but in savage countries they are ex 
posed by the law of Nature f o a double form of death. ... It appears 
to me wickedness to expose them to such contingencies. ... It should 
be a rule absolute that as regards Equatorial Africa, no women should be 
allowed to be sent to a Station in the interior. 

This does not apply to work in Zanzibar, or in tolerably settled 
places in the interior ; and ladies have worked, and can very well 
work, at Likomn, and in the Bonde district, in its present settled 
state. 

The work of such ladies as Miss Thackeray, Miss 
^itti e e r ones heMills the Miss ^erkeleys, Miss Eleanor Bennett, Miss 

Townsend, and Mrs. Key, the St. Raphael s sisters, and 
the ladies at Likoma, cannot be thought of too highly. Their work 
does not appear, perhaps, as often in the Mission records, for the 
task of the true helpmeet lies behind that of others, but its influence, 
if less seen, is surely felt. What our lads who enter Kiungani or the 
Industrial Home would be without the kindly care of Miss Mills and 
her assistants, we know, from the extra hardness of dealing with 
those who have come under the Mission too late for her home. To 
give these motherless ones a feeling of home, to teach them some 
thing of mother s love, is an influence which could hardly be spared 
out of their lives. 

And no less important is the careful training of the 
Nativ^CHris 8 n "^ s anc ^ women as wives and as teachers. This work 

has already been dealt with in chapters xv. and xvii., 
and we need only add that the complex problems of our Christian 
boys marrying heathen wives will never be solved as long as heathen 
custom retains its hold on the national mind. When Christianity 
becomes the ruling force, and heathendom is declining, mixed mar 
riages may even be productive of good. At present they are the 
reverse. The heathen wife drags her husband into degrading rites. 
She sees no difficulty in polygamy, and in many tribes she could, 
under certain circumstances, divorce her husband, or at least insist on 
living with her own people, whether his work lies at a distance or not. 
All these difficulties can only be overcome by providing a sufficiency 
of Christian girls for wives to the Christian men. A Christian marry 
ing a heathen is now put under Church censure till his wife becomes 
a catechumen. 



APPENDICES. 445 



The industrial work has already been treated of, but 
a note of warning struck by the Rev. W. P. Johnson, 
writing to the Rev. Horace Waller, may here be given. 
He thinks we may direct our training too much to work useful to 
Europeans, rather than to work which helps the natives themselves. 

"There is a way of introducing industrial work by encouraging work that 
the natives can do themselves for themselves. I admit and emphasise that 
they do not and will not come up to a high standard of skilled labour, but I 
consider that it is producing native character at the same time as it produces 
manufactures in a way no work under Europeans can do. . . . The chief 
advantage would be, useful and skilled work for natives to do among natives, 
and at their own homes. So that their relatives can see, and it would be for 
the benefit of natives. . . . Nearly all present carpentering, brick-making, 
etc., is to make things for Europeans to use, very right and proper, but not 
likely to produce enthusiasm amongst natives as work for themselves would. 
No\v if we had funds and sympathy, I should propose to find and 
extend such home work ; e.g., why not have a short telegraph service between 
some of our lakeside villages ? The cost would be ^"120 (\vc have a native 
instructor), and it would provide the telegraph people with boys who had 
tried and found they liked the work at home under the Mission s superintend 
ence. Land surveying and work of that kind would be work well worth 
doing, which would have to be done on the spot, and of a kind the natives 
would understand, but we have no instructor. The hurrying away of boys 
from their homes, and then from their families, is at any time an evil if done 
without consideration, but a greater one when the boys have had no training 
for their future work, and their relations have no sympathy with it." 

The East This letter forms a good introduction to the remark 
Ch^rch 1 ^ ^ iat ^ ^ ias a ^ va > s been the desire of this Mission to 
native one, educate the natives to live their native life, with its 
a exotic. African surroundings, and not to turn them into Euro 
peans with a thousand wants foreign to their nature. Christianity is 
a plant which will grow in any soil, and can adapt itself to any 
climate. To purify, not to destroy, to elevate rather than to alter, 
has been its mission, and hence it is that in the East each national 
Church the Syrian, Armenian, Coptic, or the Greek retained its 
native customs, and was not a copy of Jewish customs transplanted 
from Palestine. The Roman kept all his vigour and order, but was 
too apt to try to graft his national customs cind character on the 
western world, in a way that the wise old conquering Latin race did 
not pursue with its foreign provinces, and which the greatest of 



446 APPENDICES. 



Roman Christians "Gregory, our father, who sent us baptism" did 
not approve of for the conversion of England. Our national cha 
racter, however, asserted itself, and no Church in the world is more 
intensely national than ours. Let us then beware, lest, as Bishop 
Steere said, we make a mere feeble copy of our own Church, instead 
of a national African Church. 

" \Ve felt that an exotic Church was a thing that would perish before any 
cold blast, and that it was necessary to put it upon a sound native basis. We 
have, therefore, from the first set our faces steadily against the denationaliza 
tion of the people of Airic-a." 

Into every detail of life this principle is carried. Customs that are 
sinful or degrading are to be put away. But for the rest, heathen 
chiefs are to be obeyed. Native Christians may engage in tribal 
wars, and are often held to tight better than others. Native dress, or 
one approximating as closely as possible to native dress, is provided. 
Native clergy and laity alike eat native food cooked in native ways. 
Native methods of agriculture, house-building, etc.. are encouraged, 
and, where it may be so, improved. Alas ! that Europeans cannot 
live without their luxuries. But the people are taught that each nation 
follows its own customs, and so the African is to remain a robust 
African, and not become a degenerate imitation of the European. 

IV. TRAINING A NATIVE MINISTRY. 

From the days when John Swcdi and his friends were set apart for 
the sub-diaconate, there have always been some youths under train 
ing for the ministry. At first it was impossible for them to be entirely 
trained in Africa, and hence, after careful teaching at Kiungani, and 
after a trial post on the mainland, they were sent to England to com 
plete their studies. Thus, Cecil Majaliwa was trained at 

Trafning. St - Augustine s, Canterbury, and Petro Limo at Dorches 
ter, with the happiest results. But others came to Eng 
land who did not turn out so well, and as a better and larger staft 
could be spared for Kiungani, the theological teaching was carried 
further, and it became not only unnecessary but unadvisable to send 
the boys to England because 

(1) It cost more. 

(2) It took them away from African surroundings and habits, 



APPENDICES. 



447 



(3) As a consequence it taught them the use of luxuries, which 
neither they nor their future flocks could afford. 

On the other hand, perhaps, an English education gave them a 
better education more easily, and a certain knowledge of the world 
which, to some of them, might possibly be useful. 

The Theological course at Kiungani is much the same 

Salnfng! as tnat known as the Cambridge Voluntary Examination, 

and is quite as searching as that at most of our theological 

colleges, and there is the immense advantage of being able to test 

the moral fibre of the students by periods of work among their own 

folk. 

The following is a complete list of the native clergy in October, 
1896: 



PRIESTS. 

The Rev. Cecil Majaliwa 
, , ,, Petro Limo... 
,, ,, Samuel Sehoza 

DEACONS. 

The Rev. John S \vedi 
,, ,, Denys Seyiti 
,, ,, Yohanna Abdallah 
,, ,, Cypriani Chitenje ... 
., ,, Daudi Machina 
,, ,, Hugh Swinton Mtoka 



Ordained. 
1886 
1893 
1894 



1879 

1893 
1894 

1895 



Stationed. 

Chiwata. 
Misozvve. 

Magila. 



Zanzibar. 

Kichehve. 

Unangu. 

Miwa. 

Newala. 

Mwiti. 



The following particulars from the pen of Mr. Madan may be partly 
a repetition of much that has already been given in former pages, but 
it may fitly find a place here : 

" St. Andrew s College, Kiungani, consists of a large block ot stone build 
ings, standing on a slight eminence close to the sea, about a mile south of the 
city of Zanzibar. 

" The original house was bought, with a few acres of ground surrounding it, 
by Bishop Tozer in 1867, and was soon made the home of the boys rescued 
from slave dhows by British cruisers and handed over by the Consul to the 
care of the Mission. 

" For years almost all the boys at Kiungani were obtained from this source 
victims of the slave trade the waifs and strays of the Dark Continent. From 
the first the main object in view was the selection and training of the most 
promising to be the future teachers and clergy of their fellow- Africans. But 
such material could not be expected to yield large results, and the means of 



448 APPENDICES. 



dealing with it effectively were, in the earlier stages of the Mission s history, 
not to be had. Since the establishment of the Mission s stations on the main 
land, a small but steadily-increasing number of selected scholars from their 
schools has been sent down to Kiungani, and has had its effect in raising the 
level of the whole. 

" But it is only since 1884 that Kiungani has taken definite shape as primarily 
not a reformatory or industrial home, or even school, but a college whose 
one object and aim is to give the highest and widest possible education to 
native candidates for Holy Orders. This aim does not include indeed it 
necessitates the reception and teaching of a large miscellaneous collection of 
boys, the majority of whom learn there the rudiments of education, and then 
elsewhere some form of manual labour, by which they can maintain them 
selves, and few rise to a higher level than that of fairly qualified school 
teachers. But the few who show a fitness (by ability, character, and definite 
vocation) for the highest work, are those for whom the college now exists, 
and this constitutes its recognised title to be the most important element in 
the Mission, the heart and hope of its work. 

"No truth has been more vividly enforced by the Mission s history than that 
in the tropics, at any rate, an African Church must be founded, spread, and 
worked by Africans themselves. The business of its European members is to 
do their best to start them on this career, help as they may, and then pass out 
of sight. 

" Kiungani, therefore, is at once the oldest and the newest institution in the 
Mission. Those only who are unfamiliar with the nature of the task, and the 
overwhelming drawbacks under which it has been carried on, will wonder if 
little seems to have resulted from twenty-five years labour. It may be 
enough to mention that in ten recent years it had at least as many changes of 
head and management. 

" Much may be due to the shortcomings of members of the Mission them 
selves ; but now, at any rate, when a system has been laid down, a tone 
created, an aim embodied in the whole method and working of the place, it 
must rest largely with Churchmen in England to say whether it is worthy of 
prompt and vigorous support, or, indeed, continue to exist at all. 

"The buildings contain rooms for the Europeans (including the Bishop, 
when in Zanzibar), dormitories, schoolroom, class-room for the boys, sick-room, 
offices, laundry, printing establishment ; above all, a handsome chapel, lately 
built, and made as beautiful and worthy of its work as the funds put in our 
hands for the purpose permitted, and also small separate studies for the 
encouragement of habits of private reading and devotion in the boys selected 
for them. 

"The daily routine in 1891 was as follows : 

" Matins and Evensong at 6. 30 a.m. and p.m. School from 7.15a.m. to 
S-3> 9-3 to 12, with half an hour s interval; from 2 p.m. to 3.30, and 4 to 



APPENDICES. 449 



5. The upper boys are also instructed in the evening. Meals at 8.30 a.m., 
12.30, and 7 p.m. 

" Holy Communion is celebrated on Sundays, and (in English) on three days 
in each week ; also on all Feasts and Saints days. 

" A Guild (of St. Paul) has been founded to give further opportunities and 
sense of union and sympathy to boys desirous of being candidates for Holy 
Orders, the rule of the Guild being that every member shall pray daily for 
the other members by name. 

"The course of teaching is full and varied, including, beside religious instruc 
tion, geography, Church history, study of English, grammar and translation, 
Euclid and arithmetic, Arabic writing, music, etc. Games are encouraged, 
and football is regularly played. 

"The total annual cost of the Institution is about ,1,600 ; i.e. , for a staff of 
seven or eight Europeans and about 100 boys of all ages, from eight to 
eighteen or twenty. Of this sum a large proportion is raised by friends in 
England, who contribute or obtain j a year for some particular boy, and 
10 for a teacher. 

"These boys include representatives of fifteen or twenty tribes living at vary 
ing distances between the cast coast and the central lakes. At first many are 
unable to speak anything but their own dialect, but soon learn the Swahili 
spoken in Zanzibar. 

"The boys publish a school magazine, called MsimuHzi\ a record of the 
news of the Mission, collected, edited, and printed by themselves. The 
magazine also contains articles written by the Europeans, and the whole is in 
the Swahili language." 

Mr. Madan also says in 1893 : 

"At the present time at least a third of the school at Kiungani consists or 
boys who are not the mere waifs and strays of Africa, placed in our charge 
with no choice of their own, with the stamp of slavery more or less perma 
nently impressed upon them, knowing no ties of home or kindred, bound to 
the Mission no less than binding the Mission to them, as a kind of permanent 
responsibility and charge, whatever they may turn out in course of time. 
The new element consists of free boys, the pick of our Mission schools, volun 
tarily seeking to know more and to rise to a higher level than they could other 
wise attain . . . making a real sacrifice of much that is dear to them home 
ties, family life, and unfettered freedom ; submitting to a discipline necessarily 
rather strict and irksome, maintaining throughout a relation to their teachers 
which either can terminate at pleasure a relation far more healthy and 
bracing than in the former case. 

"On these terms boys have come from Magila (eighty miles distant), from 
the Rovuma region (300 miles away), and even from Nyasa, by a route 
involving a journey of nearly 1,000 miles. 

G G 



450 APPENDICES. 



"The one main object of our work is to send these boys back, as far as 
possible, to their own countries not European ized and contemptuous of their 
old companions and surroundings, but able to live among without being of 
them, able to stand alone as living sober, well-instructed, high-principled, 
Christian lives, and gather others round them by the daily exhibition of a 
standard of truth and goodness never known before ; and (if it may be) found 
branches of the Catholic Church with themselves as its ordained ministers. 

" How is this to be effected ? Largely by means of an educational machine, 
combining routine with elasticity, discipline with freedom, developing powers 
of body, mind, and will in an atmosphere truly and affectedly religious. Far 
distant as such an ideal may be, something of the sort is in existence and at 
work." 

Such, then, is the spirit in which the Church in Central Africa is 
striving to strike firm and deep the roots in native soil of that tree 
which, we trust, shall yet spread its branches far and wide over the 
nations, and in which even those of other climes may find rest and 
shelter. 



III. 

CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF THE MISSION. 

* T T may at first sight seem strange that the Mission in this its 38th 
-*- year of life has no written constitution except one dealing with 
the home organization. And yet in this defect (if defect it be) it but 
imitates the Church and the State of England, and for the same rea 
sons it and they have been built up by Englishmen who seek prac 
tical utility before theoretical completeness. Yet it must be confessed 
that the history of the Mission illustrates this national habit in a 
somewhat accentuated form. For example, the first two Bishops, 
Mackenzie and Tozer, took the oath of Obedience to the Metropolitan 
of Cape Town. All the subsequent Bishops have taken the oath to 
the Archbishop of Canterbury ; and if any change is made in the 
future, it will probably be in the direction of the formation of a Pro 
vince of Central Africa. The Universities Mission looks back with 
reverence and gratitude to the South African Church from which she 
received her Mission ; but various reasons, principally the increased 
facilities of communication with England, led to a severance of formal 
ties, gradually effected, but complete. 

Again, no rule has been authoritatively laid down as to the manner 
of the appointment of Bishops. When Bishop Hine was appointed, 
Archbishop Benson made the selection with the assistance of a 
Committee of Bishops, of which the Chairman of our London Com 
mittee (the Bishop of St. Alban s) was a member. On previous 
vacancies, alas ! so numerous in our annals, the choice was made 
by the London Committee and submitted to the Archbishop. His 
discretion was, of course, absolute, and so the appointment has 
really always rested with His Grace. As to the person to be chosen, 

* This Appendix is written by one of the Treasurers of the Mission, 
451 



452 APPENDICES. 



consultation with the members of the Mission staff has been in prac 
tice a matter of great difficulty although in theory most desirable. 
The length of time which it would take to get the suffrages of the 
Missionaries from the outlying stations in the Zanzibar Diocese would 
cause a serious delay, and from every part of the Likoma Diocese 
more than six months is required to obtain a reply. Still, on the 
occasion of the appointment of Bishop Richardson, a beginning was 
made in this direction in the diocese of Zanzibar. 

One more matter must not be left unnoticed, if we would candidly 
place before our readers the extent of our independence of written 
law. There has never been any distinct definition of the limits of our 
Bishop s jurisdiction, either when there was but one diocese or now 
that there are two. The Committee feel, and have always felt, that it 
is not within their province to draw up a system for the organization 
of the Mission in Africa, although they have been careful from time 
to time to provide machinery for the organization of their work in 
England. 

It may be asked, How is it possible to carry out the work with so 
much left undetermined and obscure? The answer is, that our work 
has prospered, in spite of, or rather it should be said in consequence 
of, the freedom which we have enjoyed. When we consider our 
small beginnings, our wonderful growth, the changes which have been 
wrought in our outward circumstances by political forces and by the 
introduction of railways, steam boats and telegraphs, the quick suc 
cession of our workers so many blessed with divers gifts called so 
early to their rest we cannot but be thankful that we have been free 
to adapt ourselves to the circumstances of the day, whilst holding 
fast that fundamental law of our existence from which we have never 
swerved, namely, that the government of the Mission in Africa is in 
the hands of its Bishops, untrammelled by any control exercised by 
the Committee at home. Maintaining this principle, we wait with 
hope for the time when, compacted by slow degrees and as the con 
sequence of natural growth, the dioceses of the Universities Mission 
will take their place in the province of Central Africa amongst the 
Churches in communion with the See of Canterbury. 



IV. 
SYNODICAL ACTION. 

With the revival ot Church principles, for which our last half-cen 
tury will be famous, it has come to be seen that the free synodical 
action of the clergy is a proper concomitant of the fundamental 
principle of the Apostolic Succession. The late Bishop of Lincoln, 
as we all know, led the way in this matter, and it was upon the Lin 
coln model that the Sacred Diocesan Synod of Zanzibar was consti 
tuted in 1896. Previous to the convocation of this Synod, Bishop 
Richardson caused some very considerable inquiries to be made. The 
Archdeacon of Zanzibar consulted several eminent canonists (includ 
ing the late archbishop) during his stay in England, and the Rev. 
Walter K. Firminger paid a visit to Bloemfontein in order to study 
the practice and constitution of the Synod in that diocese. 
First s nod f ^ ie ^ rs ^ Synod was held in Christ Church, the Bishop 
Zanzibar, presiding, and the following clergy were able to be pre- 
May 5, 1884. ^ ._ 

PRIESTS. I DEACONS. 

The Yen. Archdeacon Farler. The Rev. F. A. Wallis. 



The Rev. P. L. Jones-Bateman. 
,, II. C. Goodyear. 



A. II. Hamilton. LAYMEN. 

J. K. Key. 
Chauncy Maples. 
W. C. Porter. 
Duncan Travers. 



F. J. Williams. 
II. W. Woodward. 



Mr. A. C. Madan, 
,, W. Bellingham. 



The Bishop (Smythies) says of this Synod : "Though many of us 
began with very different opinions on some of the subjects brought 
forward, yet after we had heard one another s opinions some way of 
reconciliation was found, so that all the resolutions of the Synod were 
passed without a dissenting voice." 

The laymen present took no part in the decisions, some of which 
were as follows : 

453 



454 APPENDICES. 



" i. That in the opinion of this Synod no man continuing in the state of 
polygamy can be admitted to Holy Baptism. 

"2. That a Polygamist desiring Holy Baptism should be advised carefully 
to avoid any injustice towards the women who had regarded him as their hus 
band, and to provide for their maintenance in accordance with the custom of 
his country before he is baptized. 

3. That at all the Missionary Stations an account of all presents given 
away should be kept, with any details which may serve as a guide to those 
who may succeed to the charge of such stations. 

"4. That all members of the Mission should exercise the utmost caution 
in furthering the liberation of any persons who may be in a state of slavery in 
the country in which they are living, and that in the case of any of our people 
wishing to redeem or receive children there should be a definite understanding 
that such children should be in all respects free and should be brought up as 
Christians. 

"5- That no boys should be received into the houses of the Mission except 
for some definite work, or as pupils in the schools, and that no difference 
should be made in the food and status of the boys received. 

" 6. These acts were agreed to unanimously at the four local Conferences." 

Nine years later Bishop Smythies held another Synod, 
of Zanzibar 1 on J une 3- C> n tm s occasion he issued a general dis 
pensation from fasting to such of the European members 
of the staff as might require it. 

In the course of his address he read a letter which he had for 
warded to the Home Committee, and which explains the change in 
the arrangements for the staff mentioned above. 

"Hitherto the ladies, clergy, and laymen have occupied the Mission house 
at Mkunazini and houses attached, all having a common table. This was no 
longer possible when a staff of nurses was added, and at present, at great 
inconvenience, they live in the hospital. Our work hitherto has been almost 
exclusively amongst freed slaves children, industrial boys, and adults. Very 
little direct effort has been made to influence the large population of Arabs 
and Indians and their coloured Mohammedan followers, of which the town of 
Zanzibar consists. A house of mixed character such as ours was very unsuit 
able as a centre for any such work. We need a clergy-house, where clergy 
and laymen may live in community together, after the system of the Calcutta 
and Delhi Missions. Such a house as ours has been at Mkunazini, unusual 
among ourselves, would seem peculiarly unsuited to the ways and habits of 
thought of a Mohammedan population. Mr. Madan, who feels very strongly 
on the subject, has suggested to me that, if a clergy-house was established, 



APPENDICES. 455 



in all probability men specially fitted for the work would volunteer from the 
Universities and elsewhere at home, to give themselves specially to work in 
the town of Zanzibar. 
" There were present : 

PRIESTS. I The Rev. P. R. H. Chambers. 

The Archdeacon of Zanzibar. ,, ,, E. S. Palmer. 

The Rev. H. W. Woodward. ,, ,, C. R. Tyrwhitt. 

,, W. C. Porter. G. P. K. H. Du Boulay. 

,, J. K. C. Key. 
,, ,, Cecil Majaliwa. 



J. C. Salfey. 
W. M. Mercer. 



DEACONS. 
The Rev. P. Limo. 



,, ., J. E. Griffin. ,, ,, J. C. Ifaines. 

,, ,, A. II. Carnon. \ ,, ,, J. Grindrod. 

"Mr. F. Davenport acted as Secretary, and Mr. King and other members 
of the Mission took part in the deliberations." 

"ACTS OF THE SYNOD. 

" I. That this Synod desires to express its thanks to Mr. Madan and the 
Rev. F. R. Hodgson for their arduous labours, which have happily resulted 
in a revised translation of the Old and New Testaments. 

" 2. That a Committee be formed to consider the Revised Translations of 
the Swahili New Testament, consisting of the Archdeacon of Zanzibar, the 
Rev> H. W. Woodward, Cecil Majaliwa, and Petro Limo, with the Bishop 
as Chairman, with power to add to their numbers ; to sit day by day and to 
report upon the translation ; the result of their labours to be printed at Kiun- 
gani, and circulated according to the twenty-sixth Resolution of the Synod of 
1884. 

"3. That in all books or translations issued by the Universities Mission in 
native languages, while our own positive beliefs are stated and taught, the 
object shall be kept in view of so putting them as not to reflect on the beliefs 
of other Christians who hold the Apostles , Nicene, and Athanasian Creeds, 
so that our books may be read by them without offence. 

"4. That this Synod authorizes the Rev. II. W. Woodward and Mr. King 

to revise the existing Swahili Hymn-Book, with the following instructions : 

" (a) To make additions, particularly of Office hymns, and to omit any 

hymns objectionable for doctrinal or linguistic reasons. 

"(ff) To select hymns for translation or re-translation by competent 

persons. 

" (<:) To submit before Michaelmas tentative copies to the various stations 

for suggestions, such suggestions to be referred to the Bishop. 

"5. (a) That in the instructions to hearers on p. 26 of the Mambo ya 



456 APPENDICES. 



CJnioni, in the place of B the tract of the Bishop of Zululand (except so 

far as it is covered by A), be inserted in the form already in use. 

" (/>) That this Synod commissions the Archdeacon of Zanzibar, Mr. 

Woodward, and Mr. Chambers, to form a Committee, with power to add 

to their numbers, to revise Chapter V. of the Manila ya Chitoni, with a 

view to making it more efficient for the instruction of our converts. 

"6. The Synod having regard to the great danger to health caused by 
want of care in this climate, recommended several precautions to members of 
the Mission. 

" 7- That it is most desirable that we should impress as far as possible on 
all Africans ministered to in spiritual things by African teachers, that it is 
their duty to furnish their teachers with temporal things, and that we should, 
therefore, in bringing up all our African teachers, strenuously discourage all 
Europeanisms and luxuries, which the Africans they will minister to will be 
quite unable to supply to them. 

" 8. That this Synod desires to encourage natives in every way to purchase, 
however cheaply, our Swahili Bibles and New Testaments. 

"9. That wages should not be fixed for any native teacher without con 
sultation and reference to the general principles on which the Mission gives 
its salaries." 
Third Svnod of The Sacred Diocesan Synod met at Zanzibar on St. 

Zanzibar, Luke s Day, 1 896. The Vent Creator having been sung 

Oct 18 189S 

in a chapel prepared in the Hospital, where in default of 
a proper episcopal residence the Bishop was staying, the Bishop, 
followed by his clergy, and lastly by the choir, walked in proces 
sion to the Cathedral, chanting the Psalm, " How amiable are Thy 
tabernacles." After a solemn celebration of the Holy Eucharist, the 
Bishop opened his Synod, the laity having been previously dismissed. 
The Acts of the Synod have not as yet been promulgated. 

We must leave it to Canonists to determine the exact character of 
the previous Synods, which not only were open to the laity, but in 
cluded only those clergy to whom the Bishop had issued summons. 
We have, however, inserted their acts, which, it will be noted, deal 
with matters of rather more than a purely pastoral nature. 

There were present Archdeacon Jones-Bateman, the Rev. J. P. 
Farler (Bishop s Chaplain), and the Revs. A. H. Carnon, G. Dale, 
W. K. Firminger, J. E. Griffin, C. Majaliwa, W. C. Porter, S. Sehoza, 
T. C. Simpson, H. W. Woodward, J. Godfrey (by invitation), D 
Machina, D. Seyiti, and J. Swedi. 



V. 



ENGLISH MEMBERS OF THE MISSION. 

The sign ^ is placed against the names of those members who have died in 
the service of the Mission. 



Date of 
Joining. 


Name. 


Degree, College, 
Occupation. 


Remarks. 


1860. 




Oct. 4. 


^CHARLES FREDERICK 


D.D., Cam. 


Died Jan. 31, 1862. 




MACKENZIE. 








First Bishop. 






Oct. 4. 


Anne Mackenzie . 





Withdrew Apr. 26, 








1862. 


Oct. 4. 


Horace Waller 


LaySuperintend- 


Withdrew 1863, died 






ent 


Feb. 22, 1896. 


Oct. 4. 


Lovell James Procter 


P. B.A., Dur. 


Withdrew 1863. 


Oct. 4. 


^Ilenry Carter Scudamore 


P. Cam. 


Died Jan. I, 1863. 


Dec. 


Henry Rowley 


Schoolmaster . 


Withdrew 1863. 


1861. 








Apr. 6. 


Richard Martin Clark . 


Shoemaker 


Withdrew 1863. 


Apr. 6. 


Samuel A. Gamble 


Carpenter 





Apr. 6. 


Alfred Adams 


Agriculturist . 


Withdrew 1863. 


Apr. 6. 


J. Andrew Blair 


Printer 


Invalided 1 86 1. 


Apr. 6. 


Edward Hawkins . 


P. M.A., Ox. 


Died. 


Apr. 6. 


>J<John Dickenson . 


M.D., Dur. 


Died Mar. 17, 1863. 


Aur. 6. 


>J< Henry De Wint Burrup 


P. Ox. . 


Died Feb. 22, 1862. 


1863. 








Feb. 2. 


WILLIAM GEORGE TOZER 


D.D., Ox. 


Invalided Apr. 1873. 




Second Bishop. 








^EDWARD STEERE 


D.D.Ox.,LL.D. 


Died Aug. 27, 1882. 




Afterwards Third Bishop. 


Lon. 






Charles A. Alington 


P. B.A., Ox. . 


Withdrew Jan., 1 869. 




>J<George Edwards Drayton 


D. Cant. 


Died Nov. 28, 1867. 




^Caroline Drayton . 





Died Nov. 17, 1867. 




Henry Waghorn 





Withdrew. 




Robert Kallaway . 





Withdrew. 




Thomas Sivil . 


Bricklayer 


Withdrew. 




Richard Harrison . 





Withdrew. 


1865. 










Helen Rainforth Tozer . 





Withdrew. 



457 



458 



APPENDICES. 



1867. 








Oct. 


Walter Lea . . . P. Lon. . 


Invalided June 1869. 


Oct. 


Maria Lea . . . 


Withdrew. 


Oct. 


Sarah Ann Pakeman 


Withdrew. 


1868. 








June 


^Richard Lewin Pennell 


P. M.A., Ox. 


Died Apr. 15, 1872. 


June 


>J< Lewis Fraser 


P. B.A.,Cam. 


Died Dec. 10, 1869. 


June 


Samuel Speare 





Died Nov. 13, 1873. 


Nov. 


Samuel Davis 


D. . 


Withdrew Mar., 1870 


Nov. 


William Minchin Edwards 





Withdrew. 


1869. 




1 


May 


Caroline A. F. Packe . 


. 


Withdrew. 




Elizabeth J. Heath 





Withdrew. 




Frederick Chapman 





Withdrew. 


1870. 








Mar. 


John Morton 


Schoolmaster . Withdrew. 




^Benjamin Hartley. 


Died [Feb. 15, 1874. 


Aug. 


^Ormsby Handcock . P. Dub. 


Died Sept. 29, 1870. 




Charlotte Roden . . j 


Withdrew. 


1872. 










Sarah Fountaine . 


Schoolmistress . 


Withdrew 1879. 








Rejoined 1888. 








Withdrew 1893. 


1873- 








Feb. 


Benjamin Karn 


Schoolmaster . 


Withdrew. 


Feb. 


Christian Dawson . 





Withdrew. 


Feb. 


^Arthur Nugent West 


P. B.A., Cam. 


Died Dec. 25, 1873. 


Apr. 


James Midgley 


P. M.A., Cam. 


Invalided. 


1874. 










John Gough Poole . 





Withdrew. 




Alfred II. Boys 





Withdrew. 




Fanny Bennett 


Withdrew. 


1875- 








Edward S. L. Randolph P. B.A., Cam. Withdrew 1879. 




^Josephine Bartlett . Died Apr. 10, 1895. 




John Prediger Farler . P. M.A., Cam. 


Withdrew 1889. 




Henry John Mitchell . Cant. 


Withdrew. 


Mar. 


Frederick Alfred Wallis . P. Lin. . 


Withdrew 1889. 




Herbert W. Woodward . , P. Ox. . 







>J<Tohn Henry Moss. . j 


Died Jan. 17, 1877. 




^Charles Anderson James 


P. M.A., Ox. 


Died Nov. 25, 1875. 




James Beardall 


Withdrew 1877. 




Katherine Graves . 


1 Withdrew. 



APPENDICES. 



459 



Date of 

Joining. 


Name. 


Degree, College, 
Occupation. 


Remarks. 


1875. 










[Madame] Cappelle 





Withdrew. 




Alfred Belleville . 





Withdrew. 




Frances Ainsworth 





Withdrew. 




>J< A lice Marsh. 





Died Nov. 14, 1875. 




William Forbes Capel .P. K.C.L. . 


Withdrew, 1877. 




Katherine Tyndal . 


Withdrew. 




Mary Anne Harriet Allen 


Withdrew. 




>J<Sophia Jones 


Died Apr. II, 1877. 




Emma Durham 


Withdrew. 




Herbert Henry Clarke . P. Ox. . 


Invalided Oct. 7, 1 890 




Owen Phillips 


D. . 


Withdrew, 1882. 


1876. 




i 


Mar. 1 8. 


^Charles Yorke . 


D. War. . ! Died Jan. 6, 1880. 


Mar. 1 8. 


^CHAUNCY MAPLES 


P. D.D., Ox. Drowned Sept. 2, 




Afterwards Sixth Bishop. 


1895. 




^Joseph Arthur Williams 


Dor, . . Drowned Sept. 2, 






1895. 




William P. Johnson 


P. M.A., Ox. 


1877. 






Alfred Charles Goldfinch 


D. War. 


Withdrew. 




Francis Roger Hodgson . 


P. M.A., Ox. 


Withdrew 1893. 




Jessie Hodgson . . 1 


Invalided 1889. 




^Margaret Ann Ilinton . 


Died Mar. 24, iSSi. 




Frederick John Williams P. War. . 


Withdrew 1885. 




Caroline D. M. Thackeray 







Charles Spencer Newham 


Withdrew. 


1878. 








W. H. Maplesden . i j Withdrew. 


1879. 


i 


Feb. 20. 


Edward H. C. Sayres . P. M.A., Ox. Invalided iSSo. 


Feb. 20. 


L. L. Amy Bashford . Withdrew 1889. 




Edwin Heron Dodgson . P. Chic. . Withdrew 1880. 




Jj Herbert Geldart . . P. Cant. . Died May, n, 1889. 




William Bellingham . Working man . Withdrew iSSS. 




Lionel Kentish Rankin . Cam. . . i Withdrew. 




Dore Yarnton Mills 





1880. 








William D. Lowndes 


D. B.A.,Cam. 


Withdrew 1883. 




William C. Porter 


P. M.A.,Cam. 







Charles Chapman . 


P. B.A., Cam. Withdrew iSSi. 




Thomas Ellis. . 


Carpenter . Withdrew 1884. 




Samuel II ay man . 


Printer <. . Withdrew. 




Arthur Cornwallis Madan 


M.A., Ox. . Resigned 1896. 




Henry Berkeley Bradley 





Withdrew 1884. 




^Herbert A. B. Wilson . 


D. Ox. . 


Died Sept. 12, 1882. 



460 



APPENDICES. 



Date of 

Joining. 


Name. 


Degree. College, 
Occupation. 


Remarks. 


l88o. 








(JjCharles Albert Janson . 


P. M.A., Ox. 


Died Feb. 21, 1882. 




Percy Lisle Jones-Bateman 


P. M.A., Cam. 





1881. 










Thomas Gill . 


Mason 


Withdrew. 




James C. Yarborough 


D. 13. A.. Ox. 


Invalided 1 88 1. 




Edith Phillips . . i 


Withdrew. 




Charles W. Roberts . Dor.Schoolmastcr 







William Henry Kitson . 


Withdrew. 




John K. Causton Key . P. M.A., Ox. 





1882. 








Harriet Smith . . Teacher . 


Withdrew. 




Mary Worsfold 


Withdrew 1883. 




Ellen Sherratt . . Nurse 


Withdrew 1883. 




^Thomas R. S. F. Whitty Dor. 


Died Dec. 19, 1887. 




James Petrie . . . M.B., Aber. 


Withdrew. 


Oct. 


Richard C. Ramshaw . j Printer 


Withdrew 1885. 


1883. 






Feb. 21. 


JiMary Charlotte Towns- Nurse 


Died June 13, 1891. 




hend 




Feb. 21. 


Sarah Carter . 





Invalided 1884. 




Arthur Hayne Hamilton j P. B.A., Ox. . 


Invalided Oct. 1884. 




^Henry Charles Goodyear: P. War. 


Died June 24, 1889. 


Tuly 10. 


^CHARLES ALAN SMYTH- D.D., Cam. 


Died May 7, 1894. 




IES . . . . 1 




1884. 


fourth BisJiop. 




Jan. 1 6. 


Duncan Travers 


P. M.A., Cam. 


Invalided. 


Jan. 1 6. 


Herbert Allen 


Carpenter 


Withdrew 1894. 


Jan. 1 6. 


Martin Luther Irving 


D. Cant. 


Withdrew 1888. 


Jan. 1 6. 


Henry Kerslake 


Schoolmaster . 


Withdrew 1887. 


Jan. 1 6. 


jjijohn Meshack Lavender 


Cant. 


Died Aug. 20, 1884. 


Jan. 1 6. 


William Marsden Mercer 


P. Dor. . 


Withdrew Sept. 1893. 


Apr. 9. 


Spencer Weigall . 


P. M.A., Ox. 


Invalided 1893. 


May 7. 


^Charles S. 13. Riddell . 


P. B.A., Ox. . 


Died June 1 1, 1886. 


May 7. 


Ruth Berkeley 








May i. 


^George Ilervey Swinny 


P. M.A., Ox. 


Died Feb. 13, 1887. 


May i. 


>J<Edith Maria Swinny 





Died May 31, 1888. 


July 2. 


Leonard Hanbury Frere. 


P. Ox. 


Invalided 1892. 


July 2. 


Evelyn Bucknall L. Smith P. B.A., Cam. 





July 2. 


Robert Stanley Coupland P. Lin. . 


Withdrew, rejoined 








Oct. 1 6, 1896. 


July 2. 


James Lewis Matthews . Schoolmaster . 


Withdrew 1893. 


July 2. 


William Bishop . . D. Dor. . 





Oct. 31. 1 


Danson Wride 


Carpenter 


Invalided 1893. 


Oct. 31. 


Gerard B. B. Callaghan . 


. 


Invalided 1885. 


Oct. 31. 


William Robinson . 


Engine fitter 


Invalided. 



APPENDICES. 



461 



Date of 

Joining. 


Name. 


Degree, College, 
Occupation. 


Remarks. 


1884. 






Oct. 31. i Richard Creighton . 





Withdrew. 


Oct. 31. ! Charles Alley 


Carpenter. 


Invalided 1892. 


Oct. 31. Albert Read . 


Engineer . . Withdrew. 


1885. 




j 


Jan. John Michael Halliclay . 


Accountant . Withdrew 1889. 


Mar. 1 8. George Coggan 





Withdrew. 


July 8. Walter King . 


Cant. 





.^Ernest Edward Winckley 


Dor. . . Died Feb. 4, 1886. 


July 25. ;>J<Cecil Sherard Pollard . 


P. M.A., Ox. 


Died Aug. 1 6, 1886. 


Sept. 2. ^Theophilus L. Taylor . 


P. B.A., Lon. 


Died Mar. I, 1891. 


Sept. 2. ^Eleanor Mary Bennett . 


Teacher . . Died May 16, 1893. 


Sept. 2. Margaret E. Woodward. 


Teacher . 


Sept. 2. ^Herbert Ley 


M.R.C.S.(Eng.), Died June 10, 1895. 




L.S.A. 


July. 


Percy Montague Wat hen 


P. M.A., Ox. Withdrew 1890. 


l^ljohn Stevenson C. Wood 


P. B.A., Cam. Died June 18, 1886. 


1886. 






Feb. 


>J<John Ilainsworth . 


P. Dor. . 


Died Apr. 13, 1896. 


Feb. ^Fanny Jervis Shaw 


Nurse . . Died Oct. 9, 1893. 


Mar. 12. John Vaughan Dock! 


Printer . . Withdrew. 


Apr. 7. ^(George Sherriff . 


Trawler . . Died Aug. 12, 1891. 


>J<Clement John Sparks . 


P. Cant. . Died Sept. 22, 1889. 


>^Eliza Helen Wallis 


1 Died Jan. 10, 1890. 


1887. 










^William Knowles . 


Mason 


Died Sept. 7, 1889. 


Feb. 17. 


James William Mills 


Engineer . 


Withdrew Oct., 1890 


Feb. 17. 


Richard Crawshay . 





Withdrew 1887. 


July 7. ^Montague Ellis- Viner . 


P. B.A., Ox. 


Died Oct. 5, 1890. 


Aug. 17. ^Francis William Wilde . 


Carpenter. 


Died July 20, 1892. 


July 7. >J<Agnes [Sister] 





Died Mar. 17, 1895. 


July 7. , Anne Margaret [Sister] . 








Jiy 7- 


Mary Elizabeth [Sister] . 








Oct. 2. 


Emily Woodward . 








Nov. 24. 


Alfred Charles I lighten . 


P. B.A., Ox. 


Withdrew 1889. 


1888. 








Feb. 


Henry Watson 


Schoolmaster . 


Withdrew 1891. 


Apr. 19. 


Henry George Maxwell . 


P. M.A., Ox. 


Invalided Nov., iSSS 


May 10. 


George William Mallender 


Printer . 


Invalided 1895. 


May 10. 


William Williams . 


Engine fitter 


Withdrew. Rejoined 








Nov., 1896. 


June 7. 


John Henry Bone . 


Schoolmaster . 


Invalided 1895. 


June 7. 


Leonard Ottley Warner . 


Cant. 


Invalided 1889. 


June 7. 


Henry Edward Symonds 


Printer 


Withdrew. 


Julys - 


Sophia Charlotte Me- 


Nurse 


Withdrew 1893. 




Laughlin 







4 62 



APPENDICES. 



Date of 
Joining. 


Name. 


Degree, College, 
Occupation. 


Remarks. 


1888. 


I 




Sept. 28. 


Ralph Belcher 


Withdrew. 


Nov. 10. 


^Richard Coombe . 


Died Jan. 29, 1889. 


Mar. 12. 


Lydia Leah Mary Smith. Nurse . . \ Invalided. 


JOHN EDWARD HINE . P. D.D., Ox. ; 




\Aftcrwards Eighth Bishop. M.D., Lon. 




1889. 






Jan. 12. 


^Albert Beetham . . Tradesman 


Died May II, 1892. 


Apr. 12. ^John James Vincy . Schoolmaster . 


Died Sept. 20, 1891. 


June 10. 


Godfrey Dale. . . P. B.A., Ox. . 




July 30. 


Richard Feild Castle 


M.B., Cam. ; 


Withdrew. 






M.R.C.S. 




Nov. 12. 


Margaret Amabelle Ber 









keley 






1890. 








Feb. 20. 


Mary Anna Boyd . 








Mar. 10. 


Clare [Sister] . 


. . 


Invalided Oct., 1890. 


Mar. 10. 


Mary Dorothea [Sister] . 





Withdrew 1895. 


May 12. Percy Edward Faulkner. 


D. Dor . 





May 12. 


John Thomas Brougli 


Carpenter . 


Withdrew. 


June 10. 


Susie Grant Dean-Pitt 


. - 


Withdrew 1893. 


June 10. Thomas Brockway . 


Storekeeper 





June 10. William G. Ross . 


Carpenter. 


Invalided 1890. 


June 10. ^Charles Kick 


Printer 


Died June 19, 1896. 


Nov. 12. 

Oct. 12. 


>J< Janet Emily Campbell . 
Emily A. Boden 


Nurse 


Died June 6, 1892. 
Withdrew. 


Oct. 12. 


Florence Emily Turner . 


. 


Withdrew 1893. 


Oct. 12, 


John Dalebrook 


B.A.,Ox. 


Withdrew. 


Oct. 12. 


John Ernest Crouch 


Engineer . 





Nov. 10, 


Richard Banks Davies . 


P. M.A., Cam. 


Withdrew. 


Nov. 10. 


John Castle Haines . D. B.Ai, Ox. 


Invalided. 


Oct. 12. 


^Robert William Lewis . Printer 


Died Mar. 15, 1892. 


Nov. 12. 


Alfred Henry Carnon . P. Dor. . 





Nov. 12. 


Margaret F. Caffin . Nurse 


Invalided. 


1891. 








Jan. 19. 


Henry Edwardes . . ! P. Lich. 


Invalided. 


Jan. 19. 


Frank Alfred Ford . Printer 


Invalided 1895. 


Jan. 19. 


Herbert Lister 





Withdrew 1897. 


Jan. 19. 


Ernest St.Clair I lenriques 


Med. Assistant . 





Apr. 13. 


Harriette L. Burke 





Withdrew 1895. 


June 12. 


Robert F. Aclancl Hood 


P. B.A., Ox. . 


Withdrew Jan., 1896. 


Aug. 12. 


>J<George William Atlay . 


P. B.A., Cam. Killed Aug. 26,1895. 




^Frances [Sister] . 





Died Apr. 8, 1892. 


1892. 








Feb. 15. 


Fercival R. Ilarcourt 


P. B.A., Cam. 







Chambers 





APPENDICES. 



463 



Date of 
Joining. 


Name. 


Degree, College, 
Occupation. 


Remarks. 


1892. 








Feb. 15. 


George Mervyn Lawson 


P. B.A., Ox. 


Invalided 1895. 


Feb. 15. Bertram Wallace Pullinger 





Invalided 1893. 


Mar. 14. 


Charles Barrett 





Withdrew 1893. 


Mar. 14. 


Arthur Cook . 


Schoolmaster . 


Withdrew 1896. 


May 9. 


James Edward Griffin . P. Lon. . 





June 3. 


Thomas Corbett 


Builder 


Withdrew 1895. 


June 3. 


James Gillanders 


Schoolmaster . 


Invalided 1895. 


Sept. 10. 


>j<Wm. J. Harcourt Cham 


B.A., Cam. . Died Mar. 5, "1894. 




bers 




Sept. 10. 


Hannah Brewerton 


Nurse 


Sept. 10. 


Sarah Ann Whitbread . 


Nurse . . 


Nov. 10. 


Frank Davenport . 


Accountant . j Invalided 18915. 


Dec. 21. 


WILFRID BIRD HORNBY, 


D.D. Ox. 


Invalided 1894. 




First Bishop of Nyasaland. 






1893. 








Jan. 10. 


ThomasCramptonSimpson 


P. Lin. . 





Jan. 10. 


James Grindrod 


D. Cant. 





Jan. 10. 


Frederic W. Bradshaw . 


Printer 





Jan. 10. 


Herbert J. Faulkner 








Jan. 10. 


Annie Garrett 


Teacher . 


Withdrew 1896. 


Jan. 10. 


Walter Edward Russell . 


Soc. vSac. Mi.ss. 





Jan. 10. 


Harriet Matilda Basham. 


Nurse 


Invalided 1895. 


Feb. 10. 


James Sedgwick Wim- 


P. M.A., Ox. 







bush 






Feb. 10. 


^Herbert Moles worth 


Engineer . 


Died May 26, 1894. 




Pearson 






Feb. 10. 


^Archibald IT. Butler . 


Schoolmaster . 


Died Jan. 15, 1895. 


Feb. 10. 


Malcolm C. Kerr . 





Invalided 1895. 


Feb. 10. 


>J<William Covvey . 


Miner 


Died Mar. 6, 1894. 


April 10. 


Laura Phillips 








April 10. 


Russell Blackbird Smith. 


Carpenter 


Invalided 1893. 


May 10. 


^George P. K. II. Du 


P. M.A., Ox. 


Died Apr. i, 1895. 




Boulay 






May 10. 


Edmund Stuart Palmer . 


P. M.B.,Edin. 





May 10. 


Cecil Robert Tyrwhitt . 


P. M.A., Ox. 


Invalided 1896. 


May 10. 


Cyril Wildsmith Chilvers 


Soc. Sac. Miss. 





May 10. 


Thomas Cobley Matthews 


Trawler . 


Invalided 1895. 


July 10. 


>Jl Annie Mathiide Willion 


Nurse 


Died June 8, 1894. 


July 10. 


Caroline Louisa Saunders 


Nurse 





July 10. 


>J<Sister Angela 





Died June 29, 1894. 


Aug. 17. 


Archibald Hitchborn 


Schoolmaster . 





Aug. 21. 


Arthur George Barnard 


P. M.A., Ox. 







Glossop 






Aug. 21. 


Frederick Augustine Rob 


M.R.C.S., 


Invalided 1894. 




inson 


L.R.C.P. 





464 



APPENDICES. 



Date of 

Joining. 


Name. 


Degree, College, 
Occupation. 


Remarks. 


1893. 








Sept. II. 


>J<Alice Marion Gay 


Teacher . 


Died Jan. 19, 1894. 


Sept. II. 


GeorginaEmma Uollovvay 








Sept. II. 


Mary Gertrude Palmer . 








Nov. 12. 


Walter Harold Kisbey . V. Cant. 





Nov. 20. 


Margaret Breay . . Nurse 


Invalided 1895. 


1894. 




Feb. 10. 


Walter Kelly Firminger 


P. M.A., Ox. ! 


Feb. 10. ; 


Frederick William Mellor Soc. Sac. Miss. Invalided 1895. 


Feb. 10. 


Harry Dud field Gerrish . D. Cant. 


Feb. 


^George Tulip . . Engineer . 


Died Mar. 13, 1895. 


Mar. i. 


Charles Inchbald Radford P. Cant. 


May 8. 


^Arthur Eraser Sim 


P. M.A., Cam. Died Oct. 29, 1895. 


May 9. 


Eva Clutterbuck 








May 9. 


Alice Foxley . 








July 10. 


Margaret Anne Cameron 





July 10. 


Mary Stockwell 


Nurse . . Invalided July, 1895. 


July 28. 


Mary Brown . 


Nurse 





July 28. 


Harriet Rachael South 


Nurse 







ward 






Oct. ii. 


Edward Henry Turner 


Schoolmaster . 







Prior 






Oct. ii. 


John George Philipps 


Dor. 




Nov. 15. 


Florence Emily Derby . 


Nurse . . Invalided May, 1895. 


1895. 








Jan. 31. 


Lizzie Morris Dun ford . 


Teacher . 





Ian. 31. 


James William Brent 


Soc. Sac. Miss. 





Jan. 31. 


George Sims . 


Soc. Sac. Miss. 





Jan. 31. 


Stanley Sanderson . 


Soc. Sac. Miss. 





Mar. 2. 


Alfred Dutton 


Engine fitter 





June I. 


Percy E. Brooke . 





Invalided Jan., 1896. 


June 29. 


WILLIAM MOORE RICH 


D.D., Ox. 







ARDSON 








Seventh Bishop. 






July II. 


Alice Rees. . 


Nurse 





Aug. 10. 


Ernest S. Darley . 


Schoolmaster . 





Aug. 28. 


Frances Elizabeth Eller- 










shaw 






Nov. 1 6. 


Gertrude Ward 


Queen s nurse . 





1896. 








Jan. 30. 


Ernest J. A. Nichols 


D. Dor. . 





Apr. 9, 


Ada M. Sharpe. 


Nurse 





May 6. 


Walter W. Auster . 


P. M.A.,Cam. 





May 6. 


William A. Margesson . 


P. B.A., Ox. 





May 6. 


Howell Williams . 


Compositor 


. 


May 6. 


Alice A. M. Savage 


Nurse 






APPENDICES. 



465 



Date of 

Joining. 


Name. 


Degree, College, 
Occupation. 


Remarks. 


1896. 
May 6. 
June 8. 
Tune 8 


^Marion E. Drake . 
Louise Taylor 
Christopher B. Eyre . 


Nurse 
P. . 


Died Jan. 10, 1897. 


Sept. 9. 
Sept. 9. 
Sept. 9. 
Nov. 9. 


Joseph Godfrey 
William H. W. Goddard 
Marion Gardiner . 
Thomas Steaurt 


D. . . . 

Schoolmaster . 
Nurse 
D. Soc.Sac.Miss. 






II H 



INDEX. 



ABDALLAII, Rev. Yohanna B., at school at 
Newala, 207; teacher at Chitangali, 211 ; 

at Ngambo, 306 ; parting with Bishop 
Smythies, 317 ; ordination, 343, 447 ; at 

A F nang A v?, 4 343 - 

Adams, Alfred, 7, 20. 

Ajawa, the (see Yao). 

Akumbemba, 207. 

Alington, Rev. C. A., joins the Mission, 45, 
457 ; first visit to Usambara, 57 ; resigna 
tion, 60. 

Allen, Herbert, 278, 460. 

Allen, Miss M. A. H., joins the Mission, 99, 
460 ; at Mkunazini, 104 ; starts mothers 
meeting, 116 ; takes the Sisters to Magila, 
236. 

Alms, African, 185. 

Anniversaries, 1882, 154 ; 1894, 184. 

Anti-Slavery treaty of 1873, 88 ; decrees, 
294. 

Atlay, Rev. G., 189, 331, 462. 

BANDAW visited by the " C. J., 1 176 ; death 

of Mr. Svvinny at, 178 ; Miss Fountaine 

received at, 190. 
Baptisms, the first at Zanzibar, 52 ; first 

adult at Masasi, 132 ; first Makonde, 

216 ; first at Kologvve, 272. 
Bartlett, Miss, 99, 458 ; at Kiungani, 104, 

279 ; account of Bp. Steere s last days, 

156 ; death, 358. 

Bashford, Miss, 119, 155, 278, 459. 
Beardall, James, 126, 458. 
Beetham, Albert, 301, 462. 
Bellingham, W., at Zanzibar, 277, 453 ; takes 

up the "C.J.," 149; at Nyasa, 172. 
Bells given to Christ Church, Zanzibar, 98, 

163 ; to Magila, 227. 
Bennett, Miss E. M., 444, 461. 
Benson, Archbishop, letter to the Guild of 

St. Paul, 296 ; on the Nyasa losses, 334 ; 

on the appointment of bishops, 451. 
Berkeley, the Misses, 280, 371, 444, 460, 

462. 

Bishop, Rev. William, 338, 347, 443, 460. 
Blantyre visited by . Bishop Maples, 326 ; 

Likoma boy telegraphist at, 341, 429. 
Blockade of East African coast, 246, 266. 
Bondei defeat Zigua, no ; invite Farler to 

be king, in ; at war with the Wadigo, 

229 ; federation of villages, 233. 



4 6 7 



Bone, J. H., 271, 292, 461. 
Bradley, H. B., 164, 459. 
Breay, Miss, 317, 349, 464. 
Brewerton, Miss H., 317, 372, 463. 
Burrup, Rev. H. deW., reaches Magomero, 
30 ; last journey, 31 ; death, 36, 457. 

CALLAGHAN, Captain, 149, 460. 

Cambridge, Dr. Livingstone s speech at, 
4; committee formed, 5 ; the great Zam 
besi meeting, 5. 

Campbell, Miss J. E., 301, 462. 

Canterbury, Farewell service to Bishop 
Mackenzie, 8; meeting at St. Augustine s, 
9 ; preserves Bishop Mackenzie s relics, 

Cape Town, Consecration of Bishop [Mac 
kenzie at, 9 ; supplies the staff with natives, 
n ; meeting in 1889, 183. 

Capel, Rev. W. F., 105, 434, 459. 

Carnon, Rev. A. H., 354, 455, 462. 

Cemetery at Kiungani consecrated, 103. 

Central Africa first published, 165. 

Chambers, Rev. P. R. H., 253, 271, 360, 

455, 4 62 

Chambers, W. J. H., 349, 463. 

Charles Janson, the, proposed by Mr. John 
son, 149 ; built, launched, and dedicated, 
150; at work on the lake, 176 ; Mr. John 
son s home, 1 80 ; worn out, 362. 

Charms, 122, 237, 273. 

Chibisa s first reached, 20 : described by 
Bishop Mackenzie, 32 ; becomes second 
home of the Mission, 38. 

Child murder, 273. 

Children s Fund, the, 440. 

Chinde, 325. 

Chingomanje s, 178. 

Chisumulu occupied by J. A. Williams, 183, 

443- 
Chitangali, 203 ; Magwangvvara scare, 210 ; 

visited by Bishop Smythies, 211, 215, 

216 ; Church life at, 216. 
Chitenje, Cypriani, made Reader, 216 ; or 
dination, 343, 347, 447 ; at Mivva, 353. 
Chitesi made Mr. Johnson s headquarters, 

149 ; visited by Bishop Smythies, 172. 
Cholera visits Zanzibar, 54. 
Christ Church, Zanzibar, foundation laid, 

91 ; completed, 94 ; first celebration in ? 

96; receives carillon of bells, 98, 163) 



468 



INDEX. 



jrallery built, 164 ; burial-place of Bishop 
Steere, 158. 

Chuma brings Livingstone s body to Eng 
land, 77 ; at Zanzibar, 103 ; leads Rovuma 
party, 126 ; at Nyasa, 141 ; death, 164. 

Clarendon, Mt., 19. 

Clark, R. M., reaches the Mission, 30 ; 
letter about church at Chibisa s, 38. 

Clarke, Rev. H. H., in charge at Newala, 
132, 196 ; as peacemaker, 133 ; in charge 
of Masasi, 134 ; at Lindi, 197 ; teaches 
Chas. Sulimani, 213 ; cxaminingat Mbweni, 
285. 

Clutterbuck, Miss E., 291,464. 

Colenso, Bishop, accepts Mackenzie for work 
at Natal, 3. 

Committee, the, 433. 

Conditions of service, 78, 436. 

Constitution of the Home organization, 434 : 
of the Mission in Africa, 436, 451. 

Coral League, 440. 

Cowey, William, 194, 463. 

DALE, Rev. G., at Magila, 253 ; at Mkuzi, 

267, 342 ; at Kiungani, 349. 
Daoma rescued from the Yaos, 26 ; taken to 

Cape Town by Mr. Waller, 42 ; at Cape 

Town meeting in 1889, 184. 
Davenport, F., 455, 463. 
Davis, S.,54, 60, 458. 
Devil Worship, 2^7. 
Dickenson, Dr., 30, 40, 443, 457. 
Discipline, Exercise of Church, 239 ; on 

Charles Sulimani, 214 ; on Mazagija, 226 ; 

at Magila, 251 ; on Semkali, 257 ; on Mar 
tin Furahani, 275. 
Dispensary in Zanzibar, 287. 
Drayton, Rev. G. .,45, 457. 
Drunkenness in Africa, 299. 
Du Boulay, Rev. G. P. K. H., 358, 455, 

463- 

ELLIS Viner, Rev. M., 239, 461. 

FAILURES, 109, 296. 

Famine at Magomero, 31 ; at Chibisa s, 39 ; 
at Magila, 342, 356. 

Farajallah, George, baptized, 52 ; ordained 
subdeacon, 52, 211 ; death, 54. 

Farler, Rev. J. P., joins the Mission, 99, 
458 ; at Magila, 99, 108, 221, 228, 244 ; as 
peacemaker, 102, 243 sq. ; made Arch 
deacon of Magila, 118: letters, 221; in 
Zanzibar, 453 ; visits to England, 228, 244 ; 
a standard of truthfulness, 258 ; account of 
Wilson s death, 258 ; report on Newala, 
1896, 355 ; report on Magila, 1896, 356. 

Fast days observed by the natives, 216. 

Feruzi, Robert, baptized, 52 ; with Mr. 
Stanley, 112, 116. 

Fire at Magila, 241, 242. 
at Likoma, 188, 190. 

First five boys, the, 50. 

Fountaine, Miss S., at Mbweni, 105 ; at 
Nyasa, 18.6, IQO. 



Fraser, Rev. L., goes to Magila, 60 ; returns 
to Zanzibar, 6r ; death from cholera, 54, 
61 ; work tells later on, 227. 

Frere, Sir Bartle, visits Zanzibar, 71 ; de 
scription of the slave market, 86 ; attends 
meeting of Committee, 86 ; Mission to 
Zanzibar, 87, 294, 393 ; description of the 
Mission s work, 87. 

Frere, Rev. H. L., 172, 183, 460. 

Furahani, Martin and Mildred, 275. 

GAMBLE, S. A., 7, 457. 

Geldart, Rev. H., life, work, and death, 247, 

459 ; at Umba, 258, on the influence of the 

Mission, 234. 
German difficulties with natives, 211 ; set 

right by Barnaba Nakaam, 215; troubles 

in Bonde, 245. 

Gerrish, Rev. H. D., 254, 464. 
Gill, T., 222, 236, 266, 460. 
Goldfinch, Rev. A. C., 118, 134, 197, 459- 
Goodyear, Rev. H. C., 167, 245, 248, 460 ; 

at Zanzibar, 453 ; death, 247. 
Gray, Bishop, visits to England, 4, 44 ; on 

Missionaries using arms, 23 ; scheme for 

chain of stations from Cape Town to Cairo, 

172. 
Griffin, Rev. J. E., at Magila, 253 ; at 

Mkuzi, 267 ; at Zanzibar, 371, 455. 
Grindrod, Rev. J., 216, 455, 463. 
Guild of All Saints, 296. 
Guild of St. Barnabas, 303. 
Guild of St. Boniface, 440. 
Guild of St. Luke, 162, 226. 
Guild of St. Paul, 295, 349 ; receives letter 

from the Archbishop of Canterbury, 296. 
Guild of the Good Shepherd, 296. 

HAINES, Rev. J. C., 216, 455, 462. 
Hainsworth, Rev. J., at Newala, 216 ; 

death, 355, 461. 

Hamilton, Rev. A. H., 453, 460. 
Handcock, Rev. O., at Magila, 61 ; death, 

61, 458. 

Hannington, Bishop, visits Magila, 232. 
Hartley, Ben, killed by slave-dealers, 77. 
Hine. Dr., life and work, 367 ; starts work 

at LJnangu, 193 ; consecration, 368. 
Hinton, Miss, 116, 118. 
Hitchborn, A., 349, 463. 
Hodgson, Rev. F. R., joins the Mission, 

113, 459 ; in charge at Zanzibar, 155, 163 ; 

builds Mbweni Church, 292 ; at Bp. 

Steere s death, 158 ; account of Bp. Steere, 

108 ; completes the Swahili Bible, 291 ; 

thanked by the Synod, 305, 455 ; retire 
ment, 291. 
Hood, Rev. R. F. Acland, at Newala, 216, 

352; account of Matola, 353; retirement, 

355. 4 6 2. 
Hornby, Bp., appointment and consecration, 

191 ; visits Bonde, 252 ; visits Bp. Mac 
kenzie s grave, 192 ; reaches Lake Nyasa, 

192 ; illness and resignation, 195 ; ordains 
Samuel Sehoza, 344 ; at Bp. Maples con- 



INDEX. 



469 



sccration, 324 ; at Bishop Hine s consecra 
tion, 368. 

Hospital: work begun in Zanzibar, 104; 
foundation stone laid, 287, 302, 349 ; work 
at the bombardment of Zanzibar, 372. 

Hurricane at Zanzibar, 70. 

INDUSTRIAL Work, 445 ; at Kiungani, 104, 
279 ; at Mbweni, 105, 280 ; at Mkunazini, 
2 79> 336 j exhibition of, 298 ; on the 
mainland, 341 ; under Mr. Lister, 336. 

Iron working at Masasi, 128 ; at Kwa Kibai, 
274. 

Irving, Rev. M. L., joins the Mission, 278, 
460; atNewala, 201 ; at Mkuzi, 265. 

JAIRAM SENJI gives Slave Market, 88. 

Janson, Rev. C. A., at Newala, 197 ; goes 
to Nyasa with W. P. J., 147 ; death, 148 ; 
buried at Maendenda s, 176. 

Job, 2, 40. 

Johnson, Rev. W. P., at Oxford, 312 ; or 
dination, 107; at Mbweni, 132, 117; in 
charge of Rovuma party, 126 ; invalided 
to Zanzibar, 132 ; returns to Masasi, 134 ; 
en routed Nyasa, 136 ; settles at Mataka s, 
145 ; returns to Zanzibar, 147 ; takes Rev. 
C. A. Janson to Lake, 147 ; makes 
Chitesi s his headquarters, 149 ; visits the 
Magwangwara, 149 ; appeals for a 
steamer, 149 ; turned back by illness, 
150, 174 ; in England, 174 ; returns to 
Nyasa, 177 ; takes Bishop Smythies to 
Lake villages, 180 ; seized by Makanjila, 
1 8 1 ; finds and buries Atlay, 334 ; 
recent work, 366; nickname, 117 ; hopeful 
for the future, 182 ; on the state of the 
natives, 184 ; has confidence of the Yaos, 
187 ; compares energy of officers and 
missionaries, 361. 

Johnston, Sir H., reports on the mission 
boys, 341 ; exterminates slave-dealers, 
361. 

Jones, Miss M. A., 52, 53, 458. 

Jones Bateman, Rev. P. L., work in Zanzi 
bar, 163 ; at the Synods, 453, 455 ; de 
scribes the services in Christ Church, 
Zanzibar, 96 ; account of Masasi, 140 ; 
sermon when Bishop Maples was con 
secrated, 212 ; letter to Archbishop 
Benson, 295. 

Jubilee at Zanzibar, the, 287. 

Jumbe, 179. 

KACHIPUMO, Granville, 263. 

Kalanje, 193, 366. 

Kanyopolea, W. E., 363. 

Kerslake, H., 262, 278, 460. 

Key, Rev. J. K. C., at Umba and Msalaka, 

263, 269 ; in charge of Mbweni, 292 ; at 

the Synods, 453, 455. 
Kibanga makes peace, 102 ; defeats the 

Ziguas, no ; as a rainmaker, 230 ; 

position, 233 ; visited by Bishop Smythies, 

234 ; at war with Kimwcri, 243. 



Kibwana, Charles, 221. 

Kichelwe, 351. 

Kilimani, 291, 351. 

Kimweri, king of Usambara, 57 *, visited by 
Alington, 58 ; death, 60 ; at war with 
Kibanga, 243 ; visited by Bishop Smythies, 
274. 

King, Dr., sermon at consecration of Bishop 
Smythies, 166. 

King, W., 349, 355, 461. 

Kirk, Sir John, on the Zambesi, 17 ; visits 
the Mission at Chibisa s, 40 ; in Zan/.ibar, 
294; action against slavery, 393 sq. 

Kiungani bought, 53 ; occupied by the girls, 

54 ; exchanges girls for boys, 54 ; becomes 
theological college, 54; chapel opened, 

55 ; cemetery consecrated, 103 ; receives 
last visit from Bishop Steerc, 156 ; re 
cruited from mainland, 208 ; work at, 279, 
338, 349 ; Geldart s work and influence at, 
247 ; visited by Sultan Ali, 294 ; former 
pupils, 296 ; progress noted by Maples, 
297 ; work described by Madan, 447. 

Knowles, William, 248, 461. 

Kologwe opened, 270 sq. ; visited by Bishop 

Smythies, 273,359 ; church consecrated, 359. 
Kota-Kota, 327 sq., 362 sq. 
Kwa Kibai, 256, 273 ; sends to ask for a 

teacher, 274. 
Kwa Sigi, 360. 

LADIES Association, 441. 

Lady Workers, 443. 

Languages, African, 27 ; the Swahili, 49 ; 
Dr. Livingstone on the study of, 67 ; Dr 
Steere s work on, 69. 

Lavender, J. M., 230, 278, 460. 

Lawson, Rev. G. M., 253, 462. 

Lay Workers, 7, 442. 

Ley, Dr., at Alagila, 236, 253, 443 ; death, 
.357. 4 6r - 

Likoma chosen for headquarters at Lake, 
169, 171 ; reached by the C. J., 152 ; stone 
Church begun, 183 ; dispensary, 183 ; 
Easter, 1892, at, 187; fires at, 188, 190; 
gives title to Nyasa Bishopric, 323. 

Limp, Rev. Petro, 447 ; at Magila, 242 ; at 
Kiungani, 244 ; speaks at anniversary in 
London, 252 ; ordination, 252, 253 ; in 
Zanzibar, 279, 308, 336, 455 ; presides at 
native conference, 358. 

Lindi, 126, 198. 

Lip ring, the, 16. 

Liquor traffic in Africa, 209, 300. 

Lister, H., at Magila, 252 ; at Kologwe, 
270 ; at Mkunazini, 279, 336. 

Little Boys Home at Mkunazini, 104, 290 ; 
Miss Mills undertakes, 118 ; moved to 
Kilimani, 291. 

Livingstone, Dr., working for the L.M.S., 
3 ; appeals to the Universities, 4 ; meets 
the Mission at the Zambesi, 15 ; conducts 
Mission to Shire highlands, 20 ; disarms 
slave-dealers at Mbambe s, 24 ; visits 
mission at Chibisa s, 40 ; on importance 



470 



INDEX. 



of study of languages, 67 ; death and 

funeral, 77. 

London, H. M. S., 394 sq. 
Lowndes, Rev. W. ])., 222, 459. 
Lumanga s, Bishop Smythies at, 218. 

MABRUKI, Francis, baptized, 52; sent to 
Magila, 72 ; in England, 72 ; at Magila 
again, 100 ; fall, no. 

Machemba visited by Bishop Smythies, 
201 ; defeats Magwangwara, 210 ; Chas. 
Sulimani buried at, 215. 

Machina, Rev. Uaudi, 447 ; farewell to 
Bishop Smythies, 317 ; ordination, 343, 
347 ; at Mkoo, 353, 355. 

Mackenzie, Bishop, first moved to Mission 
work, 2 ; made Archdeacon of Natal, 3 ; 
early history, 6 ; appointed head of the 
Mission, 6 ; consecration, 9 ; reaches the 
Zambesi, 15 ; tries ascent of the Rovuma, 
16 ; first march, 21 ; supports Dr. Living 
stone against the slave-dealers, 24 ; leads 
Nyasas against the Yaos, 26 ; last journey, 
31 ; illness and death, 35 ; cross erected by 
Capt. Wilson, 37 ; will, 37 ; grave conse 
crated by Bishop Tozer, 47 ; grave visited 
by Bishop Hornby, 192 ; compared with 
other bishops, 308 ; pastoral staff, 368. 
Mackenzie, Miss Anne, joins the Mission, 
7 ; _ at Cape Town, 10 ; returns from 
Chibisa s, 36 ; founds the Mackenzie 
memorial Mission, 37, 172. 
McLaughlin,!Miss S. C., 181, 190, 461. 
Madan, A. C., 298, 349, 443 ; Swahili Dic 
tionary, 347 ; at the Synods, 305, 453, 
455 ; on the work of Kiungani, 447. 
Madudu, Wilfrid, at Kologwe, 270, 271. 
Maftaa, Dallington, 112. 
Magazines, African : Bonde, 252 ; Swahili, 

284, 449. 

Magila begun by Mr. Alington, 59 ; visited 
by Bishop Tozer, 60 ; abandoned in 1870, 
61 ; visited by Hancock and Pennell, 61 ; 
reoccupied in 1872, 72; reoccupied per 
manently in 1875,99; invaded by Ziguas, 
no; starts first outstations, 114; Farler 
appointed Archdeacon, 118; stone church 
built, 221 ; gains the confidence of the 
natives, 225 ; has troubles with the coast 
people, 226 ; has first medical man, 226 ; 
visited by Bishop Smytbies, 229, 253 ; 
visited by Bishop Hannington, 232 ; 
Church consecrated, 234 ; supplied with 
Sisters, 237 ; two great fires, 241, 242 ; 
tornado at, 242 ; war scare at, 242 ; boy s 
letter to Mr. Woodward, 250 ; ordination 
of Rev. P. Limo, 252, 253 ; substations, 
256 ; famine, 356, 357 ; visited by Bishop 
Richardson, 359. 

Magomero bought for first settlement, 25 ; 
peopled by captives released, 26 ; daily 
routine at, 28 ; church begun, 29 ; aban- j 
doned, 38; neighbourhood visited by Mr. 
Johnson, 149. 
Magwangwara, 126; raided Masasi, 136, 



141, 214 ; visited by Mr. Johnson, 149 ; 
visited by Bishop Smythies, 174, 180 ; 
visited by Mr. Swinny, 174, 177 ; revisit 
Rovuma district, 209 ; defeated by Ma 
chemba, 210; enslave Nicholas, 284; 
visit Masasi again, 354 ; tusk made into 
pastoral staff, 368. 

Majaliwa, Rev. Cecil, 203, 446; sent to 
Chitangali, 203 ; ordained first native 
priest, 212 ; at Mwiti, 354 ; at the second 
Synod, 455 ; account of Bishop Steere, 
158 ; letter to Mr. Hodgson, 205 ; work 
described by Bishop Smythies, 211. 

Makanjila, 143, 176 ; makes peace with 
Mataka, 146 ; seizes Mr. Johnson and 
Air. Buchanan, 181. 

Makololo, 20. 

Makonde, 125 ; explored by Maples and 
Goldfinch, 134; Cecil Majaliwa on, 206 
Bishop Smythies on, 219. 

Makuas, 125 ; influenced by the Mission, 

131 ; make peace with Sultan of Zanzibar, 
133 ; refuse Christianity, 201 ; first come 
to school, 213. 

Malo, 36. 

Manganja, 19. 

Mapindu, Maria, 119. 

Maples, Bishop, joins the Mission, 107, 311, 

J2o ; ordained priest, 107 ; in charge of 
Iasasi,i32; visits Machembaand Newala, 

132 ; journey to Meto, 124, 134 ; opens 
Masasi Church, 136; at the Magwangwa 
ra raid, 136 ; sent to Nyasa, 175 ; made 
Archdeacon of Nyasa, 176 ; takes first 
party to Unangu, 193 ; at Likoma, 322 ; 
visit to Kota-Kota, 363 ; offered Bishopric, 
322 ; sermon at Anniversary, 1894, 323 ; 
consecration, 324 ; last journey, 325 ; 
death and funeral, 328 ; at first Synod, 
453 ; account of daily life, 107 ; recollec 
tions of Bishop Steere, 159 ; on events at 
Likoma, 188, 189 ; on Charles Sulimani, 
213, 214; notes the progress at Kiungani, 
297 ; describes Newala, 321 ; reminiscences 
of Miss Bartlett, 358. 

Marriage of native Christians, 339. 

Masai, 242. 

Masasi occupied, 127 ; John Swedi sent 
there, 118 ; new church opened, 136 ; 
raided by Magwangwara, 136 ; in charge 
of Rev. H. H. Clarke, 196 ; moved to 
Newala, 199 ; visited by Bishop Smythies, 
200; revived by Bishop Richardson, 355. 

Mataka visited by Bishop Steere, 126, 141 ; 
sends to Zanzibarfora teacher, 144; receives 
Mr. Johnson, 146 ; loots Mr. Johnson s 
house, 147 ; visited by Bishop Smythies, 
178; burns Chingomanje s village, 179. 

Matola, 132 ; begs for resident Missionary, 
134 ; receives refugees from Masasi, 137, 
199; receives Mr. Clarke, 196; interprets 
sermons, 197 ; seeks catechumenate, 198 ; 
made catechumen, 202 ; baptized, 352 ; 
death, 353. 

Matuka, Barnaba (see Nakaam). 



INDEX. 



471 



Mavia, 125. 

Maviti, 126; make peace with Sultan of 

Zanzibar, 134 : visited by Maples, 134. 
Mbame s, slavers disarmed at, 24. 
Mbweni bought, 55 ; freed slave village, 104, 

291 ; sends party to Masasi, 126 ; sends 
party to Newala, 132 ; last visit of Bishop 
Steere to, 156 ; first celebration at St. 
John s, 164 ; work at, 279, 349 ; Industrial 
wing opened, 286 ; St. John s Church, 

292 ; marriages, 339 ; Christians capture 
slave canoe, 349. 

Medical work at Magomero, 29. 

Medicine men, 123. 

Mercer, Rev. W. M., 278, 460 ; nurses 

Geldart, 247 ; ordination, 443 ; in charge 

of Mkuzi, 267. 

Methods of Missionary work, 439. 
Mhesa, 356. 
Milanje, 19. 
Mills, Miss D. Y., 118, 444, 450 ; at Mkuna- 

zini, 278, 290; at Kilimani, 291, 351. 
Misozwe, 244, 261 ; visited by Bishop 

Smythies, 261, 274 ; new church, 262 ; 

school under native teacher, 264. 
Missionary Conference, 336. 
Miwa, 353- 
Mkoo, 353, 355. 

Mkunazini occupied, 104 ; work at, 278. 
Mkuzi founded, 259 ; new church founded, 

248 ; attacked by Wadigo, 260 ; entertains 

Bishop Hannington, 233 ; under Geldart, 

247 ; a page from the Record, 265. 
Mkwera, 219. 
Mlinga, 260, 262, 264. 
Mohammedan fear of spread of Christianity, 

98 ; idea of the Atonement, 101 ; compete 

with Christianity, 115 ; discuss with Miss 

Allen, 117 ; influence Makanjila, 146 ; 

chief asks for a missionary, 197 ; villages 

converted, 198 ; civility in Bonde, 234 ; 

opposition, 276 ; persecution of convert, 

288. 

Monk, Rev. W., 5, 433. 
Morambala, Mount, 19 ; Mission settled at, 

41. 

Msala, Mr. Johnson at work at, 180. 
Msaraka, 256, 269 ; worked from Mkuzi, 

267. 

Msimulizi, 284, 449. 
Mtarika, 352. 
Mtoka, Rev. H. S., made Reader, 216 ; 

ordination, 343, 347, 447. 
Mtonia, 366. 
Mtua, 203. 
Mwebali, 267. 
Mwembe (sec Mataka s). 
Mwera Forest, the, 142 ; Mataka moves to, 

178. 
Mwiti, 354. 



NAKAAM, Barnaba, 203 ; father of Rev. 
Yohanna Abdallah, 207 ; chosen chief of 
Chitangali, 208 ; confirmed, 209 ; inter 



prets the Bishcp s charge, 211 ; settles 
difference with Germans, 215. 

Nasibu, Henry and E., at Misozwe, 264 ; at 
Mkuzi, 267 ; at Kologwe, 271 ; resigned 
work with Mission, 273 ; doing well, 360. 

Native Conference at Magila, 358. 

Native Ministry aimed at by Bishop Tozer, 
50 ; begun with subdiaconate, 52, 211 ; first 
Deacon, 117, 212; first Priest, 212 ; edu 
cation for, 285 ; additions to, 342 ; train 
ing of, 446. 

Newala visited by Maples, 13? ; settled 
from Mbweni, 132 ; receives refugees 
from Masasi, 137; in charge of Janson 
and Goldfinch, 197 ; visited by Bishop 
Smythies, 200, 211, 218; Conference at, 
208 ; moved to Makonde plateau, 210. 

Ngambo, 306. 

Nyasa, 125, 169, 180 ; under British protec 
tion, 182, 316 ; Bishopric founded, 187, 
191, 314 ; campaign against slavers, 361. 

OXFORD, first meeting at, 5 ; gives Bishop 
Steere D.D., 113. 

PAKENHAM, Miss S. A., 53, 458. 

Palmer, Dr., 455, 463. 

Pambili, 114. 

Patrons for children, 270. 

Pearson, H. M., 192, 463. 

Pemba, 373, 407, 430. 

Pennell, Rev. R. L., at Kiungani, 53 ; visits 

Magila, 61 ; work at translating, 71 ; 

death, 71, 458. 
Penney, Rev. W. H., sails with Bishop 

Steere, 155 ; secretary, 434. 
Pesa, Abdallah, asks for Missionary, 197. 
Petrie, Dr., 162, 226, 460; ascends Mlinga, 

262. 

Phillips, O., 116, 459. 
Philipps, J. G., 365, 464. 
Pioneer, the, 16, 19. 
Pollard, Rev. C. S., 203, 207, 461. 
Polygamy, 198, 220. 
Portal, Sir Gerald, 294. 
Porter, Rev. W. C., at the Magwangwara 

raid, 136, 214; at Newala, 216; back at 

Masasi, 216 ; visited by Magwangwara 

again, 354. 
Portuguese buy slaves, 22 ; insult British 

flag, 181. 

Prayer Union, the, 439. 

Printing begun by Dr."Steere, 68 ; at Kiu 
ngani, 104, 108 ; by Miss Bashford, 119 ; 

at Nyasa, 183. 
Prior, E. H. T., 349, 464. 
Procter, Rev. L. J., joins the Mission, 7, 

457 ; attacked by slavers, 31 ; left head 

of the Mission at Bishop s death, 37 

returns to England, 41. 

RAILWAY in Usambara, 356. 
Rain-making, 230. 
Randolph, Rev. E. S. L., 99, 458. 
Released slaves received by Bishop Mac- 



472 



INDEX. 



kenzie, 24 ; Bishop Tozer, 50, 51 ; in 1877, 
113 ; village at Mbweni, 104, 291. 

Richardson, Bishop, appointment and con 
secration, 324, 344 ; arrives in Zanzibar, 
345 ; holds first ordination, 347 ;. visits 
Rovuma district, 352; visits Usambara, 
356, 359- 

Riddcll, Rev. C. S. B., at Magila, 232 ; 
itinerating, 234 ; death, 236, 460. 

Robinson, Dr., 443, 463. 

Rovuma ascent attempted by Dr. Living- | 
stone, 16 ; district described by Maples, j 
124 ; district visited by Bishop Steere, | 
126; party sent from Mbweni, 126, 132; I 
work described, 196. 

Rowley, Rev. H., joins the Mission, 15, 16, j 
457 ; left at Chibisa s, 20 : quarter-master j 
at Magomero, 28 ; returns to England, 41. 

Russell, W. E., 442, 463. 

SAHERA, Acland, at Magila, 100 ; at Umba, | 
116. 

St. Bartholomew s Day, 1865, 50 ; 1874, 78 ; I 
1875, 102 ; 1882, 156 ; 1883, 259 ; 1885, 172 ; 
1894, 344. 

Salfey, Rev. J. C., joins the Mission, 162 ; 
at Magila, 250 ; ascends Mlinga, 262 ; j 
letter about Mlinga, 264 ; at the Synod, 
455 ; goes to South Africa, 343. 

Schools for Hindis in Zanzibar, 104 ; built by ; 
the natives themselves, 250. 

Scotch Missionaries help Mr. Johnson, 146 ; : 
nurse Air. Swinny, 178 ; nurse Frere and 
Alley, 185 ; Dr. Laws at Anniversary, 313. j 

Scudamore, Rev. H. C., joins the Mission, 
7, 457 ; at Cape Town, 10 ; drill-sergeant j 
at Magomero, 28 ; attacked by slave- ! 
dealers, 31 ; death at Chibisa s, 39. 

Sehoza, Rev. Samuel, 343, 344, 447. 

Sehvyn, Bishop, sermon at Cambridge, 2,313. j 

Semgogo, 259 ; baptized, 257. 

Semkali confirmed, 231. 

Seyite, Rev. Dcnys, 343, 351, 447. _ 

Shangani. Our first house in Zanzibar, 50. 

Sherriff, G., at Nyasa, 172 ; captain of the 
C. J., 176 ; holds meeting at Cape Town, 
183 ; death, 185 ; Mr. Johnson s testimony 
to, 187. 

Sherriff, The George, 326. 

Shire, the river entered by Bishop Mac 
kenzie, 19 ; the new road to Nyasa, 149. 

Shire Highlands, the, 14. 

Sim, Rev. A. F., life and work, 362 sq. , 464 ; 
on Bishop Maples death, 329. 

Simpson, Rev. T. C., 352, 463. 

Sisters work, 444 ; arrive at Magila, 236, 250 ; 
sent to -Zanzibar during coast troubles, 
246 ; return to Magila, 250 ; death of 
Sr. Frances, 252. 

Slave-dealers disarmed at Mbame s, 24 ; kill 
Ben. Hartley, 77 ; Portuguese and Arab, 
82 ; exterminated in B. C. A., 361 ; their 
methods, 401. 

Slave Market closed, 88 ; Church on the, 91, 
94. 



Slavery its history, 375 ; Biblical treat 
ment of, 80 ; attitude of Christianity to, 
81 ; African, 376 ; England joins in, 377 ; 
public opinion aroused against, 379 ; 
edicts against, 380 ; the Vienna declara 
tion, 380; Congress at Verona, 381; 
British and French treaty of 1831, 382 ; 
Treaty of 1841, 383; U.S.A. abolish it, 
385 ; the Berlin Act, 385 ; Convention 
between England and Egypt, 387 ; East 
African trade, 388 ; carried on by the 
Africans themselves, 81; domestic, in Zanzi 
bar, 83, 305, 423 ; agreement with Imam 
of Muskat, 390 ; export from Africa for 
bidden, 391 ; Sultan Majid s decree, 1863, 
392 ; Sir Bartle Frcre s Mission, 393 ; 
Sultan Barghash s treaty, 393 ; decrees, 
394 ; Sultan Khalifa s decree, 396 ; slaves 
freed by the I.B.E.A. Co., 399 ; The 
supply of slaves, 400 ; the trade by sea, 
405 ; a slave raid described, 82. 

Smith, Rev. E. B. L., 201, 203, 460. 

Smythies , Bishop, personal history, 309 ; 
appointmentand consecration, 165 ; reached 
Zanzibar, 166 ; visits Magila district, 229, 
234, 241, 246, 247, 253 ; description of 
Magila, 229 ; visits Kibanga, 234 ; during 
German disturbances, 246 jascendsMlinga, 
262 ; ordains Petro Limo, 253 ; takes a 
preaching tour in Usambara, 273 ; at 
Kologwe, 273 ; visits Rovuma district, 
200, 202, 207, 211, 215, 216 ; holds retreat 
at Newala, 201 ; conference at Newala, 
208 ; makes peace between Yao chiefs, 
208 ; visits Nyasa, 171, 176, 178, 183, 187 ; 
dedicates the C.J., 150; visits the Ma- 
gwangwara, 174 ; discovers the source of 
the Rovuma, 175 ; discovers the source of 
the Lujenda, 202 ; founds the Nyasa 
Bishopric, 187 ; becomes Bishop of Zanzi 
bar, 191 ; lends Yohanna Abdallah for work 
at Unangu, 193, 219 ; at the Anniversary 
of 1892, 313 ; at the Folkestone Church 
Congress, 314; at Berlin, 316; visits the 
Society of the Sacred Mission, 442 ; holds 
Synods in Zanzibar, 282, 304, 453 , last 
days, 317 ; the work of his episcopate, 
312 ; the Statesman Bishop, 309, 315 ; his 
character, 320. 

Society of the Sacred Mission, 253, 303, 336, 
441. 

Songolo Arthur, 52. 

Sparks, Rev. C. J., ordained Priest at 
Magila, 247 ; in charge of Mkuzi, 267 ; 
death, 248, 249, 461. 

Speare, Samuel, history, 74 ; at Mbweni, 53 , 
at Magila, 60, 72 ; return and death, 76, 458. 

Status of Missionary Bishops, the, 8. 

Steamer proposedby Bishop Mackenzie, 33 ; 
proposed by Mr. Johnson, 149. (See 
Charles Janson.) 

Steere, Bishop, history, 44 ; volunteers 
temporarily, 44 ; the call to Mission 
work, 65 ; studies Swahili, 65 ; returns 
to England, 69 ; resigns living and goes 



INDEX. 



473 



back to Africa, 69 ; address to party 
leaving for Magila, 72 ; appointment 
and consecration, 78 ; reconstitutes the 
Mission, 78 ; preaches on the slave market, 
90; builds Christ Church, Zanzibar, 92; 
takes Farler and party to Magila, 100 ; 
visits Mataka s, 126, 141 ; daily work in 
Zanzibar, 107 ; at Mbweni, 108 ; leads 
first party to Masasi, 126 ; visits England 
in 1877, 112 ; given a D.D. by Oxford, 113 ; 
visits Zaramoland, 145 ; last visit to Eng 
land, 98, 153 ; sermon at Anniversary, 
1882, 154 ; returns to Zanzibar, 155 ; death 
and funeral, 158 ; translations, 156; char 
acter, 159 ; unfinished letter, 156 ; descrip 
tion of the African nations, 100 ; on wishing 
for promotion, 160 ; on the management of 
boys and girls, 161 ; sacramental teaching, 
162; memorial fund, 283 ; compared witn 
other Bishops, 308. 

Subdiaconate, revival of the, 54, 72. 

Sulimani, Charles, at Masasi, 200 ; history, 
213 ; death, 215. 

Susi brought Livingstone s body to England, 
77 ; at Zanzibar, 103 ; made Catechumen, 
166 ; baptized, 167 ; death, 168. 

Swahili, the language, 49 ; studied by Dr. 
Stcere, 65 ; translations, 117, 156, 305, 
455; Liturgy first used, 117; dictionary, 

Swedi, Rev. John, baptized, 50 ; sent to 
Magila, 72 ; at Zanzibar, 103 ; at Mbweni, 
105 ; ordained sub-deacon, 211 ; ordained 
the first deacon, 117, 211, 446 ; at Masasi, 
134; at Mkuzi, 237, 259, 267, 343. 

Swinny, Rev. G. H., 171, 172, 460; visits 
the Magwangwara, 174, 177 ; death, 177 ; 
Mrs., death of, 178. 

Synods : first, 282, 453 ; second, 304, 454 ; 
third, 456. 

Taylor, Rev. T. L., 216, 461. 

Temperance Society in Zanzibar, 121. 

Thackeray, Miss C. D. M., 113, 371, 459; at 
Mbweni, 280, 349 ; gives new wing at 
Mbweni, 286. 

Theological College, 54, 283, 447. 

Tornado at Magila, 242. 

Townsend, Miss M. C., work and death, 
301, 444, 460; at Magila, 239, 243.^ 

Tozer, Bishop, early life, 44 ; appointment 
and consecration, 45 ; reaches the Mission, 
41 ; moves the Mission to Morambala, 41 ; 
moves the Mission to Zanzibar, 46 ; 
visits Magila, 60; returns to England, 53, 
69 ; resignation, 71 ; assists at the con 
secration of Bishop Smythies, 165; com 
pared with other Bishops, 308. 

Tozer, Miss H. R., 52, 53, 69, 457. 

Traction engine, the, 121. 

Training the workers, 441. 

Translations by Dr. Steere, 67, 108, 156 ; by 
Mr. Pennell, 71 ; in Uganda, 112 ; 
Swahili, 117, 156 ; Bondei, 245 ; Swahili 
Bible completed, 291 ; by Mr. Madan, 



298 ; approved by the Synod, 305 ; by Mr. 

Johnson, 366. 
Travers, Rev. D., 164, 278, 460 ; in Usam- 

bara, 229 ; secretary, 434 ; accompanies 

Bishop Smythies, 317. 
Tucker, Bishop, visits Zanzibar, 298, 371. 
Turner, Miss F. E., 190, 462. 
Tyrwhitt, Rev. C. R., 306, 455, 463. 

UMBA founded in 1877, 114; Yorke s work 
at, 118 ; in charge of Wilson, 164 ; the 
chief confirmed, 231, 257 ; rebuilt, 257 ; 
Church dedicated, 263 ; worked from 
Mkuzi, 267 ; abandoned, 276. 

Unangu visited by Bishop Smythies, 178 ; 
opened as station, 193, 219, 366 ; Yo- 
hannah Abdallah sent there, 343. 

Universities, the, appealed to by Dr. 
Livingstone, 4 ; Committees formed, 5. 

Unyago, 208. 

Usambara, 56 ; peace made by Farler, 102. 
(See Bonde, Magila, etc.) 

VIHILI, 239. 

Vuga, 57 ; visited by Mr. Alington, 58, 59 ; 
visited by Bishop Smythies, 274. 

WADIGO at war with Bondeis, 229, 260. 
Waller, Rev. H., joins the Mission, 7. 457 ; 
at Cape Town, 10 ; fights with the Yaos, 
26 ; hands over people to Kapene, 41 ; 
takes party to Cape Town, 42 ; entertains 
Suzi, 166 ; boys visit Mr. Johnson, iSo; 
death, 369. 

Wallis, Rev. F. A., at Mkuzi, 233, 237, 259, 
265 ; at Wilson s death, 258 ; at the Synod, 
453 ; returns home, 249, 267. 
Warminster, 247, 248. 
Wathen, Rev. P. M.,2io, 461. 
Weigall, Rev. S., 201, 460. 
Wells Tozer Fund, the, 53. 
West, Rev. A. N., 89, 90, 458. 
Whitty, T. R. S. F.. 155, 460 ; at Umba, 

258 ; at Misozwe, 261. 
Wilberforce, Bishop, sermon at Canterbury, 

8 ; presides at meeting about slave-trade, 

86. 

Williams, Rev. F. J., 118, 453, 459. 
Williams, Joseph, 107, 443, 459 ; at Masasi, 

132 ; at Nyasa, 178 ; opens station at 

Chisumulu, 183; at Abdallah Pesa s, 197 ; 

with Bishop Maples on his last journey, 

325 ; death, 328, 330. 
Wilson, Rev. H. A. B., work, 257 ; death, 

164, 258 ; on devil worship, 257. 
Wimbush, Rev. J., 192; at Kota-Kota, 365. 
Women, the status of, 219. 
Women, work among, 94, 104, 116 ; at 

Magila, 237, 238. 
Wood, Rev. J. S. C, 207, 461. 
Woodward, Rev. H. W., 99, 458 ; at Magila, 

227, 25osq., 358 ; joins the Society of the 

Sacred Mission, 225,442 ; founds Misozwe, 

261 ; goes to live at Misozwe, 262 ; at the 

Missionary Conference, 336 ; at Samuel 



474 



INDEX. 



Sehoza s ordination, 344 ; on the result of 
the famine, 356 ; at the Synods, 453, 455. 
Woodward, Miss M. E., 181, 190, 461. 

YAO, the, in conflict with the Manganja, 22 ; 
defeated by the help of the Missionaries, 
26 ; their home between the Rovuma and 
the Lnjenda, 125 ; their intelligence, 131 ; 
visited by Bishop Steere, 143 ; their confi 
dence won, 187 ; work among, 193, 196. 

Yorke, Rev. C., 107, 459; at Umba, 116; 
ordained Deacon, 118 ; death, 118 ; first 
convert, 254. 

ZAMBESI, the, great meeting, 5 ; the Mis 
sion off the, 15; entered, 16 ; re-entered 
with the C.J., 149 ; improved communi 
cation by means of, 102. 

Zanzibar chosen as new headquarters, 46 ; 
arrival of the Mission, 47 ; the extent of 
the Sultan s power, 48 ; visited by cholera. 
54 ; visited by a hurricane, 70 ; visit of 
Sir Bartle Frere, 71 ; mission of SirBartle 
Frere, 87 ; slave market closed, 88 ; given 
to the mission, 90 ; foundation of Christ 



Church laid, 87, 91 ; Christ Church opened, 
94 ; Christian quarter formed round the 
old slave market, 97 ; Mkunazini occupied, 
104; inhabitants make presentation, 113 ; 
daily life in, 119 ; visited by the Bishop of 
Mauritius, 165 ; the title place of Bishop 
Smythies, 191 ; death of Sultan Barghash, 
245, 288 ; welcome to Bishop Smythies, 277 ; 
Jubilee at, 287 ; hospital founded, 287 ; 
death of Sultan Khalifa, 294 ; visit of 
Bishop Tucker, 298, 371 ; death of Sultan 
Ali, 304 ; changes made by second Synod, 
305 ; work begun at Ngambo, 306 ; arrival 
of Bishop Richardson, 345 ; ordination in 
Christ Church, 347 ; Hospital, 349 ; bom 
bardment of, 370; Captain Smee s account 
of the slave market, 389. 

Zaramo land visited by Bishop Steere, 145. 

Zavuya, 271. 

Zenana work, 97, 104, 117. 

Ziguas invade Magila, no; ask for friend 
ship, 269 ; work among, 270 sq. 

Ziwani, 249, 301. 

Zomba, Mount, visited by Dr. Livingstone, 



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